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Full-Text Articles in Near and Middle Eastern Studies

Foreign Doctors At The Imam’S Court: Medical Diplomacy In Yemen’S Coffee Era, Nancy Um Mar 2019

Foreign Doctors At The Imam’S Court: Medical Diplomacy In Yemen’S Coffee Era, Nancy Um

Nancy Um

This article brings together trade records left by Dutch and English East India Company merchants, chronicles in Arabic, and a published French travel narrative to shed light on an overlooked phenomenon, that of early modern medical diplomacy to Qasimi Yemen during the early eighteenth century. In this era, foreign merchants flocked to the southern Arabian Peninsula, many with the interest of procuring coffee, a commodity that was then still difficult to purchase elsewhere. Along with them came doctors and ships’ surgeons, who were called upon to treat Yemen’s imam al-Mahdi Muhammad (d. 1718), who suffered from many ailments in ...


Picturing A Landscape For The Faithful: Topographical Views In The "Dalail Al-Khayrat," A 15th-Century Muslim Prayer Book, Roberta L. Dougherty Jan 2019

Picturing A Landscape For The Faithful: Topographical Views In The "Dalail Al-Khayrat," A 15th-Century Muslim Prayer Book, Roberta L. Dougherty

Roberta L. Dougherty

No abstract provided.


Wocmes 2018: "I Am The Entertainer": Embodying Entertainment In The Egyptian Film Poster, Roberta L. Dougherty Jul 2018

Wocmes 2018: "I Am The Entertainer": Embodying Entertainment In The Egyptian Film Poster, Roberta L. Dougherty

Roberta L. Dougherty

No abstract provided.


Wocmes 2018: "I Am The Entertainer": Embodying Entertainment In Egyptian Film Posters (Slides), Robin Dougherty Jul 2018

Wocmes 2018: "I Am The Entertainer": Embodying Entertainment In Egyptian Film Posters (Slides), Robin Dougherty

Roberta L. Dougherty

No abstract provided.


The Al-Qaeda Organization And The Islamic State Organization: History, Doctrine, Modus, Operandi, And U.S Policy To Degrade And Defeat Terrorism Conducted In The Name Of Sunni Islam, Paul Kamolnick Aug 2017

The Al-Qaeda Organization And The Islamic State Organization: History, Doctrine, Modus, Operandi, And U.S Policy To Degrade And Defeat Terrorism Conducted In The Name Of Sunni Islam, Paul Kamolnick

Paul Kamolnick

The al-Qaeda Organization (AQO) and the Islamic State Organization (ISO) are transnational adversaries that conduct terrorism in the name of Sunni Islam. It is declared U.S. Government (USG) policy to degrade, defeat, and destroy them. The present book has been written to assist policymakers, military planners, strategists, and professional military educators whose mission demands a deep understanding of strategically-relevant differences between these two transnational terrorist entities. In it, one shall find a careful comparative analysis across three key strategically relevant dimensions: essential doctrine, beliefs, and worldview; strategic concept, including terrorist modus operandi; and specific implications and recommendations for current ...


Delegitimizing Al-Qaeda: A Jihad-Realist Approach, Paul Kamolnick Aug 2017

Delegitimizing Al-Qaeda: A Jihad-Realist Approach, Paul Kamolnick

Paul Kamolnick

Disrupting, dismantling, and ultimately defeating al-Qaeda based and inspired terrorism is a declared policy of the U.S. Government. Three key strategic objectives have been identified for accomplishing this: attacking al-Qaeda’s terror network, undermining radicalization and recruitment, and hardening homeland defense. The present monograph proposes a distinct "jihad-realist" approach for undermining radicalization and recruitment to al-Qaeda. First, a brief discussion of six means for ending terrorist organizations is provided. Second, the premises of a jihad-realist approach are described. Third, a jihad-realist shari’a case against al-Qaeda’s terrorism is presented. In conclusion, key assertions are summarized, and several specific ...


Countering Radicalization And Recruitment To Al-Qaeda: Fighting The War Of Deeds, Paul Kamolnick Aug 2017

Countering Radicalization And Recruitment To Al-Qaeda: Fighting The War Of Deeds, Paul Kamolnick

Paul Kamolnick

This Letort Paper proposes that actions, policies, and deeds—those of the U.S. Government and al-Qaeda—be leveraged as a means of delegitimizing al-Qaeda terrorist propaganda. Two chief fronts—changing deeds and challenging deeds—is proposed. Changing deeds requires that the United States carefully and systematically examine its own foreign and military policies and their specific consequences for the Arab and Muslim world. Challenging deeds comprises systematically countering with evidence and fact al-Qaeda’s two greatest propagandistic fabrications: that the United States is a crusader at war with Islam, and that al-Qaeda is the vanguard defender of a besieged ...


The Mysterious Case Of The Islamic State Organization (Iso) Smiling Martyr--Solved, Paul Kamolnick Aug 2017

The Mysterious Case Of The Islamic State Organization (Iso) Smiling Martyr--Solved, Paul Kamolnick

Paul Kamolnick

Excerpt: For a mere Muslim mortal, Allah’s granting of martyrdom (Shahada) is the pinnacle of spiritual achievement. The martyr (Shahid) is granted unique privileges among which are the right to bypass the moral interrogation meted out to determine after death whether one is spiritually fit; the complete freedom from all anguish, pain, and suffering caused by one’s wounds as one immediately traverses into the highest of seven heavens; the right to intercede and request divine favors on behalf of seventy of one’s loved one’s; the enjoyment of exclusive sexual privileges with seventy-two virgins; and finally, the ...


The Egyptian Islamic Group’S Critique Of Al-Qaeda’S Interpretation Of Jihad, Paul Kamolnick Aug 2017

The Egyptian Islamic Group’S Critique Of Al-Qaeda’S Interpretation Of Jihad, Paul Kamolnick

Paul Kamolnick

A specific branch of Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh al-jihad) regulates the waging of the jihad of the sword (jihad bis saif). In this article, a detailed exposition is presented of the Egyptian Islamic Group’s (IG; Al-Gama’a Al-Islamiyya) use of fiqh al jihad against Al-Qaeda. The present author’s ‘jihad-realist’ approach is first briefly described; the IG’s critique of AQ systematically outlined; and in conclusion, implications are derived for counter-radicalisation strategies.


On Self-Declared Caliph Ibrahim’S May 2015 Message To Muslims: Key Problems Of Motivation, Marginalization, Illogic, And Empirical Delusion In The Caliphate Project, Paul Kamolnick Aug 2017

On Self-Declared Caliph Ibrahim’S May 2015 Message To Muslims: Key Problems Of Motivation, Marginalization, Illogic, And Empirical Delusion In The Caliphate Project, Paul Kamolnick

Paul Kamolnick

Excerpt: On May 14, 2015 a 34-minute audio message was released by the self-proclaimed Islamic State’s media arm al-Furqan.


On Self-Declared Caliph Ibrahim’S December 2015 Speech: Further Evidence For Critical Vulnerabilities In The Crumbling Caliphate, Paul Kamolnick Aug 2017

On Self-Declared Caliph Ibrahim’S December 2015 Speech: Further Evidence For Critical Vulnerabilities In The Crumbling Caliphate, Paul Kamolnick

Paul Kamolnick

Excerpt: On December 26, 2015 a 24-minute audio message was released by the Islamic State Organization’s (ISO) official media arm al-Furqan.


Has Adam Gadahn Forsaken The Lawful Jihad For Anti-Americanism? A Case Study Of Ideological Contradictions, Paul Kamolnick Aug 2017

Has Adam Gadahn Forsaken The Lawful Jihad For Anti-Americanism? A Case Study Of Ideological Contradictions, Paul Kamolnick

Paul Kamolnick

Despite his importance as a senior Al-Qaeda spokesman, no detailed examination exists of Adam Yahiye Gadahn’s employment of fiqh al-jihad—that branch of Islamic jurisprudence regulating the lawful waging of jihad—to condemn or condone violence committed in the name of Al-Qaeda. This article first provides a detailed exposition of Gadahn’s sharia-based critique of affiliates’ conduct deemed by him in violation of Islamic law and involving the commission of major sins. Second, Gadahn’s conception of fiqh al-jihad is contextualized and contrasted with the comprehensive fiqh al-jihad-based critiques produced by respected militant Islamist scholars. A key finding here ...


Baghdadi’S Bunker: Five Essential Tasks For Which The World Should Now Prepare, Paul Kamolnick Aug 2017

Baghdadi’S Bunker: Five Essential Tasks For Which The World Should Now Prepare, Paul Kamolnick

Paul Kamolnick

Excerpt: The Islamic State Organization (ISO) will be defeated. That defeat will occur sooner rather than later. The nature of this terrorist organization suggests that preparations should now be made to minimize the carnage, loss of irreplaceable life, and cultural treasures that may without sufficient preparation accompany the final days and aftermath of ISO.


Abu Muhammad Al-Adnani’S May 21, 2016 Speech: More Evidence For Extreme Marginalization, Implosion, And The Islamic State Organization’S Certain Future As A Hunted Underground Ultra-Takfiri Terrorist Criminal Entity, Paul Kamolnick Aug 2017

Abu Muhammad Al-Adnani’S May 21, 2016 Speech: More Evidence For Extreme Marginalization, Implosion, And The Islamic State Organization’S Certain Future As A Hunted Underground Ultra-Takfiri Terrorist Criminal Entity, Paul Kamolnick

Paul Kamolnick

Excerpt: On May 21, 2016 a 31-minute audio file by Islamic State Organization (ISO) chief spokesman Abu Muhammad al-Adnani (real name: Taha Sobhi Falaha) was uploaded by the ISO’s Al Furqan Media outlet onto the internet.


Eastern Dreams: Alternative Pathways For Chinese Students Pursuing Baccalaureate Degrees In The United States, Linda Serra Hagedorn, Jiayi Hu Jun 2017

Eastern Dreams: Alternative Pathways For Chinese Students Pursuing Baccalaureate Degrees In The United States, Linda Serra Hagedorn, Jiayi Hu

Linda Serra Hagedorn

The number of international students pursuing postsecondary degrees in the United States has increased consistently over the past several years (Institute of International Education 2012, 2013). In fact, the most recent report— for academic year 2012–13—indicates that compared to the previous academic year, the number of international students at U.S. colleges and universities increased by 7.2 percent, to more than 800,000. Students from China lead this global trend, accounting for 28.7 percent of all international postsecondary students in the United States. Moreover, the number of Chinese students studying in the United States continues to ...


Mesa 2016: Salisbury & Arabic In New Haven & Beyond, Roberta L. Dougherty Nov 2016

Mesa 2016: Salisbury & Arabic In New Haven & Beyond, Roberta L. Dougherty

Roberta L. Dougherty

In 1841, Yale College appointed Edward Elbridge Salisbury (1814-1901) as “Professor of Arabic & Sanscrit.” This was, at the time, the only position of its kind in North America, although Arabic had previously been taught at Yale and elsewhere. Salisbury’s appointment had much to do with American missionary and mercantile interest in the region now called the Middle East. This paper will argue that his appointment was critical to the rise of American Orientalism and the further development of U.S. interest in the academic study of the region—indeed, in the formation of the very basis of academic study ...


Mela: 44 Years Of Middle East Librarianship, Roberta L. Dougherty Mar 2016

Mela: 44 Years Of Middle East Librarianship, Roberta L. Dougherty

Roberta L. Dougherty

No abstract provided.


The Genealogy, Ideology, And Future Of Isil And Its Derivatives, Ahmed E. Souaiaia Nov 2015

The Genealogy, Ideology, And Future Of Isil And Its Derivatives, Ahmed E. Souaiaia

Ahmed E SOUAIAIA

The organization known today simply as the “Islamic State,” or by its Arabic acronym, Daesh (English, ISIL), has historical and ideological roots that go beyond the territories it now controls. These deep roots give Daesh confidence that it will succeed in dominating the world, but give others reasons to believe that it will fail in controlling even a single nation. Mixing puritan religious and political discourses, ISIL managed to dominate all other armed opposition groups in conflict zones (Syria, Iraq, Yemen, and Libya) and has inspired individuals in many other countries (Egypt, Pakistan, France, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Tunisia) to ...


Proposition For Ending The Crisis In Syria: Concurrent Devolution Of Power Regionally And Military Action Against Genocidal Fighters Nationally, Ahmed Souaiaia Sep 2015

Proposition For Ending The Crisis In Syria: Concurrent Devolution Of Power Regionally And Military Action Against Genocidal Fighters Nationally, Ahmed Souaiaia

Ahmed E SOUAIAIA

Syria's civil war is on a path to world war. Should Russia, like the Friends of Syria, take part in the military action in Syria and Iraq, the region will enter a new phase that could change the geopolitics of the region. However, Russia' military build up could force a political solution for a crisis that is impacting all many countries around the world.


New Desires, New Selves: Sex, Love, And Piety Among Turkish Youth, Gul Ozyegin Jul 2015

New Desires, New Selves: Sex, Love, And Piety Among Turkish Youth, Gul Ozyegin

Gul Ozyegin

As Turkey pushes for its place in the global pecking order and embraces neoliberal capitalism, the nation has seen a period of unprecedented shifts in political, religious, and gender and sexual identities for its citizens. In New Desires, New Selves, Gul Ozyegin shows how this social transformation in Turkey is felt most strongly among its young people, eager to surrender to the seduction of sexual modernity, but also longing to remain attached to traditional social relations, identities and histories.          
 
Engaging a wide array of upwardly-mobile young adults at a major Turkish university, Ozyegin links the biographies of individuals with the ...


Two Debates In American Politics, Muqtedar Khan Jul 2015

Two Debates In American Politics, Muqtedar Khan

Muqtedar Khan

The article summarized debates around same-sex Marriage and the Iran nuclear deal.


Egypt’S Coup & Future Of Democracy In Post Arab Spring Middle East (2015), Shams Uz Zaman Mr. Jul 2015

Egypt’S Coup & Future Of Democracy In Post Arab Spring Middle East (2015), Shams Uz Zaman Mr.

Mr. Shams uz Zaman

The initial optimism that a democratic regional order would emerge as a consequence to the sweeping Arab Spring in Middle East and Africa has gradually faded away. The revolutionary, but generally peaceful and smooth, changeover from long autocracy of Mubarak was again quickly reversed by the Egyptian military and lately been been endorsed by the US and EU. The reaction from the Brotherhood, which had been a mainstream political party, was mixed. As the violence and terrorism take over the Egyptian political landscape, there is little hope that Egypt would return to normal. Military takeover in Egypt marks marks the ...


Turkey And Saudis In Syria: Aligned Interests, Clashing Revisionisms, Zenonas Tziarras Jun 2015

Turkey And Saudis In Syria: Aligned Interests, Clashing Revisionisms, Zenonas Tziarras

Zenonas Tziarras

In early May, 2015 it became known that Saudi Arabia and Turkey are supporting extremist Islamist groups in Syria against the regime of Bashar al-Assad. That Turkey, Saudi Arabia and Qatar, among others, have – mostly indirectly – been supporting Islamist groups is not news as similar reports have been emerging from time to time since 2011, if not earlier. But this policy with regard to the Syrian conflict became increasingly overt amidst growing instability and lack of Western commitment to Assad’s overthrow. According to The Independent and other media, Turkish and Saudi support focuses on the overarching jihadist group Jaish ...


Assessing Isis One Year Later, Zenonas Tziarras Jun 2015

Assessing Isis One Year Later, Zenonas Tziarras

Zenonas Tziarras

A year ago the world witnessed the swift advances of the Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS) in Iraq and Syria. Though the emergence of the group was somewhat expected for those who have been following the regional developments of the past years it caught most of the world by surprise. At the same time, its brutal tactics, military victories, resilience, evolution and extreme ideology have led many to characterize it as the greatest regional and international security threat at the moment or the most dangerous Islamist threat contemporary history has seen.


Global Shifts And The East In Cyprus' Foreign Policy, Zenonas Tziarras May 2015

Global Shifts And The East In Cyprus' Foreign Policy, Zenonas Tziarras

Zenonas Tziarras

No abstract provided.


Islam, Reason And The Challenge Of Decaying Modernity, Muqtedar Khan Apr 2015

Islam, Reason And The Challenge Of Decaying Modernity, Muqtedar Khan

Muqtedar Khan

The article explores the challenge of reason and modernity to Islam.


Rise Of Non-State Actors In Middle East: Regional Dimensions, Shams Uz Zaman Mr. Apr 2015

Rise Of Non-State Actors In Middle East: Regional Dimensions, Shams Uz Zaman Mr.

Mr. Shams uz Zaman

The situation in the Middle East has become extremely precarious due to issues which can be traced back to the colonial era. Imprudently drawn state borders, unsettled disputes like Palestine and ethno-religious schisms accentuate the inter-state and intra-state rivalries which have spun out of control due to foreign interventions. Extremist radical Islam acquired new dimensions after 9/11 which consequently painted the 2003 Iraq war in ideological colours. A new trend of radicalization is visible across the region from Lebanon to Pakistan, which has resulted in the emergence of non-state actors. The raging conflict in and across the Middle East ...


Let It Spin: The Iranian Nuclear Deal And Its Implications For U.S. Non-Proliferation Policy, Rabia Akhtar Mar 2015

Let It Spin: The Iranian Nuclear Deal And Its Implications For U.S. Non-Proliferation Policy, Rabia Akhtar

Rabia Akhtar, Ph.D.

No abstract provided.


Has The Fervor For Democracy Faded Away?, Muqtedar Khan Mar 2015

Has The Fervor For Democracy Faded Away?, Muqtedar Khan

Muqtedar Khan

This essay reviews public opinion surveys that indicate a diminishing appeal of democracy in the Middle East.


The Ummah: Real Or Imaginary, Muqtedar Khan Mar 2015

The Ummah: Real Or Imaginary, Muqtedar Khan

Muqtedar Khan

The essay examines the reality of the idea of an Ummah.