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Full-Text Articles in Near and Middle Eastern Studies

Syrian Crisis Representation In The Media: The Cnn Effect, Framing, And Tone, Savannah S. Day May 2019

Syrian Crisis Representation In The Media: The Cnn Effect, Framing, And Tone, Savannah S. Day

The University of Mississippi Undergraduate Research Journal

Over the past seven years of the Syrian Civil War, Syrian refugees have been painted in a negative light by news media outlets around the world. History of media coverage regarding global humanitarian crises shows that with various tools and processes, media can shape public opinion and policy in whichever direction it desires, and oftentimes policymakers and the public are quick, as well as emotional, to react. In this paper, my objectives are to analyze specific examples of this CNN Effect phenomena within news coverage of the Syrian refugee crisis, as well as generally explain the negatively correlating relationship between ...


Terrorism In The Middle East: Implications On Egyptian Travel And Tourism, Tamer Z.F Mohamed, Tamer S. Elseyoufi Dec 2018

Terrorism In The Middle East: Implications On Egyptian Travel And Tourism, Tamer Z.F Mohamed, Tamer S. Elseyoufi

International Journal of Religious Tourism and Pilgrimage

This paper attempts to shed the light on challenging issues affecting travel and tourism industry especially in the Middle East such as political, socio-economic and security instability. Due to its geopolitical and historical importance, the paper focuses on the situation in Egypt as a descriptive case study. The methodology relies on historical review and impact assessment to understand the roots and extended branches of instability in the Middle East that led to the Arab Spring, by focusing on the Egyptian case in the last half century. The assessment explains the negative effect of Western and Egyptian policy on extending the ...


We Are All Farkhunda: An Examination Of The Treatment Of Women Within Afghanistan's Formal Legal System, Ashley Lenderman Oct 2018

We Are All Farkhunda: An Examination Of The Treatment Of Women Within Afghanistan's Formal Legal System, Ashley Lenderman

Indiana Journal of Constitutional Design

In this paper, I will examine three cases of violence against women that went through the Afghan formal legal system: the case of Farkhunda, the Paghman district gang rape case, and the case of Sahar Gul. In the first Part, I will discuss the formal legal system framework on which the cases are based. In the second Part, I will discuss the cases in detail. In the third Part, I will describe neo-liberal, reformist, and neo-fundamentalist approaches to interpretation of Islamic law, and I will then draw out pieces of the decisions from the three cases that closely match these ...


Introduction: Developing Strategies For Stability And A Sustainable Shared Development In Euro-Mediterranean Migrations, Emanuela C. Del Re Sep 2018

Introduction: Developing Strategies For Stability And A Sustainable Shared Development In Euro-Mediterranean Migrations, Emanuela C. Del Re

New England Journal of Public Policy

This special issue on migration offers a collection of contributions from prominent scholars, academics, and researchers from Europe, Africa, and the United States who provide a unique multilevel and prismatic analysis of this fundamental social phenomenon.


Strategies For Stability And Sustainability In Euro-Mediterranean Migrations, Emanuela C. Del Re Sep 2018

Strategies For Stability And Sustainability In Euro-Mediterranean Migrations, Emanuela C. Del Re

New England Journal of Public Policy

In this article, the author provides a wide and vivid picture of the several dimensions of migration flows in the current global scenario and, in particular, in the Mediterranean. She proposes new interpretations of this complex phenomenon, analyzing its multiple aspects and characteristics and the push factors and policies and responses of the countries of origin, transit, and destination. She suggests new approaches and strategies to deal with the issue of migration, urging the EU member states and EU institutions to develop management policies for stability and sustainability that are welcoming and that respect human rights.


North African Regular And Irregular Migration: The Case Of Libya, Mustafa O. Attir Sep 2018

North African Regular And Irregular Migration: The Case Of Libya, Mustafa O. Attir

New England Journal of Public Policy

Because of its geographical size and location, Libya has for centuries been a transit county for human movement across the region. Thus, its experience with immigrants has a long history. In the early 1970s, Libya became a destination for foreigners seeking jobs. Some entered the country legally, others illegally. All came to work, live, and send remittances back to their families. During the 1990s, when many migrants used Libya as a transit country for crossing the sea to Europe, the European Union started negotiating with the Libyan government to curb the flow of irregular migrants. In 2011, the country joined ...


Syrian Refugees In Turkey: A Security Perspective, Federico Donelli Sep 2018

Syrian Refugees In Turkey: A Security Perspective, Federico Donelli

New England Journal of Public Policy

This study investigates the nexus between the mass movement of people and security and foreign policy behaviors. The assertion is that refugee flows intensify security issues among decision makers and members of society; consequently, new fears and wider perceptions of threats have several implications for foreign policy agenda. The article focuses on the theoretical analysis of the securitization of migration and its impact on foreign policy and security policy. It also analyzes, from a security perspective, the effect on Turkey of the refugees who arrived en masse from Syria during the past six years. The article concludes with an analysis ...


Syrian Refugees In Europe: Migration Dynamics And Political Challenges, Leila Hudson Sep 2018

Syrian Refugees In Europe: Migration Dynamics And Political Challenges, Leila Hudson

New England Journal of Public Policy

After 2011 the Syrian conflict caused growing numbers of residents to flee to escape escalating regime brutality and deteriorating economic conditions. In addition to a population of up to eight million internally displaced residents, at least four million Syrians fled to neighboring Arab states and Turkey. Conditions in those countries ranged from desperate to uncomfortable, and between 2014 and 2016 up to a million refugees continued on to seek asylum in Europe. In addition to the trauma of displacement the refugees experienced, the migration left traces on the host and transit countries in the form of economic and infrastructural challenges ...


The Mediterranean Refugee Crisis: Heritage, Tourism, And Migration, Marxiano Melotti Sep 2018

The Mediterranean Refugee Crisis: Heritage, Tourism, And Migration, Marxiano Melotti

New England Journal of Public Policy

The Mediterranean Sea has become a huge cemetery: many thousands of migrants have lost their lives trying to cross it in search of a better future. In 2015, more than a million migrants and refugees reached Europe through irregular means, but almost 4,000 went missing and probably drowned. In 2016, 364,000 arrived in Europe and more than 5,000 were lost en route. The arrivals in Italy by sea were 181,436 in 2016 and 119,369 in 2017. While UN organizations and EU governments seem unable or unwilling to face this epoch-making drama, the culture industry has ...


Response And Responsibilities Of The Republic Of Macedonia In The Migrant And Refugees Crises, Toni Mileski Sep 2018

Response And Responsibilities Of The Republic Of Macedonia In The Migrant And Refugees Crises, Toni Mileski

New England Journal of Public Policy

The Republic of Macedonia has had a long history of dealing with migrants and refugees. Since the late nineteenth century, conflicts, including the Balkan Wars (1912–1913), the First and Second World Wars, the Greek civil war (1945–1949), the Kosovo conflict, and the 2001 internal security crisis, have caused successive waves of migration. More recently, armed conflict in the Middle East, especially in Syria, caused a migrant and refugee crisis that has deeply affected the country. This article analyses how the Republic of Macedonia has responded to this crisis. It examines the initial period of the crisis, the measures ...


Examining Jordanians' Attitudes Towards Five Types Of Developmental Disabilities, Najah Zaaeed Drph, Mohammad M. Mohammad, Peter Gleason, Khaled A. Bahjri Md, Naomi Modeste Apr 2018

Examining Jordanians' Attitudes Towards Five Types Of Developmental Disabilities, Najah Zaaeed Drph, Mohammad M. Mohammad, Peter Gleason, Khaled A. Bahjri Md, Naomi Modeste

Journal of Refugee & Global Health

Background: The diagnosis and reported rates of persons with developmental disabilities (PWDDs) in Jordan is steadily increasing. Although initiatives have been implemented to improve the lives of PWDDs, attitudes towards PWDDs hinder successful inclusion in the Jordanian society.

Objectives: To examine the relationship between Jordanians socio-economic status and attitudes towards persons with developmental disabilities: autism, blindness, cerebral palsy, Down syndrome and muscular dystrophy.

Methods: Jordanians (N=259), ages 18-65 were recruited for this convergent parallel, mixed-methods study. Participants completed the modified 40-item Community Living Attitude Scale-developmental disability (CLAS-DD) and the modified Intellectual Disability Literacy Scale consisting of five vignettes, representing ...


The Pedagogical Needs Of Children And Adults Living In The Calais Jungle Refugee Camp: Existential Issues And Perspectives Of Volunteer Teachers And Workers, Theresa C. Bodon, Nancy K. Votteler Sep 2017

The Pedagogical Needs Of Children And Adults Living In The Calais Jungle Refugee Camp: Existential Issues And Perspectives Of Volunteer Teachers And Workers, Theresa C. Bodon, Nancy K. Votteler

FIRE: Forum for International Research in Education

This study aimed at examining the pedagogical needs and challenges of children and young adults living in a refugee camp in France known as the Calais Jungle. Through the researchers’ observations and interviews with volunteer teachers and workers at the camp, insights into their perspectives shed light on the pedagogical needs of refugees. Also, utilizing Paulo Freire’s philosophical stance, this study provides a contextual approach to the educational practices and ideological viewpoints represented within unregulated refugee camp settings.


The Iran-United States Claims Tribunal: The Effect Of Future Awards On International Terrorism, Casey J. College Aug 2017

The Iran-United States Claims Tribunal: The Effect Of Future Awards On International Terrorism, Casey J. College

Arbitration Law Review

No abstract provided.


Realizing An Opportunity: Limiting The Power Of The Executive In The Iraqi Constitution, Cory Kopitzke Jan 2017

Realizing An Opportunity: Limiting The Power Of The Executive In The Iraqi Constitution, Cory Kopitzke

Indiana Journal of Constitutional Design

In the summer of 2015, Iraqi citizens took to the streets in protest. After going without essential services, such as electricity, in the sweltering heat and after enduring corruption that undermined Iraqi forces battling the Islamic State, these citizens called for meaningful changes in the management of the Iraqi government and for the fulfillment of “democratic aspirations” enshrined in the Iraqi Constitution. In response to these protests, Iraqi Prime Minister, Haider al-Abadi, proposed sweeping reform measures to combat the decisive divides in the current administration. These reforms called for drastic change—including the elimination of the vice-president and deputy prime ...


Black Hole In The Rising Sun: Japan And The Hague Convention On Child Abduction, Paul Hanley May 2016

Black Hole In The Rising Sun: Japan And The Hague Convention On Child Abduction, Paul Hanley

International Human Rights Law Journal

Japan has long been criticized for its failure to address the issue of international child abduction. In response to international pressure, Japan adopted the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Parental Abduction in April 2014. Despite its ratification of the treaty, great concern remains whether Japan is willing to comply with the legal obligations imposed by the Convention. This article examines Japan’s struggle with the issue of international child abduction, analyzing its traditional approach to family matters such as its “divorce by conference” system, which permits couples to negotiate issues of child custody and visitation without any ...


Human Rights In North Korea - The Pump Don't Work Cause The Vandals Took The Handles, Steven Gariepy May 2016

Human Rights In North Korea - The Pump Don't Work Cause The Vandals Took The Handles, Steven Gariepy

International Human Rights Law Journal

Many cynics of the universality of international human rights point to persistent large-scale human-rights abusing regimes, such as the Democratic Republic of North Korea, as proof that there is nothing at all universal about human rights. This essay is an attempt to root out the implications of internal national policies on the suitability of international human rights whilst reinforcing their universality. The author of this essay, a military lawyer, reaches the conclusion that the pump of universal human rights don't work within the North Korea cause the vandals took the handle.


A Proposed Enhancement To Un Treaty Enforcement: Regular Recommendations To Civil Society, Benjamin Bloomer May 2016

A Proposed Enhancement To Un Treaty Enforcement: Regular Recommendations To Civil Society, Benjamin Bloomer

International Human Rights Law Journal

The UN treaty body system is an imperative component in the enforcement of international human rights law, but it currently does not have the mechanisms sufficient for the effective internalization of international human rights law standards. One of its current mechanisms, namely, concluding observations, are by their nature of being addressed to states insufficient to ensure enforcement in state parties not politically, economically, socially, or culturally inclined to obey the recommendations. This article proposes a new publication that will better foster communication between civil society organizations and treaty bodies, allowing for a more highly coordinated effort of civil society in ...


Corporate Complicity In Human Rights Violations Under International Criminal Law, Danielle Olson Aug 2015

Corporate Complicity In Human Rights Violations Under International Criminal Law, Danielle Olson

International Human Rights Law Journal

This paper examines the main legal elements of corporate criminal responsibility for involvement in serious human rights violations, focusing specifically on the mens rea, or mental element requirement of a crime. It analyzes in detail what it means for a business to be complicit, the degree of knowledge corporations and their officials must have to be implicated in accomplice liability, and a case study demonstrating the consequences of such liability on corporations.


Political Islamism In Tunisia: A History Of Repression And A Complex Forum For Potential Change, Sarah R Louden Apr 2015

Political Islamism In Tunisia: A History Of Repression And A Complex Forum For Potential Change, Sarah R Louden

Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Multidisciplinary Studies

This paper argues that the growth and legalization of Political Islamism in Tunisia will naturally hinder the contemporary influence of violent extremism, leading to partnership and inclusion within a Democratic government. The basis for this claim rests on the idea that the condemnation and repression of Political Islamism in Tunisia historically backfired and led to the further underground radicalization of Tunisians, along with scores of human rights abuses by authorities. Specifically, this essay will focus on the moderate Islamist party Ennahda, the Salafist party Ansar al-Sharia, and their complex relationship to each other as well as to domestic and regional ...


The Responsibility To Protect: Emerging Norm Or Failed Doctrine?, Camila Pupparo Mar 2015

The Responsibility To Protect: Emerging Norm Or Failed Doctrine?, Camila Pupparo

Global Tides

This paper seeks to investigate the current shift from the non-intervention norm towards the “Responsibility to Protect,” commonly abbreviated as “RtoP,” which actually mandates intervention in cases of humanitarian intervention disasters. I will look at the May 2011 application of the R2P doctrine to the humanitarian crisis in Libya and assess whether it was a success or a failure. Many critics of the “Responsibility to Protect” norm consider it to be yet another imperial tool used by the West to pursue national interests, so this paper analyzes this argument in detail, referring to case study examples, particularly in the Middle ...


Where’S The Consultation? The War Powers Resolution And Libya, Eileen Burgin Jan 2014

Where’S The Consultation? The War Powers Resolution And Libya, Eileen Burgin

The University of New Hampshire Law Review

[Excerpt] “President Barack Obama triggered a War Powers Resolution (WPR) controversy with his military response to the anti-government rebellion and civil war in Libya in 2011. Members of Congress seized upon the WPR, questioning whether the Obama administration had complied with the WPR’s requirements when the United States launched the initial Libyan Operation Odyssey Dawn (OOD) and subsequently participated in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Operation Unified Protector (OUP). Many legislators charged that President Obama had violated the WPR. Concerns centered on such issues as presidential reliance on the United Nations (U.N.) Security Council—rather than Congress ...


Exploding Causalities: An Example From Iraq, Ibpp Editor May 2003

Exploding Causalities: An Example From Iraq, Ibpp Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

This article provides explanations for a seemingly paradoxical social psychological response to the April 26, 2003 explosions within an ammunition dump in Baghdad.


Trends. A Casualty Of War: Suicide As A Response To An American-Led Invasion Of Iraq, Ibpp Editor Mar 2003

Trends. A Casualty Of War: Suicide As A Response To An American-Led Invasion Of Iraq, Ibpp Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

This Trends article discusses the political psychology of suicide as protest.


Trends. Personalities, Motivations, And Capabilities: The Iraq-North Korea Distinction, Ibpp Editor Feb 2003

Trends. Personalities, Motivations, And Capabilities: The Iraq-North Korea Distinction, Ibpp Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

This Trends article discusses and evaluates the handling of public affairs and justifications for military intervention in Iraq by the United States Secretary of State.


Trends. When Governments Want Government To Change, Ibpp Editor Oct 2002

Trends. When Governments Want Government To Change, Ibpp Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

This Trends article discusses regime change in Germany and Iraq in a political psychological context.


Political Psychology In The Contemporary Political World, Ibpp Editor Apr 2002

Political Psychology In The Contemporary Political World, Ibpp Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

This edition of IBPP explores several recent political events from the vantage point of political psychological perspectives and constructs.


21st-Century Crusades And Demonizing Islam: Commentary On Inderfuth, Ibpp Editor Sep 2001

21st-Century Crusades And Demonizing Islam: Commentary On Inderfuth, Ibpp Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

This article comments on public discourse transmitted through Western-financed mass media that attempts to demonize variants of Islam--e.g., that of the Taliban.


Political Psychology In Yugoslavia: An Overview, Ibpp Editor Apr 2001

Political Psychology In Yugoslavia: An Overview, Ibpp Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

This article (with minimal editing by IBPP) has been written by a new IBPP Regional Editor, Natasa Bajic, a psychologist who resides in Serbia. In the article, she provides an overview of political psychology within Yugoslavia.


Trends. Spinning Buddhas, Ibpp Editor Mar 2001

Trends. Spinning Buddhas, Ibpp Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

This article discusses the March 2001 destruction of the Bamiyan Buddhas in Afghanistan by the Taliban.


Turks, Armenians, And Genocide: Is Genocide Foreign To Foreign Policy?, Ibpp Editor Oct 2000

Turks, Armenians, And Genocide: Is Genocide Foreign To Foreign Policy?, Ibpp Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

This article describes difficulties in forging foreign policy consensus on preventing, attenuating, or intervening to stop genocide.