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Full-Text Articles in Near and Middle Eastern Studies

The Art Of Repression: Digital Dissent And Power Consolidation In El-Sisi’S Egypt, Wesley Garner May 2019

The Art Of Repression: Digital Dissent And Power Consolidation In El-Sisi’S Egypt, Wesley Garner

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Imprecise measurement tools impede the study of protest mobilization. Mobilization proxies, such as counting protesters and protest events, result in significant outliers and variance while ignoring sociocultural, cybernetic, economic, legal, and other features that relevant academic literature considers essential to understanding mobilization dynamics. Without accurate empirical models, researchers’ and policymakers’ investigations of autocratic repression have little explanatory power. This thesis proposes a methodological addition to the mobilization literature: Two three-level scales distinguish an event’s potential to attract an audience from the protest’s actual output relative to similar episodes. I employ the Armed Conflict Location and Event Data (ACLED ...


Setting And Success In Resistance Campaigns, Eric Gelles May 2018

Setting And Success In Resistance Campaigns, Eric Gelles

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Recent literature has argued that nonviolent political resistance campaigns are more effective at achieving their political goals than violent resistance campaigns. This paper examines the structural relationship between campaign goals, campaign setting (urban or rural), campaign type (violent or nonviolent), and campaign success. I argue that because nonviolent and violent campaigns often have different goals, nonviolent movements tend to form in urban areas critical to the regime, while violent movements tend to arise in non-threatening rural hinterlands. I support this theory with quantitative evidence by linking observations from two event-level datasets on conflict to a dataset on maximalist resistance campaigns ...


The Role Of The Air Force In The Conduct Of The Coup D’Etat, Graeme Cranston-Cuebas Apr 2018

The Role Of The Air Force In The Conduct Of The Coup D’Etat, Graeme Cranston-Cuebas

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The literature on civil-military relations universally asserts that air forces play little to no role in the prevention or conduct of the coup d’etat. This thesis contests this claim. Air forces have an extensive history of involvement in planned and attempted coup d’etats. In addition, air forces throughout the developing world are heavily coup-proofed at extreme cost in both military effectiveness and financial resources. The second section of this work establishes a theoretical framework that suggests a plausible explanation for this oversight in the theoretical literature. This gap in the literature is due to the field’s heavy ...


How Some Islamic Monarchies Use Religious Ideology To Maintain Domestic Control And Exert Regional Influence: A Comparative Study Of Morocco And Saudi Arabia, Abigail M. Macmillan May 2017

How Some Islamic Monarchies Use Religious Ideology To Maintain Domestic Control And Exert Regional Influence: A Comparative Study Of Morocco And Saudi Arabia, Abigail M. Macmillan

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This paper will attempt to explore the ways in which, and the purposes with which, some authoritarian states seek to use religious ideologies to maintain domestic control and exert regional influence. The two case studies explored here are Morocco and Saudi Arabia, two Arabo-Islamic monarchies in the Middle East/North Africa (MENA) region. This paper will touch on historical contexts in which modern religious educational apparatuses were developed and the contemporary contexts in which they now exist, as well as the intents and desires behind such apparatuses. In addition, this paper will explore the benefits of ideological control in a ...


Bread, Freedom, And Social Justice: The Role Of Climate Change In The Egyptian Revolution, Melpomene Vasiliou Jan 2017

Bread, Freedom, And Social Justice: The Role Of Climate Change In The Egyptian Revolution, Melpomene Vasiliou

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The issue of climate change in society and within the government has not received the necessary attention to drive forward with the appropriate policies that combat climate change and its impacts. This thesis examines the intersection of climate science and violent uprisings via a case study of Egypt. I frame the issue through a security lens by connecting the effects of climate change on the physical land of Egypt to the political and social problems brought to light during the Arab Spring. I argue that the causal connection between climate change and violent uprisings is made through an examination of ...


Gendered Citizenship And The Sectarian Public Sphere: Women And Civic Space In Lebanon, Ellysse V. Dick Jan 2016

Gendered Citizenship And The Sectarian Public Sphere: Women And Civic Space In Lebanon, Ellysse V. Dick

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Modern Lebanon’s political sectarian system is the result of many years of external forces molding the territory and its sociopolitical structures to align with international interests. Civic spaces in Lebanon, and women’s activity within these spaces, is dictated by sectarian dynamics within its politics and society. This paper explores the evolution of the Lebanese state and sectarianized experiences of citizenship in relation to the external forces that shaped the “Lebanese System” in place today.

Beginning in the late Ottoman and French Mandate periods, it identifies the key players in state formation both under colonial rule and later, as ...


The Decline Of Women’S Rights In Turkey: Is It Political Islam...Or Tayyip?, Magdalen M. Wagner Jan 2016

The Decline Of Women’S Rights In Turkey: Is It Political Islam...Or Tayyip?, Magdalen M. Wagner

Undergraduate Honors Theses

In the 1920s, Kemal Mustafa Ataturk established the secular Republic of Turkey. Under this establishment, religion was separated from public life, and especially from politics. This setup included the protection of women’s rights, including the banning of polygamy and the provision of equal rights in divorce and the right to vote. This protection of women’s rights was reinforced on a global scale in the 1990s when women’s rights came to the forefront of the worldwide agenda, beginning the push for women’s rights to be considered along with human rights. Countries around the world jumped on the ...


The Middle Institutions Trap: A Parabolic Association Between Institutions And Income For Opec Countries, Jake W. Schneider Apr 2015

The Middle Institutions Trap: A Parabolic Association Between Institutions And Income For Opec Countries, Jake W. Schneider

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The literature on economic development asserts that institutions are positively associated with economic growth. Empirically I demonstrate this relationship for a sample size of 169 countries of the world when institutions (as measured by the Polity IV index) are regressed upon income (represented by log GDP per capita) in 2010. However, something fascinating occurs when the sample size is restricted to only Middle East North Africa (MENA) and Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) countries. In these cases, contrary to predicted outcomes posited by the literature, this relationship between income and institutions is, in fact, negative. This means that Middle ...


The Roots Of Salafist Terror: An Analysis Of The Growth Of Violence In The Middle East From 1991-2010, Tyler D. Abboud Jan 2015

The Roots Of Salafist Terror: An Analysis Of The Growth Of Violence In The Middle East From 1991-2010, Tyler D. Abboud

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Though originally ascertaining that both blowback and interest sharing were the primary causal factors giving rise to Salafist terrorism from 1991-2010, the project found evidence supporting the idea that the two concepts are related instead. Blowback, specifically from “direct interventions,” increases interest sharing by providing Salafist terrorist groups with the means to expand their objectives to make their fight seem like that of ordinary citizens thereby swelling their numbers. It can also lead to the unification of various groups who previously may have had no common goals. In turn these intertwining phenomenon lead to more attacks and damage done by ...


The Role Of Civil Society In The Tunisian Democratic Transition, Veronica Baker Jan 2015

The Role Of Civil Society In The Tunisian Democratic Transition, Veronica Baker

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This paper explores the effects of civil society’s involvement in the Tunisian democratic transition through a case study on its contributions to the constitution drafting process. Tunisia gained widespread international attention following its popular uprising against authoritarian leader Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali and successful transition to democracy. Many, however, have dismissed Tunisia’s triumph as a lucky break aided by the country’s small size, religious and ethnic homogeneity, pre-existing liberal social values, and “relatively moderate” Islamist party. Those focused on such “Tunisian exceptionalism” conclude that the country’s transition has little to teach other countries in political flux ...