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Articles 1 - 20 of 20

Full-Text Articles in Near and Middle Eastern Studies

Oppositional Politics And Gramsci's Civil Society: Patron-Clientelism In Jordan And Value-Centered Scholarship, Stephen James Preisig Jan 2019

Oppositional Politics And Gramsci's Civil Society: Patron-Clientelism In Jordan And Value-Centered Scholarship, Stephen James Preisig

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Patron-clientelism or wasta in Jordan is a historically engrained institution that crosses social, political and economic spheres. For those with sufficient resources to enter into its system of exchange, patron-clientelism grants access to university admissions, government privileges and employment. For those without sufficient resources, patron-clientelism creates a barrier to entry that sustains the marginalized status of persons from low socio-economic backgrounds.

Most scholarship about patron-clientelism portrays it as something dynamic, inherently neither morally constructive nor problematic but with the potential to be both. By focusing on various historical manifestations of patron-clientelism, such scholarship detracts attention from its reprehensible effects. Posing ...


Shoulder To Shoulder Yet Worlds Apart: Variations In Women's Integration In The Militaries Of France, Norway, And The United States, Kyleanne Hunter Jan 2019

Shoulder To Shoulder Yet Worlds Apart: Variations In Women's Integration In The Militaries Of France, Norway, And The United States, Kyleanne Hunter

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Women have become an essential part of Western militaries. Particularly concerning the experience of NATO militaries in Afghanistan, there has been much public attention on the role of women in the military. While Western militaries are often studied as a whole with regards to military operations, there is variation in both how women are employed in the military and the experience they have as service members. This dissertation seeks to understand the cause of this variation by examining three critical cases: France, Norway and the United States.

In this dissertation, I argue foundational beliefs about gender equality affect the institutional ...


Becoming A State: Zionist And Palestinian Movements For National Liberation, Martin S. Widzer Jan 2015

Becoming A State: Zionist And Palestinian Movements For National Liberation, Martin S. Widzer

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study examines the road to statehood for the Zionist and Palestinian movements. There are three components which frame this investigation: 1. social movements and the practices in which they engage that are aimed at establishing statehood for a people; 2. distinctive configurations of the international system and the manner in which both the material and ideational foundations of that system pulls units towards conformity and predictable behavior; and finally, 3. the role of agency, that is, the way in which instrumentally rational individuals attempt to push the structure in which they are embedded towards a configuration that is better ...


New Middle East Cold War: Saudi Arabia And Iran's Rivalry, Tali Rachel Grumet Jan 2015

New Middle East Cold War: Saudi Arabia And Iran's Rivalry, Tali Rachel Grumet

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The competing powers of Saudi Arabia and Iran continue to redress and reverse the strategic imbalance and direction of the Middle East’s regional politics. The 1979 Iranian Revolution catapulted these two states into an embittered rivalry. The fall of Saddam Hussein following the 2003 U.S. led invasion, the establishment of a Shi’ite Iraq and the 2011 Arab Uprisings have further inflamed tensions between Saudi Arabia and Iran. Iran and Saudi Arabia have not confronted each other militarily, but rather have divided the region into two armed camps on the basis of political and religious ideology in seeking ...


Reclaiming The Body: Understanding Arab–American Hybrid Experience Through Affective Attunement, Salma Tariq Shukri Jan 2015

Reclaiming The Body: Understanding Arab–American Hybrid Experience Through Affective Attunement, Salma Tariq Shukri

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Critical intercultural communication (CIC) scholarship on hybridity emphasizes the necessity of examining hybrid performances within their cultural, political, and interpersonal contexts. Though telling, it overlooks a significant piece of the puzzle in understanding hybrid lived experience: how one feels in relation to an interaction, societal structure, or circulating discourse. This dissertation seeks to build an interdisciplinary bridge between CIC and affect theory with the purpose of emphasizing the importance of embodiment in the exploration and interpretation of hybrid performance. To do this, I will draw upon what Manning (2013) terms affective attunement, which accentuates how each lived moment is particular ...


Syria And The Olympics: National Identity On An International Stage, Andrea L. Stanton Jan 2014

Syria And The Olympics: National Identity On An International Stage, Andrea L. Stanton

Religious Studies: Faculty Scholarship

Since its 1946 independence, Syria has fielded a team for every summer Olympic competition except 1956, yet has won only three Olympic medals. In contrast with its smaller, higher-powered neighbor Lebanon, its participation at the Olympics has been consistent but limited, with the country making little impact internationally. Yet the history of Syria’s involvement with the Olympics reflects key elements of its political and social history: its ambitious but short-lived partnership with Egypt, the Baathist-supported promotion of women as athletes and head of the National Olympic Committee, and its commitment to participation in the vexed but ideologically important Pan-Arab ...


Sovereignty And Intervention In The Middle East: From The Fall Of The Ottoman Empire To The Arab Spring, Raslan Ibrahim Jan 2014

Sovereignty And Intervention In The Middle East: From The Fall Of The Ottoman Empire To The Arab Spring, Raslan Ibrahim

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This research provides an institutional explanation of the practices of external intervention in the Arab state system from the fall of the Ottoman Empire in 1922 to the Arab Spring.

My explanation consists of two institutional variables: sovereignty and inter-state borders. I examine the changes in regional and international norms of sovereignty and their impact on the practices of external intervention in the Arab state system. I also examine the impact of the level of institutionalization of inter-state borders in the Arab World on the practices of external intervention. I argue that changes in regional and international norms of sovereignty ...


The Vernacular Discourse Of The "Arab Spring": An Analysis Of The Visual, The Embodied, And The Textual Rhetorics Of The Karama Revolution, Fatima Zahrae Chrifi Alaoui Jan 2014

The Vernacular Discourse Of The "Arab Spring": An Analysis Of The Visual, The Embodied, And The Textual Rhetorics Of The Karama Revolution, Fatima Zahrae Chrifi Alaoui

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Vernacular Discourse of the "Arab Spring" is a project that bridges the divide between the East and the West by offering new readings to Arab subjectivities. Through an analysis of the "Arab Spring" through the lens of vernacular discourse, it challenges the Euro-Americo-centric legacies of Orientalism in Western academia and the new wave of extremism in the Arab world by offering alternative representations of Arab bodies and subjectivities. To offer this new reading of the "Arab Spring," it explores the foundations of critical rhetoric as a theory and a practice and argues for a turn towards a critical vernacular ...


`Israel Is An Apartheid State': An Examination Of Israeli Policies In Comparison With South Africa And International Law, Geoffrey Tennent Jan 2014

`Israel Is An Apartheid State': An Examination Of Israeli Policies In Comparison With South Africa And International Law, Geoffrey Tennent

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The situation in which the Palestinians are living, both within Israel and the Occupied Palestinian Territories continues to worsen with little end in sight. The exact status of the Palestinians, however, has been the subject of much debate with terms such as `disputed territories,' `occupied territories,' and even a state of apartheid being used. This study seeks to examine whether the concept of apartheid applies to Israel/Palestine. Two methods were used to define apartheid, a South Africa case study and its definition under international law. Israel's laws, policies, and practices, both in its own territory and the West ...


The African-American Islamic Renaissance And The Rise Of The Nation Of Islam, Patrick Denis Bowen Jan 2013

The African-American Islamic Renaissance And The Rise Of The Nation Of Islam, Patrick Denis Bowen

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation examines African-American Islamic culture from 1920 through 1959, a period I label the "African-American Islamic Renaissance" (AAIR). The AAIR is characterized by a significant increase in interest in Islam, extreme diversity in views about Islam, and the absence of a single organization dominating African-American Islamic culture for a significant amount of time. Previous works dealing with African-American Islam in this period have failed to fully recognize these features, particularly the last of these. As a result, explanations for the rise of the Nation of Islam (NOI) have not satisfactorily explained why it was only the NOI--and not other ...


Islamic Political Thought: Reviving A Rationalist Tradition, Hazem Y. Salem Jan 2013

Islamic Political Thought: Reviving A Rationalist Tradition, Hazem Y. Salem

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This work develops the foundations of an Islamic argument for secular, liberal democracy from within the Islamic discursive tradition. First, it challenges the presentation of contemporary Islamic political thought as a unified, continuous development of the classical canon by showing the influence of the now marginalized medieval rationalists in the development of Islamic political thought. The classical rationalist concern with divine justice forced the founders of Sunni orthodoxy to state their epistemologies and their positions on ethical ontology. The orthodox positions, and their related methods of legal-juristic reasoning, are shown to be incapable of accommodating the modern Islamic positions on ...


Russian Foreign Policy In The Middle East: Priorities And Effectiveness, Brett A. Schneider Jan 2012

Russian Foreign Policy In The Middle East: Priorities And Effectiveness, Brett A. Schneider

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This paper analyzes contemporary Russian Foreign Policy toward the Middle East. Six factors are identified as most critical to Russian foreign policy in the region: Islamic terrorism, arms transfers, natural resources, influence over former Soviet Spaces, general trade, and great power status. With rare exceptions, these principles are shown to guide Russian foreign policy in the Middle East since 2000.

The paper continues by considering the effectiveness of Russia in achieving its desired policy outcomes in the Middle East. This includes assessing situations in which two or more priorities run counter to each other. Generally, Russia is shown to be ...


Preventing The Clash: Reexamining U.S. Public Diplomacy In The Middle East, Clifton Martin Jan 2012

Preventing The Clash: Reexamining U.S. Public Diplomacy In The Middle East, Clifton Martin

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This paper analyzes U.S. public diplomacy in the Middle East. In explaining the concept of public diplomacy itself and its evolution in the United States, four factors are identified as most crucial to the capabilities and limitations of U.S. public diplomacy in the region: U.S. foreign policy options, institutions, strategies, and tools. These factors are shown to affect the outcome of U.S. public diplomacy programming in the Middle East and are the foundation for a new U.S. public diplomacy model.

The paper continues by examining the development of contemporary U.S. foreign policy in the ...


U.S. Foreign Policy In Lebanon: Adapting To Regional Threats Today And Promoting Stability For The Future, Robert Michael Shelala Ii Jan 2011

U.S. Foreign Policy In Lebanon: Adapting To Regional Threats Today And Promoting Stability For The Future, Robert Michael Shelala Ii

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Since the 1800s, the United States has sought to advance its interests in what currently exists as the Lebanese Republic. This assessment will look at the shape that policy has taken since the 2006 Israel-Hezbollah war in the context of historical relations. After doing so, three questions will be addressed: What have been the policies of Iran and Syria toward Lebanon during this time period, how effective has U.S. policy been since 2006 in undermining Iranian and Syrian influence and what policies should the United States adopt to offset future destabilizing influence from these countries. It is concluded that ...


Products Of Their Environment? Nuclear Proliferation And The Emerging Multipolar International System, Jonathan David Moore Jan 2011

Products Of Their Environment? Nuclear Proliferation And The Emerging Multipolar International System, Jonathan David Moore

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The world is shifting from a unipolar system following the end of the Cold War to a multipolar system that is ushered in by "the rise of the rest." This change in the global structure has led some analysts to predict an increase in nuclear weapons proliferation caused by increased uncertainty and a decrease in alliances and security assurances. Nuclear proliferation, however, will not increase because these types of predictions are founded upon realist assumptions that inaccurately predict the characteristics of the emerging multipolar system as well as inaccurately understanding calculations of states with regard to nuclear weapons programs. I ...


Palestinian Women: Mothers, Martyrs And Agents Of Political Change, Rebecca Ann Otis Jan 2011

Palestinian Women: Mothers, Martyrs And Agents Of Political Change, Rebecca Ann Otis

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation seeks to understand the role of women as political actors in the rise of Islamo-nationalist movement in Palestine. Using a historical and ethnographic approach, it examines the changing opportunity structures available to Palestinian women in the nationalist struggle between 1987 and 2007. It looks into the sites of political engagement of Palestinian women as mothers, organizers and political candidates, suicide bombers, and nonviolent activists with attention paid to the evolution of the Islamist ideology within these four pathways for political participation. The goal of this work is to engage the question of how some Palestinian women who appear ...


Terrorism Conflict: How The United States Responds To Al Qaeda Violence And Expressed Grievances, Richard Craig Rosthauser Jan 2010

Terrorism Conflict: How The United States Responds To Al Qaeda Violence And Expressed Grievances, Richard Craig Rosthauser

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study analyzes how the United States responds to Al Qaeda's messages and expressions of grievances and how America's responses escalate the conflict between the United States and Al Qaeda.

After its first two attacks against America, Al Qaeda devised a strategy to draw America into a guerrilla war in Afghanistan, stating its intentions in its "Declaration of War" in 1996. Before this declaration, Al Qaeda worked from the shadows and denied reports it was either funding terrorism or participating in terrorism. Bin Laden continued his denials but took responsibility for some terrorist acts in his messages. President ...


Leadership Analysis: Decision Making In Syria, Taylor Reed Jan 2010

Leadership Analysis: Decision Making In Syria, Taylor Reed

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This thesis is intended to identify the distinctive traits of Syrian leadership. Its purpose is to better serve policy makers as they confront the challenges Syria presents. The first section identifies major research on decision making and leadership analysis. The second section is an analysis of Syria's leadership components. The third section uses several quantitative methods to identify the leadership traits of President Bashar Al-Assad. A psychological leadership profile of the figurehead creates added complexity to the structural analysis, but is relevant because it has the capability of allowing actual policy makers to deal with their Syrian counterpart. Bashar ...


Peace Makers Or Draft Dodgers: Haredi Resistance To Israeli Military Conscription, Jay M. Politzer Jan 2010

Peace Makers Or Draft Dodgers: Haredi Resistance To Israeli Military Conscription, Jay M. Politzer

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The haredim in Israel are an ultra-Orthodox Jewish religious group who uphold the most conservative of Jewish laws. Instead of serving in the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) as all other Israelis do, the haredim are exempted from the IDF's policy of universal conscription. This thesis proposes three hypotheses to determine why Israel's haredim do not serve in the IDF. First, the haredim do not serve in the IDF because they do not want to; second, the haredim do not serve because they hold pacifistic political opinions; and third, the haredim do not serve because Jewish religious tradition forbids ...


Political Islam In Jordan And Morocco: Changing Tides?, Andrew Johnson Jan 2009

Political Islam In Jordan And Morocco: Changing Tides?, Andrew Johnson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study seeks to assess if the 2007 electoral failures of the Islamic Action Front (IAF) in Jordan, and the Justice and Development Party (PJD) in Morocco, represent a weakening of power, or merely a minor diversion in the quest of Islamists to attain greater political voice in both countries.