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Full-Text Articles in Near and Middle Eastern Studies

From Eden To Ednah - Lilith In The Garden, Dan Ben-Amos Jan 2016

From Eden To Ednah - Lilith In The Garden, Dan Ben-Amos

Departmental Papers (NELC)

For centuries, the paradise described in Genesis 2-3 has been a formative myth in Judeo-Christian culture. The creation of the woman from Adam's rib (Genesis 2:21-23) both projected and validated women's inferior and secondary role in Western society. Therefore, the new interpretation of the Hebrew word tsela, shifting its meaning from rib to baculum (penal bone), which Alan Dundes and Ziony Zevit have proposed, is nothing short of revolutionary, shifting the mythic paradigm from an obscure derivation of woman from man, to her primary and equal role in procreative bonding.

With their insightful analyses, Zevit and Dundes ...


Folklore, Dan Ben-Amos Jan 2015

Folklore, Dan Ben-Amos

Departmental Papers (NELC)

Four interrelated qualities distinguish Jewish folklore: (a) extended history depth, (b) continuous interdependence between orality and literacy, (c) national dispersion of the nation, and (d) linguistic diversity. The Hebrew Bible, the earliest Jewish written text, contains evidence of older oral tradition. Once canonized, its ritual reading spawned new oral exetical and metaphorical oral narratives and its retelling retrieved traditions that literacy excluded. The written records of Jewish traditions of Late Antiquity also include folklore of that era. With the rise of the Diaspora Jewish communities had their own regional folklore that synthesized local with Jewish traditions and was performed in ...


Language Conflict In Algeria: From Colonialism To Post-Independence, Heather J. Sharkey Jul 2014

Language Conflict In Algeria: From Colonialism To Post-Independence, Heather J. Sharkey

Departmental Papers (NELC)

No abstract provided.


Obituary: Dov Noy (1920-2013), Dan Ben-Amos Jan 2014

Obituary: Dov Noy (1920-2013), Dan Ben-Amos

Departmental Papers (NELC)

Dov Noy was my teacher, but not mine alone. He introduced folklore into Jewish Studies, and Jewish folklore into the discipline of folklore. Stith Thompson (1885-1976) integrated Dov Noy's dissertation (as Dov Neuman) "Motif-Index of Talmudic-Midrashic Literature" (1954) into the second edition of the Motif-Index of Folk-Literature and established its subject, and Dov Noy himself, firmly in the international community of folklore scholars. Upon the completion of his studies at Indiana University, Noy joined the faculty of the Hebrew University in Jerusalem in 1955 and began offering courses in folklore in the Hebrew Literature and the Yiddish departments. He ...


A Definition Of Folklore: A Personal Narrative, Dan Ben-Amos Jan 2014

A Definition Of Folklore: A Personal Narrative, Dan Ben-Amos

Departmental Papers (NELC)

My definition of folklore as "artistic communication in small groups" was forged in the context of folklore studies of the 1960s, in the discontent with the definitions that were current at the time, and under the influence of anthropology, linguistics - particularly 'the ethnography of speaking' - and Russian formalism. My field research among the Edo people of Nigeria had a formative impact upon my conception of folklore, when I observed their storytellers, singers, dancers and diviners in performance. The response to the definition was initially negative, or at best ambivalent, but as time passed, it took a more positive turn.


Jewish Folklore As Counterculture, Dan Ben-Amos Jan 2014

Jewish Folklore As Counterculture, Dan Ben-Amos

Departmental Papers (NELC)

A literacy divide runs deep in Jewish society. The scribes, the priests, and the prophets who wrote the Bible referred to the folk on the other side of the divide as ha-'am (the people), and the sages, who taught the books that followed, called them 'olam (the world population). Both terms resonate in subsequent Jewish languages. The Yiddish word 'amkha (all the people), and its analogue in Judeo-Spanish, povlacho, have their roots in the Bible where the concept of the "people" is ubiquitous. It occurs in a variety of forms as kol ha-'am (all the people), 'am ha- ...


An Unpredictable Gospel: American Evangelicals And World Christianity, 1812–1920, Heather J. Sharkey Sep 2013

An Unpredictable Gospel: American Evangelicals And World Christianity, 1812–1920, Heather J. Sharkey

Departmental Papers (NELC)

No abstract provided.


Embracing The Divine: Passion And Politics In The Christian Middle East, Heather J. Sharkey Nov 2012

Embracing The Divine: Passion And Politics In The Christian Middle East, Heather J. Sharkey

Departmental Papers (NELC)

No abstract provided.


Arab France: Islam And The Making Of Modern Europe, 1798–1831, Heather J. Sharkey Aug 2012

Arab France: Islam And The Making Of Modern Europe, 1798–1831, Heather J. Sharkey

Departmental Papers (NELC)

No abstract provided.


Review Of Rella Kushelevsky, Penalty And Temptation: Hebrew Tales In Ashkenaz, Dan Ben-Amos Jan 2012

Review Of Rella Kushelevsky, Penalty And Temptation: Hebrew Tales In Ashkenaz, Dan Ben-Amos

Departmental Papers (NELC)

Most Fabula readers do not have an easy access to Hebrew books, and therefore it would be highly advisable to have the present volume available in a more accessible language to folklore scholars around the world. The issues that Rella Kushelevsky addresses, the texts that she interprets, and the analytical method that she employs are all relevant to current folklore scholarship, and therefore they can generate constructive debates, new research directions, and formulate new questions regarding medieval folklore.


The Communion Of Women: Missions And Gender In Colonial Africa And The British Metropole, Heather J. Sharkey Jun 2011

The Communion Of Women: Missions And Gender In Colonial Africa And The British Metropole, Heather J. Sharkey

Departmental Papers (NELC)

No abstract provided.


Reforming The World: The Creation Of America's Moral Empire, Heather J. Sharkey Jun 2011

Reforming The World: The Creation Of America's Moral Empire, Heather J. Sharkey

Departmental Papers (NELC)

No abstract provided.


The Challenge Of Political Islam: Non-Muslims And The Egyptian State, Heather J. Sharkey May 2011

The Challenge Of Political Islam: Non-Muslims And The Egyptian State, Heather J. Sharkey

Departmental Papers (NELC)

No abstract provided.


Review Of Sarah Sorour Soroudi, The Folktales Of The Jews From Iran, Central Asia, And Afghanistan: Tale-Types And Genres, Dan Ben-Amos Jan 2011

Review Of Sarah Sorour Soroudi, The Folktales Of The Jews From Iran, Central Asia, And Afghanistan: Tale-Types And Genres, Dan Ben-Amos

Departmental Papers (NELC)

Sarah Sorour Soroudi (1938-2002) was born in Tehran, Iran and immigrated to Israel in 1959, where she resumed at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem her academic studies that she had begun at the University of Tehran. She received her doctorate from the University of California, Los Angeles in 1972 and returned to Israel, joining faculty of the department of Indian, Iranian and Armenian studies of the Hebrew University. Persian literature and poetry was her primary scholarly concern, but over the years her interest in Persian culture and folklore evolved with a particular focus on the folklore of Iranian Jews. The ...


American Christians And Islam: Evangelical Culture And Muslims From The Colonial Period To The Age Of Terrorism, Heather J. Sharkey Jul 2010

American Christians And Islam: Evangelical Culture And Muslims From The Colonial Period To The Age Of Terrorism, Heather J. Sharkey

Departmental Papers (NELC)

No abstract provided.


Straparola: The Revolution That Was Not, Dan Ben-Amos Jan 2010

Straparola: The Revolution That Was Not, Dan Ben-Amos

Departmental Papers (NELC)

Inspired by Ruth Bottigheimer's 2002 book, Fairy Godfather: Straparola, Venice, and the Fairy Tale Tradition, this article examines her proposition that the sixteenth-century Italian author Giovanni Francesco Straparola invented the "rise tale," in which a lowly hero or heroine climbs the socioeconomic ladder with the help of a magical benefactor. It investigates Bottigheimer's evidence for this claim as well as her argument that Straparola's literary invention was a projection of the emerging Italian middles class in the sixteenth century. Contrary to Bottigheimer's proposition, it is found that tales with similar form were told in classical Greece ...


The First Islamist Republic: Development And Disintegration Of Islamism In The Sudan (Review), Heather J. Sharkey Jan 2010

The First Islamist Republic: Development And Disintegration Of Islamism In The Sudan (Review), Heather J. Sharkey

Departmental Papers (NELC)

In this careful and engagingly written analysis of Hasan al-Turabi's decade in power, Abdullahi A. Gallab concludes that the experience of Sudan during the "first Islamist republic" (1989-99) serves as a warning against "ideological entrapments" (p. 167) of all kinds, and leads to the "realization that Islamism, like all other isms, can be and should be contested" (p. ix). Drawing upon extensive interviews with Sudanese Islamists, as well as upon Arabic and English studies, Gallab summarizes the Islamist experiment in dismal terms. He variously calls it a "reign of terror," a "trauma," a source of "despair," "an open-ended system ...


Introduction: The European Fairy-Tale Tradition Between Orality And Literacy, Dan Ben-Amos Jan 2010

Introduction: The European Fairy-Tale Tradition Between Orality And Literacy, Dan Ben-Amos

Departmental Papers (NELC)

In Fairy Godfather: Straparola, Venice, and the Fairy Tale Tradition Ruth Bottingheimer proposes to correct the historical narrative of the emergence of the fairy tale in Europe and to recognize "Straparola's role as an originator in the history of modern fairy tale" (Bottingheimer 2002:3). Giovanni Francesco Straparola (c. 1480-c. 1557) is not exactly an unknown figure in folktale history.1 His book, Le piacevoli notti (Pleasant nights), which appeared in English as The Nights of Straparola (Straparola [1551-1553] 1894), was long recognized as a predecessor of Giambattista Basile's Lo cunto de li cunti (The tale of tales ...


An Egyptian In China: Ahmed Fahmy And The Making Of “World Christianities”, Heather J. Sharkey Jun 2009

An Egyptian In China: Ahmed Fahmy And The Making Of “World Christianities”, Heather J. Sharkey

Departmental Papers (NELC)

Ahmed Fahmy, who was born in Alexandria, Egypt, in 1861 and died in Golders Green, London, in 1933, was the most celebrated convert from Islam to Christianity in the history of the American Presbyterian mission in Egypt. American Presbyterians had started work in Egypt in 1854 and soon developed the largest Protestant mission in the country. They opened schools, hospitals, and orphanages; sponsored the development of Arabic Christian publishing and Bible distribution; and with local Egyptians organized evangelical work in towns and villages from Alexandria to Aswan. In an age when Anglo-American Protestant missions were expanding across the globe, they ...


Angels, Dan Ben-Amos, Menachem Kallus Jan 2008

Angels, Dan Ben-Amos, Menachem Kallus

Departmental Papers (NELC)

Jewish tradition considers angels to be messengers of God, but holds that they must not be substituted for God. Isaiah 63:9 speaks of the angel of God's divine countenance—an important designation in Jewish mysticism that has variously been taken to mean the archangel Metatron, the Shekhinah (or immanent divine presence), or the redeeming angel and was understood by some to be an extension of God and a manifestation of the Holy Spirit. The Talmud (Hagigah 13b) declares that each divine angelic legion is formed of a million members, but that the legions themselves are numberless.


Elijah The Prophet, Dan Ben-Amos Jan 2008

Elijah The Prophet, Dan Ben-Amos

Departmental Papers (NELC)

or Eliyohu hanovi, was the most popular biblical figure in Jewish folklore in Eastern Europe. The oral traditions of late antiquity established the narrative foundation upon which his image would develop; his name also occurs in proverbs and songs. Elijah is said to make an invisible appearance during the Passover Seder, when a special cup of wine is poured in his honor, and at circumcision ceremonies, when a special chair is reserved for him.


Artillery Of Fire: American Missionaries And The Failed Conversion Of The Middle East, Heather J. Sharkey Jan 2008

Artillery Of Fire: American Missionaries And The Failed Conversion Of The Middle East, Heather J. Sharkey

Departmental Papers (NELC)

Lucid and elegantly written, Ussama Makdisi's Artillery of Heaven accomplishes two big things. First, while examining 19th century American missionary encounters in the Arab Ottoman territories, it presents a model for a new kind of transnational history that sheds light on American engagement with the world. Second, and at a time when much of the Arab past has been "effectively demarcated ... as a forbidden no-man's land" because of fear of what "divisive narratives" of the past may dredge up (p. 219), it scrutinizes the raw history of the "multi-religious world" in the Ottoman region that is now Lebanon.


Talmud, Dan Ben-Amos Jan 2008

Talmud, Dan Ben-Amos

Departmental Papers (NELC)

1. Allgemeines. In der jüd. Kultur wird der T. als Teil der mündl. Überlieferung betrachtet. Im Gegensatz zum Terminus, schriftl. Tora', mit dem die hebr. Bibel bezeichnet wird, versteht man unter, mündl. Tora' due zwischen dem 1. und dem 6./7. Jh. entstandenen literar.-religiösen Produkte: Mischna und Tosefta auf Hebräisch, Jerusalemer T. (J. T.; engl. oft Palestinian T.) und Babylon. T. (B.T.) hauptsächlich auf Aramäisch, die Bücher des → Midrasch in einer Mischung aus Hebräisch und Aramäisch1.


Stabilität, Dan Ben-Amos Jan 2007

Stabilität, Dan Ben-Amos

Departmental Papers (NELC)

Die Frage, inwieweit → Texte der Volksüberlieferung stabil oder variabel sind (→ Variabilität), zählt zu den schwierigsten theoretischen Problemen der Erzählforschung. Angesichts der vielfältigen Übermittlungsakte über Sprach-, Kultur- und Ländergrenzen sowie hist. Epochen hinweg sowie angesichts der → Kreativität der → Erzähler und Erzählerinen, von dene jede(r) einzelne die Instabilität von Erzählungen erhöht, ist die relative S. des Erzählguts ein erstaunliches Phänomen. Unter den Hypothesen, die zu ihrer Erklärung vorgebracht wurden, können vier theoretische Ansätze unterschieden werden: (1) ein nihilistischer, (2) ein gesellschaftlicher, (3_ ein psychol. und (4) ein literar. Diese Hypothesen stehen nicht notwendigerweise in Widerspruch zueinander; oft bemühen sie sich, die ...


Islam And The Prayer Economy: History And Authority In A Malian Town, Heather J. Sharkey Dec 2006

Islam And The Prayer Economy: History And Authority In A Malian Town, Heather J. Sharkey

Departmental Papers (NELC)

No abstract provided.


Sayyid Abd Al-Rahman Al-Mahdi: A Study Of Neo-Mahdism In The Sudan, 1899–1956, Heather J. Sharkey Feb 2006

Sayyid Abd Al-Rahman Al-Mahdi: A Study Of Neo-Mahdism In The Sudan, 1899–1956, Heather J. Sharkey

Departmental Papers (NELC)

No abstract provided.


On Demons, Dan Ben-Amos Jan 2005

On Demons, Dan Ben-Amos

Departmental Papers (NELC)

The year was 1966. The sixties were at their height, though we did not know it then. It was two years after the Beatles had landed in New York, and a year before the Six Day War. The Democratic convention in Chicago was still two years away. A group of us, all Israelis, came to UCLA, each for his own reasons. Ruth Kartun-Blum and her husband Amos were there, and so were Ella and Dan Almagor. Professor Joseph Dan, Yossi to his friends, who was the most academically senior among us, came to teach in the Near Eastern Languages and ...


Muslim Societies In African History, Heather J. Sharkey Dec 2004

Muslim Societies In African History, Heather J. Sharkey

Departmental Papers (NELC)

No abstract provided.


Gordon And The Sudan: Prologue To The Mahdiyya, 1877–1880, Heather J. Sharkey May 2004

Gordon And The Sudan: Prologue To The Mahdiyya, 1877–1880, Heather J. Sharkey

Departmental Papers (NELC)

No abstract provided.


Pride, Faith, And Fear: Islam In Sub-Saharan Africa, Heather J. Sharkey Apr 2004

Pride, Faith, And Fear: Islam In Sub-Saharan Africa, Heather J. Sharkey

Departmental Papers (NELC)

No abstract provided.