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Sustainability

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Full-Text Articles in Nature and Society Relations

In The Name Of Profit: Canada’S Mount Arrowsmith Biosphere Reserve As Economic Development And Colonial Placemaking, Richard M. Hutchings, Marina La Salle Apr 2019

In The Name Of Profit: Canada’S Mount Arrowsmith Biosphere Reserve As Economic Development And Colonial Placemaking, Richard M. Hutchings, Marina La Salle

Landscapes: the Journal of the International Centre for Landscape and Language

Taking a critical heritage approach to late modern naming and placemaking, we discuss how the power to name reflects the power to control people, their land, their past, and ultimately their future. Our case study is the Mount Arrowsmith Biosphere Reserve (MABR), a recently invented place on Vancouver Island, located in southwestern British Columbia, Canada. Through analysis of representations and landscape, we explore MABR as state-sanctioned branding, where a dehumanized nature is packaged for and marketed to wealthy ecotourists. Greenwashed by a feel-good “sustainability” discourse, MABR constitutes colonial placemaking and economic development, representing no break with past practices.


Culture As Sustainability: The Case Study Of Govardhan Ecovillage And Vedic Culture In India, Danielle Lella Bartolone Feb 2019

Culture As Sustainability: The Case Study Of Govardhan Ecovillage And Vedic Culture In India, Danielle Lella Bartolone

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

This project investigates the relationship between sustainability and Vedic culture of India. The ethnographic research at Govardhan Ecovillage seeks to understand how sustainability is embedded in culture. I employ grounded theory for my research methodology which reveals three key themes explaining fundamental and interrelated dimensions of Vedic culture as sustainability.


Assets Of Water Mills In Hungary, Zita Szabó, Ágnes Sallay Jan 2019

Assets Of Water Mills In Hungary, Zita Szabó, Ágnes Sallay

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

Watercourses have been a great energy resource for thousands of years (Lewis 1997). Technical inventions have changed the role of water as an energy resource. The landscape preserved the former usage of watercourses as we can still find water mills.

In this research, we show the presence of water mills in Hungary. The main goal of the research is to show the possibilities to use water as an energy resource based on historical knowledge and the new technical improvements. We show which landscape characteristics make a place suitable for water mills. However, it is important that water mills change the ...


Gathering "Wild" Food In The City: Rethinking The Role Of Foraging In Urban Ecosystem Planning And Management, Rebecca J. Mclain, Patrick T. Hurley, Marla R. Emery, Melissa R. Poe May 2018

Gathering "Wild" Food In The City: Rethinking The Role Of Foraging In Urban Ecosystem Planning And Management, Rebecca J. Mclain, Patrick T. Hurley, Marla R. Emery, Melissa R. Poe

Rebecca McLain

Recent “green” planning initiatives envision food production, including urban agriculture and livestock production, as desirable elements of sustainable cities. We use an integrated urban political ecology and human–plant geographies framework to explore how foraging for “wild” foods in cities, a subversive practice that challenges prevailing views about the roles of humans in urban green spaces, has potential to also support sustainability goals. Drawing on research from Baltimore, New York City, Philadelphia, and Seattle, we show that foraging is a vibrant and ongoing practice among diverse urban residents in the USA. At the same time, as reflected in regulations, planning ...


A Retro Development In Education: Evaluating The Feasibility Of Integrating Place-Based Education Into Mississippi Curriculum Standards, Colby K. Mcclain May 2017

A Retro Development In Education: Evaluating The Feasibility Of Integrating Place-Based Education Into Mississippi Curriculum Standards, Colby K. Mcclain

Honors Theses

This thesis evaluates the feasibility of integrating place-based environmental education activities from Think Green, Take Action: Books and Activities for Kids into the Mississippi Department of Education’s (MDE) Frameworks for Science and Social Studies for K-5. As children develop and experience the world, their ability to understand and interpret the surrounding environments expand; however, Mississippi schools are not focused on experiential environmental education, even though experiencing and understanding the surrounding environment is vital in fostering eagerness to learn. Due to a growing disconnect between humans and the natural world, this thesis examined 37 place- and environment-based activities for children ...


Dewitt, Iowa: Smart Growth Design, Dr. Christopher Strunk, Melisa Ribikawskis Jan 2017

Dewitt, Iowa: Smart Growth Design, Dr. Christopher Strunk, Melisa Ribikawskis

2016-2017: DeWitt, Iowa

As part of the Sustainable Working Landscapes Initiative project, two urban geography and planning classes researched Smart Growth principles and their applicability for the City of DeWitt. Smart Growth is a cohesive set of design philosophies that prioritizes mixed-use development over single-use development, pedestrian–friendly and bike-friendly transportation over automobile-dominated transportation, and infill development over peripheral development. Dozens of governmental, businesses, and civic organizations, including the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), have recognized the movement by founding the Smart Growth Network, which is an association that promotes Smart Growth nationwide.

Local officials in DeWitt are interested in incorporating the principles of ...


Marine Protected Areas In Colombia: Re-Connecting Social, Ecological, And Policy Aspects Through A Governance Perspective, Luisa Ramirez Jan 2017

Marine Protected Areas In Colombia: Re-Connecting Social, Ecological, And Policy Aspects Through A Governance Perspective, Luisa Ramirez

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

The purpose of this doctoral research is to examine opportunities and constraints for integrating key aspects of governance into marine conservation strategies and for shifting top-down approaches toward collaborative and integrative forms of governance that enhance conservation and social outcomes in marine protected areas (MPAs).

Although there is evidence that demonstrates that MPAs are an effective tool for marine conservation, shortcomings in addressing ecological characteristics and particularly in addressing social factors in the design and planning of MPAs often constrain achieving conservation and sustainability goals. These shortcomings are particularly acute in MPAs implemented through top-down governance approaches that overlook stakeholder ...


Un Nuevo Fenómeno En Un Mundo De Tradición: Percepciones Del Cambio Climático En La Isla De Taquile / 99/5000 A New Phenomenon In A World Of Tradition: Perceptions Of Climate Change On The Island Of Taquile, Daniel Meagher Oct 2016

Un Nuevo Fenómeno En Un Mundo De Tradición: Percepciones Del Cambio Climático En La Isla De Taquile / 99/5000 A New Phenomenon In A World Of Tradition: Perceptions Of Climate Change On The Island Of Taquile, Daniel Meagher

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

El cambio climático amenaza el estilo de vida tradicional de los agricultores de subsistencia de los Andes. Este trabajo resume y analiza las percepciones del cambio climático de los Taquileños, una comunidad de 2.500 campesinos indígenas de subsistencia que viven en la isla de Taquile en el Lago Titicaca. Esta comunidad no está aislada del mundo exterior, y hay una fuerte presencia de la iglesia cristiana y el turismo.

Los datos fueron recolectados a través de entrevistas y observación participante entre las fechas del 2 de noviembre al 15 de noviembre, 2016. Las veinte entrevistas contienen las perspectivas de ...


When The Hunt Is Over: Culture And Conservation In Kazakh Eagle Falconry, Nolan R. Ebner Apr 2016

When The Hunt Is Over: Culture And Conservation In Kazakh Eagle Falconry, Nolan R. Ebner

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

The last large scale practice of falconry that uses Golden Eagles takes place in Bayan- Ulgii, Mongolia. Recent media exposure allowed for the development of a tourism industry in the region that culminates in two annual festivals celebrating the cultural heritage. Modern eagle falconry practices have been shown to deviate from traditional hunting and training methods. While Golden Eagles are listed with a regional conservation status of Least Concern by the Mongolian Red List, these new practices place the health of Golden Eagle populations in the region at risk, especially as tourism continues to grow. Furthermore, a changing environmental climate ...


Iceland's Environmental Saga: Motivations For Sustainable Action And Belief, Katharine V. Gregory Jan 2016

Iceland's Environmental Saga: Motivations For Sustainable Action And Belief, Katharine V. Gregory

Undergraduate Honors Theses

During the past several decades, a global discussion has grown about sustainability and how it can provide solutions to the world’s mounting environmental problems. One way to make sustainable implementation more successful is to examine the specific motivators for the environmental decisions of individuals and how they vary from place to place. In this thesis, I explore how environmental incentives that originate at different scales affect individuals, and how the individual’s specific cultural experience mediates those incentives. Iceland provides an interesting case study for examining sustainability motivators for individuals because its extensive development of renewable energy resources seems ...


Biostead Initiative: A Transdisciplinary Initiative To Construct Safe-To- Fail Green Buildings As Sustainable Development Research Sites On University Campuses, Jose Lasalle, Ezra Marcus, Josh Nolan, Yamaan Ziade, Brandon Curtin Jan 2016

Biostead Initiative: A Transdisciplinary Initiative To Construct Safe-To- Fail Green Buildings As Sustainable Development Research Sites On University Campuses, Jose Lasalle, Ezra Marcus, Josh Nolan, Yamaan Ziade, Brandon Curtin

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

Mutually arising with the continuing shift in control over resources, markets and technology to transnational corporations is the need to cultivate a global system of localized economies that root economic power and environmental responsibility in self-reliant people and communities (Korten, 1996). Adopting the modus operandi of centralization has effected a myriad of issues, including: peak oil, peak water, food insecurity and an impending food crisis, a deteriorating single-purpose infrastructure, economic instability and ecological devastation (Ahern, 2014, p. 2; Korten, 1996; Gunders, 2012, p.1; Hellwinckel & Ugarte, 2009; McLennan, 2006, p. 9). For instance, in the process of farmto- fork, the modern industrial ...


Sustainable Management Of Urban Green Infrastructure – The Challenge Of Providing High-Quality Green In Multi-Storey Residential Construction, Christina Czachs, Christiane Brandenburg, Birgit Gantner, Julia Hupka, Doris Damyanovic, Florian Reinwald, Ulrich Morawetz Jan 2016

Sustainable Management Of Urban Green Infrastructure – The Challenge Of Providing High-Quality Green In Multi-Storey Residential Construction, Christina Czachs, Christiane Brandenburg, Birgit Gantner, Julia Hupka, Doris Damyanovic, Florian Reinwald, Ulrich Morawetz

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

Vienna is known as one of the most liveable cities worldwide (Mercer, 2015), not least because of Vienna’s green infrastructure (GI). These qualities of life and the trend of urbanisation lead to strong population growth in Vienna. It is predicted that the Viennese population will grow from 1.8 million (2015) to 2 million in 2029 (MA 23, 2014); to offer living space, the creation of up to 120,000 new homes is planned until 2050 (MA 18, 2014). The growth and the resulting exploitation pressure on the (green) areas pose a major challenge for the City of Vienna ...


Green Belt Of Brescia, Lombardy. From Resilience Strategy To Sustainable Planning In Practice., Luca Maria Francesco Fabris, Guido Granello Jan 2016

Green Belt Of Brescia, Lombardy. From Resilience Strategy To Sustainable Planning In Practice., Luca Maria Francesco Fabris, Guido Granello

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

The paper focuses on the methods on which it is built the planning strategy for the ‘Parco delle Cave’ (Park of Pits) in Brescia (Lombardy, Italy). This research, begun in 2010 thanks to the insights offered by a master's degree thesis, in February 2016 led to the approval of the variation to Plan of Government of the Territory of the City of Brescia. The authors, at the time, respectively, supervisor and author of the thesis ‘Park of Pits, from protest to proposal' have gradually followed the different stages of approach to the proposed variant through a real multidisciplinary action ...


Climate Action Planning And Urban Greenways: Weaving Together Sustainability, Health And Resilience, David C. Ralston Jan 2016

Climate Action Planning And Urban Greenways: Weaving Together Sustainability, Health And Resilience, David C. Ralston

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

Envisioning and planning citywide greenways and supporting urban greening (green infrastructure) linked to climate action planning are surprisingly not well integrated in sustainable planning initiatives and in fact represent two separate landscape action approaches and two different scales and disciplines of focus. By not being strategically integrated, cities are missing out on many significant environmental and social co-benefits that are especially needed at this time. Consider, the planning focus for greenways (especially in the US context) over the last forty-years has generally emerged from a landscape design and park planning tradition and thus we see various inter-city/regional or suburban ...


Landmark Ruling On Whaling From The International Court Of Justice, Mark P. Simmonds Dec 2014

Landmark Ruling On Whaling From The International Court Of Justice, Mark P. Simmonds

Mark P. Simmonds, OBE

On 31 March 2014, the International Court of Justice (ICJ) ruled that Japan’s whaling activities in Antarctica did not comply with Article VIII of the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling (ICRW), which permits whaling for scientific purposes. Copious and confusing media commentary followed the decision. This included seemingly conflicting reports from within Japan, which initially indicated whole-hearted compliance with the ruling, which required this whaling to cease, but later suggested that implementation by Japan might be limited to a brief halt followed by a launch of a new Antarctic ‘research’ programme including lethal take.


The Impacts Of Fisheries Management On The Performance And Resiliency Of The Commercial Fishing Industry And Fishing Communities In The Florida Keys (Monroe County, Florida) From 1950-2010, Manoj Shivlani Mar 2014

The Impacts Of Fisheries Management On The Performance And Resiliency Of The Commercial Fishing Industry And Fishing Communities In The Florida Keys (Monroe County, Florida) From 1950-2010, Manoj Shivlani

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Commercial fisheries in the Florida Keys have experienced a significant decline in participation and harvest over the past two decades, with over half of the fishers exiting the fishery since 1990 and a 50-70% decline in annual landings compared to previous decades. The conventional narrative of fisheries management identifies overfishing and overcapacity as the malaise endemic to open-access fisheries systems, for which the remedy offered is technocratic management. Technocratic management, which seeks to restore ecological integrity and economic efficiency, has been increasingly employed in the Florida Keys, in the form of limited access and property rights measures. I contend that ...


Landmark Ruling On Whaling From The International Court Of Justice, Mark P. Simmonds Jan 2014

Landmark Ruling On Whaling From The International Court Of Justice, Mark P. Simmonds

Laws and Legislation Collection

On 31 March 2014, the International Court of Justice (ICJ) ruled that Japan’s whaling activities in Antarctica did not comply with Article VIII of the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling (ICRW), which permits whaling for scientific purposes. Copious and confusing media commentary followed the decision. This included seemingly conflicting reports from within Japan, which initially indicated whole-hearted compliance with the ruling, which required this whaling to cease, but later suggested that implementation by Japan might be limited to a brief halt followed by a launch of a new Antarctic ‘research’ programme including lethal take.


Gathering "Wild" Food In The City: Rethinking The Role Of Foraging In Urban Ecosystem Planning And Management, Rebecca J. Mclain, Patrick T. Hurley, Marla R. Emery, Melissa R. Poe Nov 2013

Gathering "Wild" Food In The City: Rethinking The Role Of Foraging In Urban Ecosystem Planning And Management, Rebecca J. Mclain, Patrick T. Hurley, Marla R. Emery, Melissa R. Poe

Environmental Studies Faculty Publications

Recent “green” planning initiatives envision food production, including urban agriculture and livestock production, as desirable elements of sustainable cities. We use an integrated urban political ecology and human–plant geographies framework to explore how foraging for “wild” foods in cities, a subversive practice that challenges prevailing views about the roles of humans in urban green spaces, has potential to also support sustainability goals. Drawing on research from Baltimore, New York City, Philadelphia, and Seattle, we show that foraging is a vibrant and ongoing practice among diverse urban residents in the USA. At the same time, as reflected in regulations, planning ...


Plain & Simple: The Will To Live Sustainably In An Unsustainable World, Brandi Nichole Button Aug 2013

Plain & Simple: The Will To Live Sustainably In An Unsustainable World, Brandi Nichole Button

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Sustainability is a buzzword covering a variety of fields and subjects. For the purposes of my research sustainability is “the ability to keep going over the long haul. As a value, it refers to giving equal weight in your decisions to the future as well as the present” (Gilman 1). The sustainability movement refers to activists, educators and researchers who are dedicated to finding high quality ways of living in the world that are environmentally benign for all who are now living as well future generations to come (Gilman 1). This research focuses on three women who engage in voluntary ...


Soft Mobility Towards Ecological Sustainability In Lisbon Metropolitan Area – Case Study Of Almada Municipality, Manuela R. Magalhães, Duarte Mata, Ana Müller Jan 2013

Soft Mobility Towards Ecological Sustainability In Lisbon Metropolitan Area – Case Study Of Almada Municipality, Manuela R. Magalhães, Duarte Mata, Ana Müller

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

Automobile traffic congestion and air pollution in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area (LMA), an area with close to 2.8 million people, has increased dramatically in the last 30 years as a result of suburban sprawl. The sheer size peri-urban areas have reached lends itself to urban politics and subsidized rents, an issue that has not yet been resolved due to lack of political will. This has driven down rental prices of old leases, accompanied by the degradation of buildings located in the city’s historic centre, and has also resulted in very high pricing of current leases inaccessible to most ...


Green Infrastructure, Greenways, And Trail Planning: Frameworks For Sustainability In Maryland, David N. Myers Jan 2013

Green Infrastructure, Greenways, And Trail Planning: Frameworks For Sustainability In Maryland, David N. Myers

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

The State of Maryland has been a leader in a number of state-wide environmental efforts. As part of the work published by the Maryland Greenway Commission in 2000, a green infrastructure (GI) assessment was included to provide a greater “emphasis on the ecologic network” (Maryland Greenway Commission, 2000, p. 3). This inclusion, while building off of decades of land conservation and greenway planning, recognized the need to provide a more science-based approach to integrated and comprehensive land conservation. In addition to this recognition, this GI assessment was also intended to identify the best ecological lands in Maryland for potential protection ...


Ecological Revival And Sustainable Living In The Tropical Dry Evergreen Forest Of Tamil Nadu: A Measurement Of Residential Perception In Sadhana Forest, Elizabeth Collette Mcguire Dec 2011

Ecological Revival And Sustainable Living In The Tropical Dry Evergreen Forest Of Tamil Nadu: A Measurement Of Residential Perception In Sadhana Forest, Elizabeth Collette Mcguire

Environmental Studies Undergraduate Student Theses

Since 1970, the role and function of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been to promote environmental quality and to form strategies for carrying out environmental policy1. The EPA has committed to sustainability as the next level of environmental protection. The agency states that sustainability calls for policies and strategies that meet society’s present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs2. Presently, society’s requirements have resulted in natural resource exploitation and population distention- projected to reach 10 billion people within two human generations3. These paired occurrences are ...


A Literary Analysis And Case Study Evaluation Of The Environmental, Cultural, And Economic Impacts Of Ecotourism, Ashley M. Driver Mar 2011

A Literary Analysis And Case Study Evaluation Of The Environmental, Cultural, And Economic Impacts Of Ecotourism, Ashley M. Driver

Social Sciences

No abstract provided.


Cockles In Custody: The Role Of Common Property Arrangements In The Ecological Sustainability Of Mangrove Fisheries On The Ecuadorian Coast, Christine M. Beitl Jan 2011

Cockles In Custody: The Role Of Common Property Arrangements In The Ecological Sustainability Of Mangrove Fisheries On The Ecuadorian Coast, Christine M. Beitl

Anthropology Faculty Scholarship

Scholars of common property resource theory (CPR) have long asserted that certain kinds of institutional arrangements based on collective action result in successful environmental stewardship, but feedback and the direct link between social and ecological systems remains poorly understood. This paper investigates how common property institutional arrangements contribute to sustainable mangrove fisheries in coastal Ecuador, focusing on the fishery for the mangrove cockle (Anadara tuberculosa and A. similis), a bivalve mollusk harvested from the roots of mangrove trees and of particular social, economic, and cultural importance for the communities that depend on it. Specifically, this study examines the emergence of ...


Learning Sustainable Development: Chimeneas De La Esperanza, Miriam V. Mollan Gundersen Mar 2010

Learning Sustainable Development: Chimeneas De La Esperanza, Miriam V. Mollan Gundersen

Social Sciences

Social inequality and environmental degradation are motivating informed young people into action and connecting impoverished regions of the world with students in more developed nations. This Social Sciences senior project is to analyze an alternative development model designed by a group of Californian university students. The project, named Chimeneas de la Esperanza, is designed to help impoverished Nicaraguan women start a ceramics business. The major hurdle of this mission is to establish a market for the ceramics product. Energy efficient ceramic stoves and smoke ventilating chimneys would benefit the community and avoid an impacted crafts market. The project encompasses ideas ...


Green Infrastructure As A Means To Deliver A Multi-Scale Approach For Urban Sustainability, Adnan Kaplan Jan 2010

Green Infrastructure As A Means To Deliver A Multi-Scale Approach For Urban Sustainability, Adnan Kaplan

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

A series of economic, ecological, population and institutional constraints have recently produced new challenges and pressures on urban growth and to the management of cities’ critical infrastructures (Hodson and Marvin, 2010). Green infrastructure thereby provides a framework that can be used to guide future growth, land development and conservation decisions to accommodate population growth and protect and preserve community assets and natural resources (Benedict and McMahon, 2006). Key ideas from landscape ecology that are relevant to green urban infrastructure for sustainable cities include: a multi-scale approach with an explicit recognition of pattern-process relationships and an emphasis on physical and functional ...


Sustainability And Cities: A Landscape Planning Approach, Jack Ahern Jan 2010

Sustainability And Cities: A Landscape Planning Approach, Jack Ahern

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

According to the United Nations, the world’s population has recently become predominantly urban, and the world’s urban population is projected to double by 2050 (United Nations Habitat 2006). This paper discusses the issues, challenges and best practices that are being conceived and applied by landscape and urban planners to bring sustainability and to build resilience capacity in cities. Landscape planning provides working/operational methods to address complex built and green urban environments with diverse resources, land uses and competing social needs and values. The theories behind landscape planning, landscape urbanism and new initiatives on sustainability and resilience will ...


Resource Conflict Among Farmers And Fulani Herdsmen: Implications For Resource Sustainability, Olarewaju Oluseyi Ifatimehin, Marietu Tenuche Sep 2009

Resource Conflict Among Farmers And Fulani Herdsmen: Implications For Resource Sustainability, Olarewaju Oluseyi Ifatimehin, Marietu Tenuche

Olarewaju Oluseyi Ifatimehin

This study describes the traditional relationship between farmers and Fulani herdsmen in the incessant resource conflict witnessed in Kogi State, Nigeria and how it affects livelihood security of those involved and resource sustainability for the communities. These conflicts are most responsible for the unsustainable utilization of land and water resources as the trampling by the hooves of herds of cattle compacts the soil of farm land, destroy farm crops by the herdsmen, places restraint on effective utilization of arable farmland among other destruction of available resources. It is understood that these conflicts have their roots in the land tenure system ...


Globalization & Nationalism: A Recipe For Terror, Cari Bourette, Daniel Reader Mar 2006

Globalization & Nationalism: A Recipe For Terror, Cari Bourette, Daniel Reader

Cari Bourette

Nationalism appears to be part of the human condition; it may well be related to the human tendency toward tribalism. Whatever the case, nationalism appears to be a permanent feature on the global landscape. Globalization, while not a new phenomenon by any means, seems to be having a tremendous dilutory effect on the sovereignty of states; it now appears to be carrying the assault to the cultural frontiers of nationalism. Unlike the Westphalian constructs, however, nations will not so easily succumb. There is a greater inherent resistance to change in nations; the only historically effective method has been outright eradication ...


Monitoring The Relationship Between The Public And Public Lands: Application To Wilderness Stewardship In The U.S., Alan E. Watson, William T. Borrie Jan 2006

Monitoring The Relationship Between The Public And Public Lands: Application To Wilderness Stewardship In The U.S., Alan E. Watson, William T. Borrie

Society and Conservation Faculty Publications

Stakeholders in wilderness, and other public lands, have varying opinions on how well the land management agencies reflect their values and respond to their needs in management, and they therefore vary in their level of commitment and attachment to these places and the activities that occur there. Establishing baseline measures and monitoring indicators of the relationship between the public and wilderness lands can provide efficient evaluations of many management activities. Examples include protection of traditional relationships for indigenous people, and the enhancement and protection of relationships between the resource and both local and distant populations of stakeholders.

Most social science ...