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Full-Text Articles in Near and Middle Eastern Studies

All The News Fit To Print: Egyptian And Tunisian Media Development And Political Toleration Through Arab Spring, Seth Fiderer May 2020

All The News Fit To Print: Egyptian And Tunisian Media Development And Political Toleration Through Arab Spring, Seth Fiderer

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The Arab Spring Revolutions of 2011 have had diverse outcomes throughout the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Two states that have experienced large scale change are Tunisia and Egypt, both of which experienced regime change. Tunisia has experienced large-scale democratization and has become more politically open. Egypt experienced a brief democratic period between 2011 and 2013 before a military coup reverted the country to authoritarian practices. Both nations have revised their press codes since their respective revolutions. Additionally, both nations have had tenuous relations with Islamist groups, namely the Tunisian Ennahda party and the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood. Both groups ...


Review Of Ethical Questions In Name Authority Control, Itza A. Carbajal Feb 2020

Review Of Ethical Questions In Name Authority Control, Itza A. Carbajal

Journal of Contemporary Archival Studies

Ethical Questions in Name Authority Control is a new and thoughtful addition to the metadata and cataloging field of study and practice. Consisting of eighteen essays written by a number of libraries, archives, and information scholars, this edited volume investigates and responds to a number of ethical questions regarding name authority control.These include topics such as the privacy of the creator, use of geographic names for contested lands, critique of the use of gender in authority control systems, as well as considerations around multilingualism, to name a few. While the title mostly appeals to a particular field of work ...


The Role Of Local Communities In Preventing And Countering Violent Extremism (P/Cve) In Jordan, Anna Fraher Klingensmith Oct 2019

The Role Of Local Communities In Preventing And Countering Violent Extremism (P/Cve) In Jordan, Anna Fraher Klingensmith

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Bordering Syria, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, and Israel/Palestine, with Lebanon not too far away, Jordan’s location makes it at high risk for violent extremism. Although Jordan is considered one of the safest countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, the country is known for having one of the highest numbers of foreign fighters in the world, and for being the homeland of the father of ISIS (Abu Musab al-Zarqawi). Also worrisome is the increasing number of desperate people turning to extremist ideologies due to the country’s economic crisis and lack of opportunities for political engagement ...


Media Discourses That Normalize Colonial Relations: A Critical Discourse Analysis Of (Im)Migrants And Refugees, Meng Zhao, Jorge Rodriguez, Lilia D. Monzó Jun 2019

Media Discourses That Normalize Colonial Relations: A Critical Discourse Analysis Of (Im)Migrants And Refugees, Meng Zhao, Jorge Rodriguez, Lilia D. Monzó

Education Faculty Articles and Research

The im(migration) and refugee crisis that are being exacerbated under the Trump administration, is a manifestation of empire-building and the long history of colonization of the Global South. A Marxist-humanist perspective recognizes these as consistent aspects of a clearly racist global capitalism that functions in the interest of multibillion dollar U.S.–based corporations and increasingly transnational corporations. Trade agreements, international economic policy, political intervention, invasion or the threat of these, often secure corporate interests in specific countries and regions. The authors use critical discourse analysis to examine the discourses around Mexican, Central American, and Syrian im(migrants) and ...


Syrian Crisis Representation In The Media: The Cnn Effect, Framing, And Tone, Savannah S. Day May 2019

Syrian Crisis Representation In The Media: The Cnn Effect, Framing, And Tone, Savannah S. Day

The University of Mississippi Undergraduate Research Journal

Over the past seven years of the Syrian Civil War, Syrian refugees have been painted in a negative light by news media outlets around the world. History of media coverage regarding global humanitarian crises shows that with various tools and processes, media can shape public opinion and policy in whichever direction it desires, and oftentimes policymakers and the public are quick, as well as emotional, to react. In this paper, my objectives are to analyze specific examples of this CNN Effect phenomena within news coverage of the Syrian refugee crisis, as well as generally explain the negatively correlating relationship between ...


The Art Of Repression: Digital Dissent And Power Consolidation In El-Sisi’S Egypt, Wesley Garner May 2019

The Art Of Repression: Digital Dissent And Power Consolidation In El-Sisi’S Egypt, Wesley Garner

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Imprecise measurement tools impede the study of protest mobilization. Mobilization proxies, such as counting protesters and protest events, result in significant outliers and variance while ignoring sociocultural, cybernetic, economic, legal, and other features that relevant academic literature considers essential to understanding mobilization dynamics. Without accurate empirical models, researchers’ and policymakers’ investigations of autocratic repression have little explanatory power. This thesis proposes a methodological addition to the mobilization literature: Two three-level scales distinguish an event’s potential to attract an audience from the protest’s actual output relative to similar episodes. I employ the Armed Conflict Location and Event Data (ACLED ...


Examining Jordanians' Attitudes Towards Five Types Of Developmental Disabilities, Najah Zaaeed Drph, Mohammad M. Mohammad, Peter Gleason, Khaled A. Bahjri Md, Naomi Modeste Apr 2018

Examining Jordanians' Attitudes Towards Five Types Of Developmental Disabilities, Najah Zaaeed Drph, Mohammad M. Mohammad, Peter Gleason, Khaled A. Bahjri Md, Naomi Modeste

Journal of Refugee & Global Health

Background: The diagnosis and reported rates of persons with developmental disabilities (PWDDs) in Jordan is steadily increasing. Although initiatives have been implemented to improve the lives of PWDDs, attitudes towards PWDDs hinder successful inclusion in the Jordanian society.

Objectives: To examine the relationship between Jordanians socio-economic status and attitudes towards persons with developmental disabilities: autism, blindness, cerebral palsy, Down syndrome and muscular dystrophy.

Methods: Jordanians (N=259), ages 18-65 were recruited for this convergent parallel, mixed-methods study. Participants completed the modified 40-item Community Living Attitude Scale-developmental disability (CLAS-DD) and the modified Intellectual Disability Literacy Scale consisting of five vignettes, representing ...


Cross-Cultural Virtual Exchange: Innovative Learning For Social Change, Jo Anne Hart Mar 2018

Cross-Cultural Virtual Exchange: Innovative Learning For Social Change, Jo Anne Hart

Lesley University Community of Scholars Day

I want to demo for my Lesley colleagues the cross-cultural virtual exchange that my undergrad students are taking part in for 8-weeks this semester. Each Lesley student in my Modern Middle East History course is matched into a weekly two-hour live video discussion group of about 12-15 other undergraduate students living in the Middle East, Europe, and around the US. This is a structured, moderated, synchronous international forum with a trained facilitator run by an international non-profit called Soliya.

Intended as a deep-dive into diversity and difference, this innovative approach allows students to “explore how their identity impacts the way ...


Cyber-Sovereignty: The Power Of Social Media On The Arab Spring In Tunisia And Egypt, Jason Randall Dec 2017

Cyber-Sovereignty: The Power Of Social Media On The Arab Spring In Tunisia And Egypt, Jason Randall

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

This dissertation assesses the role of social media and its effects on the Arab Spring. The research will be guided by two questions: Could the use of American Dot.com social networking websites (e.g. Facebook, Google, Twitter, and YouTube) by Tunisians and Egyptians during the Arab Spring, to overthrow their governments, be characterized as a violation of Tunisia’s and Egypt’s sovereignty (cyber-sovereignty)? Secondly, what was the significance of the abovementioned social networking websites during the Arab Spring?

The first question will be examined by using Kingdon’s Multiple Streams Theory; the problem, policy, and political streams have ...


The Enemy As Animal: Symmetric Dehumanization During Asymmetric Warfare, Emile Bruneau, Nour Kteily Jul 2017

The Enemy As Animal: Symmetric Dehumanization During Asymmetric Warfare, Emile Bruneau, Nour Kteily

Departmental Papers (ASC)

Historically, dehumanization has enabled members of advantaged groups to ‘morally disengage’ from disadvantaged group suffering, thereby facilitating acts of intergroup aggression such as colonization, slavery and genocide. But is blatant dehumanization exclusive to those at the top ‘looking down’, or might disadvantaged groups similarly dehumanize those who dominate them? We examined this question in the context of intergroup warfare in which the disadvantaged group shoulders a disproportionate share of casualties and may be especially likely to question the humanity of the advantaged group. Specifically, we assessed blatant dehumanization in the context of stark asymmetric conflict between Israelis (Study 1; N ...


Hebrew Typography: A Modern Progression Of Language Forms, Shayna Tova Blum Feb 2017

Hebrew Typography: A Modern Progression Of Language Forms, Shayna Tova Blum

Faculty and Staff Publications

Influenced by studies in traditional Ashkenazi and Sephardi scripts. The typeface had been designed for the printing of the Koren Tanakh, a first edition printed Jewish Bible processed through an all-Jewish collaboration for the first time in centuries. Koren’s project was inspired by the revival of Hebrew initiated by Haskalah writers in the 18th century. Haskalah writers utilized the language and scripts of written and printed literary texts. Influenced by philosophical and political ideologies of the European Enlightenment, the Haskalah explored Jewish identity through language by defining the secular context through traditional Jewish symbolism and narratives. The Zionist movement ...


The Mainstream Misrepresentation Of Muslim Women In The Media, Megan A. Mastro Apr 2016

The Mainstream Misrepresentation Of Muslim Women In The Media, Megan A. Mastro

What All Americans Should Know About Women in the Muslim World

I discuss the widespread misrepresentation of Islamic women in multiple sources of media and its subsequent effects on the general population's perception of this demographic as a whole.


Laughing It Off The Role Of Comedy And Humor In Combating Extremist Ideals In Jordan, Juan Nunez Ledesma Apr 2016

Laughing It Off The Role Of Comedy And Humor In Combating Extremist Ideals In Jordan, Juan Nunez Ledesma

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This research focuses on comedy in Jordan, and whether it plays a role in the larger fight against extremist ideals in the region. The purpose of this study is to gain an understanding of how comedy is used in Jordan for a purpose other than merely making people laugh. Through this research, I study whether Jordanians believe that comedy has a role in combating extremism and if so, whether it is systematically employed for this specific purpose. The hypothesis of this study states that most Jordanians believe that comedy is a powerful weapon in the fight against extremism and as ...


"Facebook To Mobilize, Twitter To Coordinate Protests, And Youtube To Tell The World": New Media, Cyberactivism, And The Arab Spring, Mohamed Arafa, Crystal Armstrong Jan 2016

"Facebook To Mobilize, Twitter To Coordinate Protests, And Youtube To Tell The World": New Media, Cyberactivism, And The Arab Spring, Mohamed Arafa, Crystal Armstrong

Journal of Global Initiatives: Policy, Pedagogy, Perspective

Research on media and contentious politics in the Arab world point to the vital role that social media played in the Arab Spring. For the purposes of this article, the Arab Spring is defined as a series of demonstrations and democratic uprisings—and in the cases of Libya, Syria, and Yemen armed rebel movements—that arose independently and spread across the Arab world from Tunisia and Egypt to Yemen, Bahrain, Libya, and Syria in 2010-2011 and beyond. This article advances the theoretical assumption that while not causing the Arab uprisings, New Media (defined here as all forms of digital communication ...


The Future Of Arabic Music: No Sound Without Silence, Nesma Magdy Khodier Vcuq Jan 2016

The Future Of Arabic Music: No Sound Without Silence, Nesma Magdy Khodier Vcuq

Theses and Dissertations

For centuries, Arabic music has been intrinsically linked to Arab culture and by extension bonded to the environmental landscape of the region, reflecting their emotions, moods, and behaviors. Numerous technological advancements in the latter half of the twentieth century, have greatly affected the rich legacy of Arabic music, significantly impacting the natural progression of traditional Arabic musical genres, scales, and instrumentation.

This thesis serves as an introduction to generative methods of music production, specifically music generated through gestures. Through generative music, and its unique ability to map gestures to different musical parameters, music can be produced using computer algorithms.

The ...


Building Hope: An Experiential, Interfaith And Peacebuilding Leadership Curriculum Design For American, Israeli And Palestinian Teenagers, Jack M. Karn Jan 2016

Building Hope: An Experiential, Interfaith And Peacebuilding Leadership Curriculum Design For American, Israeli And Palestinian Teenagers, Jack M. Karn

Capstone Collection

This research explores the design, implementation, and results of an interfaith and peacebuilding leadership curriculum prepared for the 2015 Jerusalem Peacebuilders Leadership Camp in Brattleboro, Vermont. Drawing upon different theories of moral and transformative leadership, experiential education, youth leadership, and peacebuilding and conflict transformation, this curriculum design offers a new and unique approach to leadership development for Israeli, Palestinian, and American teens. Spanning six 1.5-hour units, the curriculum includes: icebreaker and teambuilding activities, theory and practice connections, dialogue, and opportunities to practice leadership and peacebuilding skills on several small group projects. Supported by a literature review, eight interviews from ...


Private Military Contractors, Security Forces, And Mercenaries, Naomi Pearson Nov 2015

Private Military Contractors, Security Forces, And Mercenaries, Naomi Pearson

Laurier Undergraduate Journal of the Arts

No abstract provided.


Design Research: Typography Within The Israeli Linguistic Landscape, Shayna Tova Blum Aug 2015

Design Research: Typography Within The Israeli Linguistic Landscape, Shayna Tova Blum

Faculty and Staff Publications

A linguistic landscape signifies language used within a physical or virtual public space, in which communication is presented in typographic form, portraying a message to an audience. Within the state of Israel, the linguistic landscape presents a unique situation in which it is common to view municipal and commercial multilingual signs that are designed using Hebrew, English, and Arabic letterforms. By studying the diverse linguistic landscape within Israeli urban environments, the article offers perspectives on the use of multilingual visual language, based on discussions with five Israeli designers in the summer of 2015.


Fealess Friday: Kelsey Chapman, Christina L. Bassler Apr 2015

Fealess Friday: Kelsey Chapman, Christina L. Bassler

SURGE

Kelsey Chapman ’15 fearlessly advocates for human rights, peace, and justice, focusing on the Middle East. An economics major and Middle East and Islamic Studies (MEIS) minor, Kelsey is the house leader for the MEIS House, an Arabic PLA, and the founder of Gettysburg’s chapter of J Street U. [excerpt]


Contentious Information: Accounts Of Knowledge Production, Circulation And Consumption In Transitional Egypt, Ahmad Kamal Apr 2015

Contentious Information: Accounts Of Knowledge Production, Circulation And Consumption In Transitional Egypt, Ahmad Kamal

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

While the 2011 Egyptian Uprising renewed attention to revolutionary news platforms such as Al-Jazeera and Facebook, citizens continued to be understudied as active consumers of information. Yet citizens’ perceptions of their informational milieu and how they responded in consuming, processing, and interpreting facts offer crucial insight into the turbulent transition that followed the initial uprising. This study analyzes Egyptian citizens’ accounts of their information environment and practices amid socio-political change. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 31 politically-engaged citizens from various political and professional backgrounds. Participants were asked to discuss the state of public discourse, the institutions responsible for the circulation ...


The Responsibility To Protect: Emerging Norm Or Failed Doctrine?, Camila Pupparo Mar 2015

The Responsibility To Protect: Emerging Norm Or Failed Doctrine?, Camila Pupparo

Global Tides

This paper seeks to investigate the current shift from the non-intervention norm towards the “Responsibility to Protect,” commonly abbreviated as “RtoP,” which actually mandates intervention in cases of humanitarian intervention disasters. I will look at the May 2011 application of the R2P doctrine to the humanitarian crisis in Libya and assess whether it was a success or a failure. Many critics of the “Responsibility to Protect” norm consider it to be yet another imperial tool used by the West to pursue national interests, so this paper analyzes this argument in detail, referring to case study examples, particularly in the Middle ...


Reclaiming The Body: Understanding Arab–American Hybrid Experience Through Affective Attunement, Salma Tariq Shukri Jan 2015

Reclaiming The Body: Understanding Arab–American Hybrid Experience Through Affective Attunement, Salma Tariq Shukri

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Critical intercultural communication (CIC) scholarship on hybridity emphasizes the necessity of examining hybrid performances within their cultural, political, and interpersonal contexts. Though telling, it overlooks a significant piece of the puzzle in understanding hybrid lived experience: how one feels in relation to an interaction, societal structure, or circulating discourse. This dissertation seeks to build an interdisciplinary bridge between CIC and affect theory with the purpose of emphasizing the importance of embodiment in the exploration and interpretation of hybrid performance. To do this, I will draw upon what Manning (2013) terms affective attunement, which accentuates how each lived moment is particular ...


Specters Of Kurdish Nationalism: Governmentality And Counterinsurgent Translation In Turkey, Nicholas S. Glastonbury Jan 2015

Specters Of Kurdish Nationalism: Governmentality And Counterinsurgent Translation In Turkey, Nicholas S. Glastonbury

Publications and Research

This essay examines translations of the Kurdish epic poem Mem û Zîn into Turkish, tracing the logics behind these state-sponsored translations and examining how acts of translation are also efforts to regulate, translate, and erase Kurdish subjectivities. I argue that the state instrumentalizes Mem û Zîn’s potent nationalist currency in order to disarm present and future claims of Kurdish national autonomy. Using translation as a counterinsurgent governmental tool, the state attempts to domesticate Kurdish nationalist discourses even as it reproduces them, thereby transforming Kurdish nationalism into a specter of itself. Attending to this specter, however, allows us to see ...


Into The Red: A Look Into The Reasons Why Refugees Decide To Flee, Settle Or Migrate To And From Morocco, Fadeelah E. Holivay Dec 2014

Into The Red: A Look Into The Reasons Why Refugees Decide To Flee, Settle Or Migrate To And From Morocco, Fadeelah E. Holivay

Master's Theses

This research paper explores some of the main reasons why refugees and asylum seekers, particularly from sub-Saharan African countries, embark on a journey and decide to settle, flee or migrate to and from Morocco. Because of this phenomenon, Morocco has seen a 96% increase of refugees migrating to the borders of Morocco each year for the past three years. Many say that this astonishing increase of migrants choosing Morocco is due to such factors as: wars breaking out regionally across central African and Middle Eastern countries causing them to flee; Morocco being a culturaly diverse francophone country whose laws and ...


Iranian Nuclear Proliferation And Sanctions, Bailey Nicole Burlingame Dec 2014

Iranian Nuclear Proliferation And Sanctions, Bailey Nicole Burlingame

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

This project will involve the current problem of nuclear development in the nation of Iran. The question involved in the election studies was, “Should we try to stop Iranian Nuclear Development by increasing sanctions, yes or no?” According to the US Department of State website, they are attempting to increase these sanctions against individuals or cooperations who can be proven to have provided aid, information, or mechanical aspects to assist the goal of Iranian nuclear proliferation. The website provides identifying information for the individuals involved. The answer to this question I believe will be determined the amount of news information ...


Mesa 2014: Documenting Revolution In The Me (Links), Roberta L Dougherty Nov 2014

Mesa 2014: Documenting Revolution In The Me (Links), Roberta L Dougherty

Roberta L. Dougherty

Collection of URLs for sites referenced during roundtable "Documenting the Arab Uprisings" (#3690) organized by Anais Salamon, 5-7 p.m. Monday, 24 November 2014, Middle East Studies Association annual meeting in Washington, D.C.


The Turkish Al-Jazeera? Trt, Omar Al-Ghazzi, Marwan M. Kraidy Jan 2014

The Turkish Al-Jazeera? Trt, Omar Al-Ghazzi, Marwan M. Kraidy

Departmental Papers (ASC)

"Turks and Arabs," intoned Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, one spring evening in April 2010, "are like the fingers of a hand. They are as close as the flesh and the nail of a finger… We belong to the same history, the same culture and above all the same civilization."1 Erdoğan was speaking at the launching ceremony of TRT-al-Turkiyya, Turkey's Arabic-language satellite television channel, and his speech was carried live on al-Jazeera and other Arab news networks. The event the speech keynoted crowned a multi-year rapprochement between Turkey and its Arab neighbors expressed through Erdoğan's soft-Islamist, socially ...


The Vernacular Discourse Of The "Arab Spring": An Analysis Of The Visual, The Embodied, And The Textual Rhetorics Of The Karama Revolution, Fatima Zahrae Chrifi Alaoui Jan 2014

The Vernacular Discourse Of The "Arab Spring": An Analysis Of The Visual, The Embodied, And The Textual Rhetorics Of The Karama Revolution, Fatima Zahrae Chrifi Alaoui

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Vernacular Discourse of the "Arab Spring" is a project that bridges the divide between the East and the West by offering new readings to Arab subjectivities. Through an analysis of the "Arab Spring" through the lens of vernacular discourse, it challenges the Euro-Americo-centric legacies of Orientalism in Western academia and the new wave of extremism in the Arab world by offering alternative representations of Arab bodies and subjectivities. To offer this new reading of the "Arab Spring," it explores the foundations of critical rhetoric as a theory and a practice and argues for a turn towards a critical vernacular ...


"Turkish Rambo": Geopolitical Dramas As Narrative Counter-Hegemony, Marwan M. Kraidy, Omar Al-Ghazzi Nov 2013

"Turkish Rambo": Geopolitical Dramas As Narrative Counter-Hegemony, Marwan M. Kraidy, Omar Al-Ghazzi

Departmental Papers (ASC)

Arabs and Turks share a historically complicated relationship. After 400 years of Ottoman imperialism over Arab lands that lasted until after World War 1, Turkish leader Mustafa kemal Atatürk's secularized Turkey and cut linguistic ties with Arab culture. Secularism, nationalism and NATO membership during the second half of the 20th century further distanced Turkey from Arab countries. This changed in 2001 with the rise of the Justice and Development Party (known by its Turkis acronym AKP). Incorporating electoral politics in a pro-business platform reflecting the AKP's pious and entrepreneurial constituency in Anatolian cities, the AKP has consolidated power ...


Citation Filtered: Iran’S Censorship Of Wikipedia, Nima Nazeri, Collin Anderson Nov 2013

Citation Filtered: Iran’S Censorship Of Wikipedia, Nima Nazeri, Collin Anderson

Iran Media Program

Using proxy servers in Iran, researchers Collin Anderson and Nima Nazeri identified every blocked Persian language Wikipedia article and divided blocked pages into ten categories to determine the type of content state censors are most adverse. In total, 963 blocked articles were found, covering a range of socio-political and sexual content including politics, journalism, the arts, religion, sex, sexuality, and human rights. Censors repeatedly targeted Wikipedia pages about government rivals, minority religious beliefs, and criticisms of the state, officials, and the police. Just under half of the blocked Wiki-pages are biographies, including pages about individuals the authorities have allegedly detained ...