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Articles 1 - 30 of 93

Full-Text Articles in Near and Middle Eastern Studies

Syrian Crisis Representation In The Media: The Cnn Effect, Framing, And Tone, Savannah S. Day May 2019

Syrian Crisis Representation In The Media: The Cnn Effect, Framing, And Tone, Savannah S. Day

The University of Mississippi Undergraduate Research Journal

Over the past seven years of the Syrian Civil War, Syrian refugees have been painted in a negative light by news media outlets around the world. History of media coverage regarding global humanitarian crises shows that with various tools and processes, media can shape public opinion and policy in whichever direction it desires, and oftentimes policymakers and the public are quick, as well as emotional, to react. In this paper, my objectives are to analyze specific examples of this CNN Effect phenomena within news coverage of the Syrian refugee crisis, as well as generally explain the negatively correlating relationship between ...


Once Upon A Time...When A Revolution Evolved To A Civil War In Syria, Crystal M. Myers Apr 2019

Once Upon A Time...When A Revolution Evolved To A Civil War In Syria, Crystal M. Myers

The Review: A Journal of Undergraduate Student Research

This paper gives an overview of how the conflict in Syria has evolved from a revolution into a sectarian civil war. Power is maintained by the ruling Assad family through promotion of the Alawite minority within the government and military. Methods of persecution on the Sunni majority by the Assad government are discussed as well as a policy of strategic expulsion of the Sunni enclave to Idlib, a city on the outskirts of Syria (bordering Turkey).


Societal Rather Than Governmental Change: Religious Discrimination In Muslim-Majority Countries After The Arab Uprisings, Yasemin Akbaba, Jonathan Fox Jan 2019

Societal Rather Than Governmental Change: Religious Discrimination In Muslim-Majority Countries After The Arab Uprisings, Yasemin Akbaba, Jonathan Fox

Political Science Faculty Publications

This study examines shifts in governmental religion policy and societal discrimination against religious minorities in Muslim-Majority states after the Arab Uprisings by using the Religion and State round 3 (RAS3) dataset for the years 2009-2014 and by focusing on 49 Muslim-majority countries and territories. We build on threads of literature on religious pluralism in transitional societies to explain the changes in governmental religion policy and societal discrimination against religious minorities after the Arab Uprisings. This literature predicts a rise in all forms of discrimination in Arab Uprising states as compared to other Muslim-majority states, and an even more significant rise ...


Forgive, Forget Or Feign: Everyday Diplomacy In Local Communities Of Polish Subcarpathia, Iuliia Buyskykh Jun 2018

Forgive, Forget Or Feign: Everyday Diplomacy In Local Communities Of Polish Subcarpathia, Iuliia Buyskykh

Journal of Global Catholicism

The paper is based on my ethnographic fieldwork in Przemyśl, Poland and several surrounding villages in 2015-2017. While conducting my research on a set of religious practices and pilgrimages in confessionally and ethnically mixed localities, I faced many challenges that changed the main course of my initial research plan. During my interaction with people here themes came to light that seemed little related to religiousness. My status as a researcher from Ukraine and even more so, my being a young single woman from Ukraine, gave rise to a number of other topics that my interlocutors, both of Polish and Ukrainian ...


The Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood And Ikhwanweb: Deliberative Ethic/Voice In A Counterpublic’S Rhetoric?, Soumia Bardhan Jun 2018

The Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood And Ikhwanweb: Deliberative Ethic/Voice In A Counterpublic’S Rhetoric?, Soumia Bardhan

Journal of Public Deliberation

Using counterpublic theory as framework and situating the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood (MB) as a counterpublic, counterpublics being alternative, non-dominant publics who voice their oppositional needs and values through diverse discursive practices, the goal of this study is to: (a) Examine, in the context of the years preceding the 2011 Egyptian uprising, whether the Egyptian MB, as a counterpublic, portrays a deliberative ethic/voice in its cyber rhetoric; (b) Explore whether traditional/Western ideas of deliberation are upheld or challenged in the cyber rhetoric of the Egyptian MB; and (c) Comment on the role of Ikhwanweb, as a counterpublic sphere, in ...


Islamophobia In The United Kingdom: A Critical Global Perspective, Jeffrey Driggs May 2018

Islamophobia In The United Kingdom: A Critical Global Perspective, Jeffrey Driggs

Capstone Projects and Master's Theses

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The Ecclesiology Of Pope Francis And The Future Of The Church In Africa, Bradford E. Hinze Dec 2017

The Ecclesiology Of Pope Francis And The Future Of The Church In Africa, Bradford E. Hinze

Journal of Global Catholicism

A consideration of the future of African Catholicism in light of the ecclesiology of Pope Francis. The article explores how themes in Francis's ecclesiology work together to challenge centralization, clericalism, and triumphalism in the church by promoting practices of synodality and how these elements support the church’s mission to work against forms of colonialism, neo-colonialism, and the most fundamental matrix of colonial power by advancing radical democracy in society


Interpretations Of Jesus And The Virgin Mary In The Quran And The Bible: A Possible Contribution To Muslim-Christian Cooperation?, Jon Armajani Aug 2017

Interpretations Of Jesus And The Virgin Mary In The Quran And The Bible: A Possible Contribution To Muslim-Christian Cooperation?, Jon Armajani

The Journal of Social Encounters

This essay explores Muslim and Christian understandings of Jesus and his mother Mary, which may provide a basis for possible cooperation between the two religious communities. The similarities and differences in views are discussed, with an understanding that there are differences in views not only between but also within the two religious communities. The essay concludes with a discussion of seven types of interreligious dialogue as articulated by Sallie B. King, and how they apply to Muslim-Christian dialogue related to Jesus and Mary.


Contested Moral Issues In Contemporary African Catholicism: Theological Proposals For A Hermeneutics Of Multiplicity And Inclusion, Stan Chu Ilo Jul 2017

Contested Moral Issues In Contemporary African Catholicism: Theological Proposals For A Hermeneutics Of Multiplicity And Inclusion, Stan Chu Ilo

Journal of Global Catholicism

Drawing upon the broad work of Vatican II and Pope Francis’ Evangelicum Gaudium the article proposes how a hermeneutic of multiplicity and inclusion could help hold in balance the tension between tradition and innovation, universal principles and specific contextual application for Catholicism in Africa. Among the issues addressed are cultural relativism, natural law theory, and polygamy.


How Some Islamic Monarchies Use Religious Ideology To Maintain Domestic Control And Exert Regional Influence: A Comparative Study Of Morocco And Saudi Arabia, Abigail M. Macmillan May 2017

How Some Islamic Monarchies Use Religious Ideology To Maintain Domestic Control And Exert Regional Influence: A Comparative Study Of Morocco And Saudi Arabia, Abigail M. Macmillan

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This paper will attempt to explore the ways in which, and the purposes with which, some authoritarian states seek to use religious ideologies to maintain domestic control and exert regional influence. The two case studies explored here are Morocco and Saudi Arabia, two Arabo-Islamic monarchies in the Middle East/North Africa (MENA) region. This paper will touch on historical contexts in which modern religious educational apparatuses were developed and the contemporary contexts in which they now exist, as well as the intents and desires behind such apparatuses. In addition, this paper will explore the benefits of ideological control in a ...


Schisms: The Inherent Dangers Of Religious Variance Within A Single Faith – An Analysis Of Intra-State Conflict In The Modern World, Benjamin E. Hazen Apr 2017

Schisms: The Inherent Dangers Of Religious Variance Within A Single Faith – An Analysis Of Intra-State Conflict In The Modern World, Benjamin E. Hazen

Student Publications

This essay explores the relationship between religious variance within a single faith and the frequency of intra-state conflict. Specifically, an emphasis is placed on Sunni and Shia conflict within the overarching umbrella of Islam. Utilizing the most recent empirical data in conjunction with other scholarly research, it can be hypothesized that the more diverse a state is within a single subset of one particular religion, the more frequent the incidence of intra-state conflict is as well.


Rulers, Religion, And Riches: Why The West Got Rich And The Middle East Did Not, Jared Rubin Mar 2017

Rulers, Religion, And Riches: Why The West Got Rich And The Middle East Did Not, Jared Rubin

Economics Faculty Books and Book Chapters

For centuries following the spread of Islam, the Middle East was far ahead of Europe. Yet, the modern economy was born in Europe. Why was it not born in the Middle East? In this book Jared Rubin examines the role that Islam played in this reversal of fortunes. It argues that the religion itself is not to blame; the importance of religious legitimacy in Middle Eastern politics was the primary culprit. Muslim religious authorities were given an important seat at the political bargaining table, which they used to block important advancements such as the printing press and lending at interest ...


Desconocido: Conversion To Islam In México, Ashley E. Dunn Jan 2017

Desconocido: Conversion To Islam In México, Ashley E. Dunn

International Studies Honors Projects

Unless proven otherwise, subaltern subjects are assumed to lack agency. Through an exploration of conversion to Islam in México in the southern state of Chiapas, in the north along las fronteras, and in Mexico City, this project intervenes in discourses that deny the subaltern agency. Through the analytical frameworks of coloniality, this project redefines the choices that converts make and their expressions of faith as acts of creation, as inherently authentic, and as articulations of their desires. Converts to Islam in México serve as a case study of modes of resistance against the epistemological powers of coloniality.


Women And The Making Of The Tunisian Constitution, Rangita De Silva De Alwis, Anware Mnasri, Estee Ward Jan 2017

Women And The Making Of The Tunisian Constitution, Rangita De Silva De Alwis, Anware Mnasri, Estee Ward

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This article attempts to glean from field interviews and secondary sources some of the sociopolitical complexities that underlay women’s engagement in Tunisia’s 2011-14 constitution-making process. Elucidating such complexities can provide further insight into how women’s engagement impacted the substance and enforceability of the constitution’s final text. We argue that, in spite of longstanding roadblocks to implement and enforce constitutional guarantees, the greater involvement of Tunisian women in the constitution drafting process did make a difference in the final gender provisions of Tunisia’s constitution. Although not all recommendations were adopted, Tunisian women were able to use ...


Is Faith Truly The Reason For Our Security? A Study On The Extent To Which Islam Influences Jordanian National Security, Shynelle Kissi Oct 2016

Is Faith Truly The Reason For Our Security? A Study On The Extent To Which Islam Influences Jordanian National Security, Shynelle Kissi

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

After witnessing years of coups, war, and overall civil unrest in the Middle East, it comes as no surprise that there are many competing explanations for why this is. Much to the disbelief of the researcher, the average American’s theory for this was that the heavy influence of Islamic teachings in lawmaking prevented the successful implementation of democratic processes and overall peace in the region. However, Jordan appears to have evaded all forms of chaos, and remain peaceful despite also being a Muslim country. Why? Has Jordan escaped turmoil because unlike its neighbors it does not use Islam in ...


The Tying Of The Ceremonial Wedding Thread: A Feminist Analysis Of “Ritual” And “Tradition” Among Syro-Malabar Catholics In India, Sonja Thomas Sep 2016

The Tying Of The Ceremonial Wedding Thread: A Feminist Analysis Of “Ritual” And “Tradition” Among Syro-Malabar Catholics In India, Sonja Thomas

Journal of Global Catholicism

This article presents a feminist analysis of patriarchy persisting in Catholicism of the Syro-Malabar rite in Kerala. The article specifically considers the impact of charismatic Catholicism on women of the Syro-Malabar rite and argues that it is important to interrogate this new face of religiosity in order to fully understand how certain rituals are allowed to change and be fluid, while others, especially concerning female sexuality, are enshrined as “tradition” which often restricts the parameters for women’s empowerment and may reinforce caste and patriarchal hegemonies preventing feminist solidarity across different religious- and caste-based groups.


Baha’I Sacred Architecture And The Devolution Of Astronomical Significance: Case Studies From Israel And The Us, Michael Steven Meizler Aug 2016

Baha’I Sacred Architecture And The Devolution Of Astronomical Significance: Case Studies From Israel And The Us, Michael Steven Meizler

Theses and Dissertations

Sacred architecture is a complex conglomerate of different ideals of a faith. Within modern terms, the Baha’i faith is an excellent example of modern sacred architecture. Within ancient times the architecture of temples and shrines oftentimes had celestial alignments meant to connect the adherent to the gods. With this in mind, the Baha’i faith is evaluated with the use of cartography, celestial measurements, orthophotography, and archival research to evaluate the significance of the Baha’i sacred architecture and the symbolism embedded within it. The Baha’i faith came out of Persia during the 19th century and relocated to ...


What All Americans Should Know About Women In The Muslim World: An Introduction, Amy Y. Evrard Jul 2016

What All Americans Should Know About Women In The Muslim World: An Introduction, Amy Y. Evrard

What All Americans Should Know About Women in the Muslim World

This brief introduction to the “What All Americans Should Know About Women in the Muslim World” series provides information about women in the Muslim world, why they are important for Americans to understand, some challenges that arise in the study of Muslim women, and what these particular papers bring to bear on the topic.


The Franchising Effect On The Al-Qaeda Enterprise And Related Transnational Terror Groups: Patterns Of Evolution Of Al-Qaeda Affiliates In The 21st Century, Nicholas Benjamin Law Jul 2016

The Franchising Effect On The Al-Qaeda Enterprise And Related Transnational Terror Groups: Patterns Of Evolution Of Al-Qaeda Affiliates In The 21st Century, Nicholas Benjamin Law

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

The attacks of September 11, 2001 by Al-Qaeda-sponsored militants represented a high- water mark for the terrorist organization in its self-styled journey to become the inspirational Islamic vanguard for disenchanted Muslims across the globe. In the years that followed these attacks, the Al-Qaeda enterprise underwent a constant rate of evolution and mutation, resulting in a phenomenon of parallel and like-minded Islamist groups pledging allegiance to Usama bin Laden and his ideological vision of a global jihad. Instead of strengthening the overall organization, this expansion diluted the command and control of Al-Qaeda senior leaders in their ability to shape the overall ...


Analysis Of Strides For Peace In The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict With The Application Of Theories By Butler And Buber, Rebecca Katherine Buchanan May 2016

Analysis Of Strides For Peace In The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict With The Application Of Theories By Butler And Buber, Rebecca Katherine Buchanan

Student Scholarship

In the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, social norms, media pressures and government policies promote division and fear of the other. This constructed understanding of the other often prohibits relationship and harvests fears that lead to perpetuated violence and injustice in the region. However, two organizations, the Abrahamic Reunion and the West-Eastern Divan Orchestra, exist to combat the hatred and violence by promoting understanding across conflict divides. These two groups design spaces where individuals on opposing sides of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict can foster relationships and develop more complete understandings of the other that contradict the polarized stereotypes promoted by their government and media ...


Totality And Infinity—Nationalism And The Face: An Ethnographic Exploration In The Republic Of Turkey And State Of Israel, Charles Phifer Nicholson Jr. Apr 2016

Totality And Infinity—Nationalism And The Face: An Ethnographic Exploration In The Republic Of Turkey And State Of Israel, Charles Phifer Nicholson Jr.

Student Scholarship

This paper argues that the historical roots and current manifestations of secular and religious nationalism in the Republic of Turkey and the State of Israel are well understood in light of Emmanuel Levinas’ concept of totality. Furthermore, as discovered through ethnographic research collected concerning the lived experiences of ethnic and religious minorities in these nations, it posits that the best response to these all-encompassing, exclusive worldviews is found in the reality of the human face, as conceptualized by Levinas in connection with his notion of infinity.

The foundation and primary source of this project is ethnographic research collected in the ...


The Pedophile Prophet? Breathing A Culturally Relative Point Of View Into A Controversial Cultural Debate, Samuel S. Thompson Apr 2016

The Pedophile Prophet? Breathing A Culturally Relative Point Of View Into A Controversial Cultural Debate, Samuel S. Thompson

What All Americans Should Know About Women in the Muslim World

This work focuses on a controversial topic within women studies of the Islamic world, the very young marriage of Mohammad's second wife Aisha. The work attempts to meet the issue on level ground and explain that while this may seem as a spark on conflict between non-Muslim cultures and the Islamic world this marriage was not altogether that uncommon for the time.


Ms. Marvel: Changing Muslim Representation In The Comic World, Casey L. Trattner Apr 2016

Ms. Marvel: Changing Muslim Representation In The Comic World, Casey L. Trattner

What All Americans Should Know About Women in the Muslim World

Examines the representation of Muslim women in the comic book world, and how Kamala Khan (the titular Ms. Marvel) along with some other characters usher in a new wave of how Muslim women are depicted in comics.


The Myth Of “Sharia” And Child Marriage, Megan S. Luckenbaugh Apr 2016

The Myth Of “Sharia” And Child Marriage, Megan S. Luckenbaugh

What All Americans Should Know About Women in the Muslim World

In American media, the term "sharia law" is repetitively used as a reason behind practices and actions linked to Islam which would be considered counter to Western morals. The term "sharia" is first clarified as having many definitions, but in legal terms each Islamic nation has their own version of "sharia." Child marriage is one of many topics often blamed on "sharia" and this essay attempts to debunk the Western portrayal of "sharia" by exploring the reality of child marriage in some Islamic nations. The examples depict both situations in which the people, despite the laws, are actively keeping this ...


The Motivations Behind Westerners’ Obsession With The Islamic Veil, Claire K. Alexander Apr 2016

The Motivations Behind Westerners’ Obsession With The Islamic Veil, Claire K. Alexander

What All Americans Should Know About Women in the Muslim World

In a world where we are constantly bombarded with countless images of Islamic terrorism, violence, and danger, it is not surprising that we have come to associate all aspects of Islamic society with malevolence. This destructive way of thinking has impacted the way we—as Westerners— think about, portray, and perceive Muslim men and women. While Muslim men are often depicted as hostile, cruel, and savage-like, on the other hand, Muslim women are usually depicted as powerless, obedient, and docile. These stereotypical representations of Muslim men and women have harmful consequences—consequences that not only promote Western ignorance, but also ...


Gender Roots: Conceptualizing "Honor" Killing And Interpretations Of Women's Gender In Muslim Society, Brittany N. Barry Apr 2016

Gender Roots: Conceptualizing "Honor" Killing And Interpretations Of Women's Gender In Muslim Society, Brittany N. Barry

What All Americans Should Know About Women in the Muslim World

The phenomenon of “honor” killing is one that has formed out of deeply rooted concepts of sexuality and gender roles in Muslim societies. These conceptions have been implemented into everyday life and social infrastructure and have created, in some places, a generally accepted power dynamic that subjugates women and generates conceptualizations about women’s sexuality and their assumed obedience. In recent decades the gender constructions of, predominantly, the Middle East and of other Muslim populations have captured the attention of Western thinkers, especially with regards to feminist thought. The Western gaze has produced a number of responses, some of which ...


The Mainstream Misrepresentation Of Muslim Women In The Media, Megan A. Mastro Apr 2016

The Mainstream Misrepresentation Of Muslim Women In The Media, Megan A. Mastro

What All Americans Should Know About Women in the Muslim World

I discuss the widespread misrepresentation of Islamic women in multiple sources of media and its subsequent effects on the general population's perception of this demographic as a whole.


History, Identity Politics And Securitization: Religion's Role In The Establishment Of Indian-Israeli Diplomatic Relations And Future Prospects For Cooperation, Michael Mclean Bender Mar 2016

History, Identity Politics And Securitization: Religion's Role In The Establishment Of Indian-Israeli Diplomatic Relations And Future Prospects For Cooperation, Michael Mclean Bender

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation aims to provide an understanding of the historical and contemporary dynamics of India’s foreign policy towards Israel within the context of religious identity from 1947 to 2015. A historical analysis of the relationship between India and Israel exhibits the ways that religious identity has served as a primary factor impeding as well as facilitating relations between the two nations.

The analysis was done within the context of the historical Hindu-Muslim relationship in India and how the legacy of this relationship, in India’s effort to maintain positive relations with the Arab-Muslim world, worked to inhibit relations with ...


Intercultural Connectivity: Intertwined Through Islamic Design, Sandra Bird Jan 2016

Intercultural Connectivity: Intertwined Through Islamic Design, Sandra Bird

Journal of Global Initiatives: Policy, Pedagogy, Perspective

This paper is a critical inquiry examining the works of an art exhibit, Geometric Aljamia: A Cultural Transliteration, hosted during Kennesaw State University’s Year of the Arabian Peninsula. It includes a brief interdisciplinary discussion of the importance of geometry to the development of Islamic art and design. The contemporary artists who produced these works under study integrate drawing and paper-cutting techniques that display characteristics of art found throughout the Muslim world.


Arts: Fiction And Fiction Writers: The Americas, Rachel Norman Jan 2016

Arts: Fiction And Fiction Writers: The Americas, Rachel Norman

Faculty Publications

This essay by Rachel Norman, which originally appeared in the Encyclopedia of Women & Islamic Cultures, discusses contemporary Muslim fiction published in the United States with a particular focus on three novels: Mojha Kahf's The Girl in the Tangerine Scarf, Laila Halaby's Once in a Promised Land, and Randa Jarrar's A Map of Home.