Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Islamic World and Near East History

Institution
Keyword
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 87

Full-Text Articles in Near and Middle Eastern Studies

An Analysis Of Women And Terrorism: Perpetrators, Victims, Both?, Elizabeth Lauren Miller Jun 2020

An Analysis Of Women And Terrorism: Perpetrators, Victims, Both?, Elizabeth Lauren Miller

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This paper will analyze women’s participation in terrorism under groups like al-Qaeda and the Islamic State. It will research the use of violence within terrorist organizations, perpetrated by female participants. What leads women to join groups like the Islamic State? There will be an analysis of the factors that attract women to joining terrorist organizations, in addition to the practices of recruitment that aid in their radicalization. There is a misconception that women who join the Islamic State lack education, which is seen as the sole reasoning for their radicalization or involvement. In reality, several reasons exist leading to ...


Moroccan Identity In The 1980s: The Theory And Policy Implications Of Studying Moroccan Identity, Heather Rodenberg May 2020

Moroccan Identity In The 1980s: The Theory And Policy Implications Of Studying Moroccan Identity, Heather Rodenberg

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Constructivism in International Relations’ theory grapples with broader themes affecting how country’s make decisions and relate to each other. In this theory one of the largest categories also happens to be among the least understood: a nation’s identity. Hopf and Allan, in Making Identity Count, created a framework for studying a country’s identity as objectively as possible through both quantitative and qualitative research. They have yet to apply their methodology to less understood regions of the world, from an American perspective. This paper adapts their framework to study Moroccan identity in the years 1979 through 1990. To ...


The Soviet And American Wars In Afghanistan: Applying Clausewitzian Concepts To Modern Military Failure, Artur Kalandarov Jan 2020

The Soviet And American Wars In Afghanistan: Applying Clausewitzian Concepts To Modern Military Failure, Artur Kalandarov

Honors Projects

This paper evaluates the validity of three concepts from Carl von Clausewitz’s On War as they relate to contemporary military conflict. Utilizing the Soviet and American Wars in Afghanistan as case studies, the paper also offers a model for comparative conflict analysis by expanding upon Clausewitz’s culminating point concept. It argues that – despite limitations to Clausewitz’s theory of war – his concepts of culminating points in military operations, mass and concentration, and changing war aims provide useful insights into counterinsurgency military failures. Chapter One identifies the Soviet and American culminating points. Concluding that the concept of a culminating ...


Persistence Of Jewish-Muslim Reconciliatory Activism In The Face Of Threats And “Terrorism” (Real And Perceived) From All Sides, Micah B.D.C. Naziri Jan 2020

Persistence Of Jewish-Muslim Reconciliatory Activism In The Face Of Threats And “Terrorism” (Real And Perceived) From All Sides, Micah B.D.C. Naziri

Dissertations & Theses

This dissertation concerns how Jewish-Muslim and Israel-Palestine grassroots activism can persist in the face of threats to the safety, freedom, lives, or even simply the income and employment of those engaged in acts of sustained resistance. At the heart of the study are the experiences of participants in the Hashlamah Project, an inter-religious collaboration project, involving Jews and Muslims. Across chapters and even nations, chapters of this organization faced similar threats and found universally-applicable solutions emerging for confronting those threats and persisting in the face of them. This raised the question of whether revolutionaries and activists in general can persevere ...


The Role Of Local Communities In Preventing And Countering Violent Extremism (P/Cve) In Jordan, Anna Fraher Klingensmith Oct 2019

The Role Of Local Communities In Preventing And Countering Violent Extremism (P/Cve) In Jordan, Anna Fraher Klingensmith

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Bordering Syria, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, and Israel/Palestine, with Lebanon not too far away, Jordan’s location makes it at high risk for violent extremism. Although Jordan is considered one of the safest countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, the country is known for having one of the highest numbers of foreign fighters in the world, and for being the homeland of the father of ISIS (Abu Musab al-Zarqawi). Also worrisome is the increasing number of desperate people turning to extremist ideologies due to the country’s economic crisis and lack of opportunities for political engagement ...


The Effect Of Tribalism On Political Parties, Cyrus Lloyd Oct 2019

The Effect Of Tribalism On Political Parties, Cyrus Lloyd

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Tribalism has been the fundamental organizational unit of Middle Eastern Society for thousands of years. Recently however, modern scholars have questioned the viability of tribalism in the burgeoning democratic systems of the region. This study weighs in on this debate, focusing specifically on how tribal loyalties influence the effectiveness of political parties, considered by political science researchers to be the most effective way for the people to impose their will on the government. Focusing specifically on Jordan, this research takes into account information collected from interviews with several prominent members of Jordanian political, social, and intellectual life, including the heads ...


Water And War: The Potential For Perpetuation Of Conflict Due To Climate Change, Kaufman Butler Oct 2019

Water And War: The Potential For Perpetuation Of Conflict Due To Climate Change, Kaufman Butler

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Climate change has had a dramatic impact on the world’s weather for years, scientists can only make predictions about how global climate will continue to change going forward; but in all scenarios the circumstances are quite dire. The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) will see some of the most severe effects of climate change, which will permanently alter the lives of millions of people in the region. In the MENA region, climate change is projected to result in extreme drought and temperatures which will lead to increased water scarcity, in what is already the most water poor region ...


Death Of The Caliphate: Reconfiguring Ali Abd Al-Raziq’S Ideas And Legacy, Arooj Alam May 2019

Death Of The Caliphate: Reconfiguring Ali Abd Al-Raziq’S Ideas And Legacy, Arooj Alam

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The demise of the Ottoman Caliphate in 1924 generated vigorous debates throughout the Muslim world regarding the political future of the Ummah. While several prominent Muslim thinkers contributed to this “Caliphate debate,” none left as contested a legacy as the Egyptian intellectual, ‘Ali ‘Abd al-Raziq(1888-1966). In his scholarly publication, Islam and Foundations of Governance,Abd al-Raziq argued against the revival and resurrection of the Caliphate by redefining it as coercive, monarchal, and as the antithesis of the community first established by Prophet Muhammad. While Abd al-Raziq’s book attracted tremendous criticisms in 1925, numerous scholars today have commended and ...


Conceptions Of Modern Egyptian Childhood During The Period Of The “Liberal Experiment” In Egypt, 1922–1952: A Comparative Study Of Taha Hussein’S, “An Egyptian Childhood,” And Sayyid Qutb’S, “A Child From The Village”, Nora Elgabalawy May 2019

Conceptions Of Modern Egyptian Childhood During The Period Of The “Liberal Experiment” In Egypt, 1922–1952: A Comparative Study Of Taha Hussein’S, “An Egyptian Childhood,” And Sayyid Qutb’S, “A Child From The Village”, Nora Elgabalawy

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Counter to French social historian Philippe Aries’ argument, the concept of an Egyptian childhood has its own traceable history, separate from the modern Western European concept of childhood. As shown, with the presence of language on childhood, in a number of pre-modern Arabic/Islamic literature, notions of childhood had a rich history outside of modern Western Europe. But, depictions of an Egyptian childhood in modern Egyptian literature, specifically two childhood autobiographies/memoirs, Taha Hussein’s An Egyptian Childhood and Sayyid Qutb’s A Child from the Village, do not emerge seamlessly from these early pre-modern depictions of childhood. Both Hussein ...


Once Upon A Time...When A Revolution Evolved To A Civil War In Syria, Crystal M. Myers Apr 2019

Once Upon A Time...When A Revolution Evolved To A Civil War In Syria, Crystal M. Myers

The Review: A Journal of Undergraduate Student Research

This paper gives an overview of how the conflict in Syria has evolved from a revolution into a sectarian civil war. Power is maintained by the ruling Assad family through promotion of the Alawite minority within the government and military. Methods of persecution on the Sunni majority by the Assad government are discussed as well as a policy of strategic expulsion of the Sunni enclave to Idlib, a city on the outskirts of Syria (bordering Turkey).


Shifting Sands And Shifting Powers: The Effect Of The Dissolving Of The Iranian Nuclear Deal On The Power Dynamics Of The Middle East, Mccabe Webb Apr 2019

Shifting Sands And Shifting Powers: The Effect Of The Dissolving Of The Iranian Nuclear Deal On The Power Dynamics Of The Middle East, Mccabe Webb

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

This presentation argues that the United States Government’s dissolving of the Iranian Nuclear Deal (JCPOA) will lead to a shift in the balance of powers in the Middle East, in particular a rise in the power and influence of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia, The United Arab E and Israel. The research predominantly comes from the Iranian Nuclear Deal and an evaluation of information regarding the possible consequences that will be seen in the post-JCPOA Middle East. Conclusions will be drawn from comparing and contrasting the power dynamics that were present before and during the implementation of the deal ...


The Muslim Brotherhood: Exploring Divergent Views In Saudi Arabia And Qatar, Andrew Lipp Jan 2019

The Muslim Brotherhood: Exploring Divergent Views In Saudi Arabia And Qatar, Andrew Lipp

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The 2017 Qatar diplomatic crisis upset the traditional alliances of the Middle East. Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, and Egypt severed ties with Qatar, accusing Qatar of sponsoring terrorist organizations and compromising the Gulf Cooperation Council by strengthening relations with Iran. This article highlights the role of the Muslim Brotherhood within both Saudi Arabia and Qatar to demonstrate why the Islamist organization was an important piece in the initiation of the ongoing diplomatic crisis. Using two historical case studies, this paper reveals two divergent views of the MB in Saudi Arabia and Qatar. The Saudi royal family views ...


The Saudi Arabian Bride Shopping Experience, Wijdan Tawfiq Jan 2019

The Saudi Arabian Bride Shopping Experience, Wijdan Tawfiq

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In Saudi Arabia, a wedding is a significant occasion requiring extensive preparation. However, researchers have not yet explored how bride-to-be consumption patterns might be shaped in a tradition-oriented culture like Saudi Arabia. Prior literature illustrates that planning a wedding in Western societies is a personal, deeply emotional experience in which tradition and cultural values are strongly emphasized (Carter & Duncan, 2017; Nelson & Deshpande, 2004; McEnally, 2002; Thomas & Peters, 2011). The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of Saudi brides-to-be as they prepared for the wedding process – including the multiple social events planned around their weddings as well as their new lives after ...


Understanding Iran: Attempts At Unravelling The Structures That Determine Iranian State Behaviour, Simran Gupta Jan 2019

Understanding Iran: Attempts At Unravelling The Structures That Determine Iranian State Behaviour, Simran Gupta

Senior Projects Spring 2019

The goal of this paper is to determine if Iran is a rational actor and to determine the basis of its rationality. If Iran is categorized as an unpredictable and unreliable state, more coercive and isolation based foreign policy decisions would make the most sense. However, if an effort is made to understand the state’s rationality there can be more effective policies that would be more likely to produce the behavior policymakers desire without causing more instability in the international community.


Review Of Gaza: An Inquest Into Its Martyrdom, Nubar Hovsepian Jul 2018

Review Of Gaza: An Inquest Into Its Martyrdom, Nubar Hovsepian

Political Science Faculty Articles and Research

A review of Norman G. Finkelstein's Gaza: An Inquest into Its Martyrdom, published by University of California Press.


Enhancing Your Intelligence Agency Information Resource Iq: Pt. 2: The Central Intelligence Agency, Bert Chapman Jun 2018

Enhancing Your Intelligence Agency Information Resource Iq: Pt. 2: The Central Intelligence Agency, Bert Chapman

Libraries Faculty and Staff Presentations

Provides an overview of information resources produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) including popular reference works like World Factbook and Chiefs of State and Cabinet Leaders of Foreign Governments. Additional content describes the CIA's origins and development, descriptions of current organizational components, information about it's directors, and the text of historical National Intelligence Estimates (NIE) and the President's Daily Brief covering topics as varied as North Korea, the 1973 Yom Kippur War, and NIE's on Soviet ballistic missile forces and numerous other topics. Features artifacts from the CIA Museum.


Power And Authority Of Royal Queen Mothers: Juxtaposing The French Queen Regent And The Ottoman Validé Sultan During The Early Modern Period, Reneé N. Langlois May 2018

Power And Authority Of Royal Queen Mothers: Juxtaposing The French Queen Regent And The Ottoman Validé Sultan During The Early Modern Period, Reneé N. Langlois

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Women and their relationship to sovereignty, during the early modern era has become a rapidly growing topic, given that during this period an unprecedented number of women rose to high positions of power. This paper aims to compare the lives of the queen regents in France with their counterparts, the validé sultans in the Ottoman Empire, over the course of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, when both groups of royal women acquired substantial power. Although these women were prohibited from ruling in their own right, the paper explores the ways in which queen regents and validé sultans used both official ...


Zionism, Imperialism, And Indigeneity In Israel/Palestine: A Critical Analysis, Ran Ukashi May 2018

Zionism, Imperialism, And Indigeneity In Israel/Palestine: A Critical Analysis, Ran Ukashi

Peace and Conflict Studies

This article explores the similarities and differences between Zionism and archetypical European modes of settler colonialism to demonstrate the incongruence between the two phenomena. This analysis is contextualized around the recent discourse surrounding the competing claims of indigeneity to historic Israel/Palestine. The claims of both the Jewish and Palestinian Arab communities are explored to demonstrate that both communities can rightfully claim degrees of Indigenous connection to the territory, but that Palestinian Arab claims of being the sole Indigenous inheritors of the land are dubious. The analysis utilizes Burton's unmet human needs theory, and Kriesberg's theories on identity ...


What The Walls Say: Finding Meaning And Value In Tel Aviv’S Street Art, Rachel R. Bird Jan 2018

What The Walls Say: Finding Meaning And Value In Tel Aviv’S Street Art, Rachel R. Bird

Honors Theses

This thesis explores street art in Tel Aviv, Israel through anthropological concepts of value. By defining street art as an interstitial practice—one that exists between permeable, socially defined boundaries and is characterized differently by different power structures—I attempt to define some of the different regimes of value that apply to street art. Using the emerging market of “street art tours” as a fieldwork site, I look at how street art is presented and re-presented to both tourists and locals. By situating my research in a historical and geographic context, I hope to understand the ways different value schema ...


A Portrayal Of An Ottoman City And Its Inhabitants: Administration, Society, And Economy In Ottoman Antakya (Antioch), 1750-1840, Ali Capar Dec 2017

A Portrayal Of An Ottoman City And Its Inhabitants: Administration, Society, And Economy In Ottoman Antakya (Antioch), 1750-1840, Ali Capar

Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation examines the main features of the social and economic life of the district of Antakya between 1750 and 1840 to essentially understand the characteristics of the daily life of society, administration, political developments, and economic activities in this particular city. While elucidating the city administration, demography, neighborhood life, trade, marketplace, guilds, religious minorities, women, children, and the politics of notables in the district of Antakya between 1750 and 1840; my observations revealed the main aspects of social, economic, and politic life of the city of Antakya- one of the most important religious, political, and commercial centers in the ...


The Pedagogical Needs Of Children And Adults Living In The Calais Jungle Refugee Camp: Existential Issues And Perspectives Of Volunteer Teachers And Workers, Theresa C. Bodon, Nancy K. Votteler Sep 2017

The Pedagogical Needs Of Children And Adults Living In The Calais Jungle Refugee Camp: Existential Issues And Perspectives Of Volunteer Teachers And Workers, Theresa C. Bodon, Nancy K. Votteler

FIRE: Forum for International Research in Education

This study aimed at examining the pedagogical needs and challenges of children and young adults living in a refugee camp in France known as the Calais Jungle. Through the researchers’ observations and interviews with volunteer teachers and workers at the camp, insights into their perspectives shed light on the pedagogical needs of refugees. Also, utilizing Paulo Freire’s philosophical stance, this study provides a contextual approach to the educational practices and ideological viewpoints represented within unregulated refugee camp settings.


The Fourth Wave Of Democratization: A Comparative Analysis Of Tunisia And Egypt, Ariel M. Dunay May 2017

The Fourth Wave Of Democratization: A Comparative Analysis Of Tunisia And Egypt, Ariel M. Dunay

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-2019

In the years following the 2011 Arab Spring uprisings, Tunisia and Egypt began the process of creating a new government and constitution made by the people and for the people. However, their differing democratic outcomes begs the question of what factors led Tunisia to become a democracy and Egypt to remain stagnant. This thesis analyzes the democratic transition process through a side-by-side comparison of Tunisia and Egypt in the years since the Arab Spring. It will explore the thin lines between the military, economy, and social movements that all affect the state-building process. It will argue that Tunisia has achieved ...


Review Of Muslims And Jews In France. History Of A Conflict By Maud S. Mandel, Bryan Turner Dec 2016

Review Of Muslims And Jews In France. History Of A Conflict By Maud S. Mandel, Bryan Turner

Publications and Research

The mood of European scholarship with respect to the recognition and integration of Islam is typically pessimistic. The rise of anti-immigrant and anti-Islam political parties – Golden Dawn in Greece, the Northern League in Italy, Marine Le Penn and the National Front in France, and the English defense league in Britain – have exposed a hitherto hidden or ignored under-current of resentment against foreigners. In the context of these developments, Maud Mandel’s study of Muslims and Jews in France is a welcome corrective to the dominant focus on anti-Islam in the academic literature and in the popular media. The historical picture ...


The Historical And Political Roots Of Isis: A Failure Of American Leadership, Benjamin R. Pontz Oct 2016

The Historical And Political Roots Of Isis: A Failure Of American Leadership, Benjamin R. Pontz

Student Publications

The Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS) has captivated the world’s attention with its brutal tactics of beheadings and burnings and its alternative Quranic teachings. Despite fixation on these tactics by the global community and repudiation of their methodology by global Islamic leaders, limited inquiry into the historical and ideological underpinnings of the group has occurred at an intergovernmental level, which has hamstrung the global response. In addition to analyzing the limited primary sources that constitute ISIS’s propaganda, this paper discusses the failure of state building after the United States’ initial invasion of Iraq, which directly fomented ...


The Survival Of Authoritarianism And The Syrian Identity Crisis: Explaining The Resilience Of Assad's Ruling Bargain, Joshua Vasquez Jun 2016

The Survival Of Authoritarianism And The Syrian Identity Crisis: Explaining The Resilience Of Assad's Ruling Bargain, Joshua Vasquez

PPPA Paper Prize

The Arab Spring was a regional social mobilization that unrevealed ruling-bargains in the Middle East, which have been resilient since the early 1950s. In Tunisia, Ben Ali was ousted in about three weeks and fled to Saudi Arabia. After two weeks of demonstrations in Egypt, Mubarak resign from the presidency because the police failed to quell the uprising and the military refused to come to his aid. Following his resignation, he was arrested by the military and is currently awaiting trial for killing demonstrators, embezzlement of state funds, etc. In Libya, Qaddafi was ousted in an eight month civil war ...


The Current State Of Access To Basic Education For Syrian Refugee Children Living In The Za’Atari Camp, Theresa L. Frey May 2016

The Current State Of Access To Basic Education For Syrian Refugee Children Living In The Za’Atari Camp, Theresa L. Frey

Capstone Collection

Using Rodman’s (2006) International Education Analytical Inquiry Matrix as a theoretical framework, the purpose of this study is to examine the current state of access to basic primary education for Syrian Refugee Children Living in the Za’atari camp. Within the scope of this study, access is examined in three parts, including:

(1) Who is accessing education within Za’atari and who is not?

(2) How are certain groups accessing education?

(3) What is the learning environment of Za’atari?

In addition to addressing existing issues of access to basic education in Za’atari, this study examines efforts made ...


A One Percent Chance: Jabotinsky, Bernadotte, And The Iron Wall Doctrine, Andrew Harman May 2016

A One Percent Chance: Jabotinsky, Bernadotte, And The Iron Wall Doctrine, Andrew Harman

War and Society (MA) Theses

This thesis is an examination of the long historical processes that have led to the Israel/Palestine conflict to the contemporary period, focusing mostly on the period before Israeli independence and the 1948 war that created the Jewish state. As Zionism emerged at the turn of the twentieth century to combat the antisemitism of Europe, practical and political facets of the movement sought immigration to Palestine, an area occupied by a large population of Arab natives. The answer to how the Zionists would achieve a Jewish state in that region, largely ignoring the indigenous population, fostered disagreements and a split ...


Totality And Infinity—Nationalism And The Face: An Ethnographic Exploration In The Republic Of Turkey And State Of Israel, Charles Phifer Nicholson Jr. Apr 2016

Totality And Infinity—Nationalism And The Face: An Ethnographic Exploration In The Republic Of Turkey And State Of Israel, Charles Phifer Nicholson Jr.

Student Scholarship

This paper argues that the historical roots and current manifestations of secular and religious nationalism in the Republic of Turkey and the State of Israel are well understood in light of Emmanuel Levinas’ concept of totality. Furthermore, as discovered through ethnographic research collected concerning the lived experiences of ethnic and religious minorities in these nations, it posits that the best response to these all-encompassing, exclusive worldviews is found in the reality of the human face, as conceptualized by Levinas in connection with his notion of infinity.

The foundation and primary source of this project is ethnographic research collected in the ...


About The Contributors Jan 2016

About The Contributors

Journal of Global Initiatives: Policy, Pedagogy, Perspective

No abstract provided.


Nabhan, Gary Paul. Cumin, Camels And Caravans. (2014). Berkeley, Ca: University Of California Press. 332 Pages. Isbn 978-0-520-26720-6 (Hardcover), M. Todd Harper Jan 2016

Nabhan, Gary Paul. Cumin, Camels And Caravans. (2014). Berkeley, Ca: University Of California Press. 332 Pages. Isbn 978-0-520-26720-6 (Hardcover), M. Todd Harper

Journal of Global Initiatives: Policy, Pedagogy, Perspective

A review of Gary Paul Nabhan's Cumin, Camels and Caravans (2014).