Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Nature and Society Relations Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

2012

Discipline
Institution
Keyword
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 61 - 90 of 90

Full-Text Articles in Nature and Society Relations

Comparative Study Of Constituents Of Essential Oils Of Ocimum Basilicum L. Cultivated In The Mongolian Gobi, Shataryn Altantsetseg, Sandui Shatar, N. Javzmaa Jan 2012

Comparative Study Of Constituents Of Essential Oils Of Ocimum Basilicum L. Cultivated In The Mongolian Gobi, Shataryn Altantsetseg, Sandui Shatar, N. Javzmaa

Erforschung biologischer Ressourcen der Mongolei / Exploration into the Biological Resources of Mongolia, ISSN 0440-1298

The essential oils of the herb Ocimum basilicum L., cultivated in the Mongolian Gobi, have been examined. Oils were isolated by hydro-distillation and analyzed by GC-MS. The principle components of Common Basil were methyl chavicol (52.1 %), linalool (23.9 %). In the oils of the different varieties of Basil were the following compounds found: Sweet Basil: linalool (24.5–27.4 %), methyl chavicol (19.8–20.0 %), bergamotene (10.0 %), 1.8-cineole (8.5 %); Purple Basil: linalool (52.8 %), 1.8-cineole (8.7 %); Cinnamon Basil: methyl chavicol (60.4 %), 1.8-cine-ole (6.3 %), linalool (3.3 %) and cadinol (3.2 ...


Bacterial Diversity In Biological Soil Crusts From Extrazonal Mountain Dry Steppes In Northern Mongolia, Anne Kemmling, Birgit Pfeiffer, Rolf Daniel, Michael Hoppert Jan 2012

Bacterial Diversity In Biological Soil Crusts From Extrazonal Mountain Dry Steppes In Northern Mongolia, Anne Kemmling, Birgit Pfeiffer, Rolf Daniel, Michael Hoppert

Erforschung biologischer Ressourcen der Mongolei / Exploration into the Biological Resources of Mongolia, ISSN 0440-1298

Biological Soil Crusts (BSCs), consisting of prokaryotes, microalgae, lichens, mosses and eventually small vascular plants, cover wide areas in arid and semi-arid environments. In the present study, the microbial diversity of these crusts was explored at extrazonal mountain steppe sites in the western Khentej (Northern Mongolia). At the study site the Siberian taiga borders on the Mongolian-Daurian forest steppe, resulting in a unique intermixture of the dark taiga, the light taiga, and forest steppe (DULAMSUREN 2004). Due to the presence of boreal, temperate and dauric elements the forest steppe is eminently rich in species (MÜHLENBERG et al. 2004).

BSCs in ...


Diversity And Community Pattern Of Darkling Beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) Along An Ecological Gradient In Arid Mongolia, M. Pfeiffer, E. Bayannasan Jan 2012

Diversity And Community Pattern Of Darkling Beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) Along An Ecological Gradient In Arid Mongolia, M. Pfeiffer, E. Bayannasan

Erforschung biologischer Ressourcen der Mongolei / Exploration into the Biological Resources of Mongolia, ISSN 0440-1298

One of the most conspicuous detrito- and phytodetritophagous groups of beetles in the Asian steppes and deserts is the family Tenebrionidae (Coleoptera, Polyphaga) (KONSTANTINOV et al. 2009). Mongolia harbors a rich diversity of these beetles with 215 species and 50 genera of Tenebrionidae listed for the country (MEDVEDEV 1990), many of them restricted to its arid parts, where they obtain high abundances and dominate – together with ants – the insect soil fauna (PFEIFFER et al. 2003). Their dark color may be a means to withstand the high radiation at daytime; however, a large number of species is night active and hide ...


New Data On The Fish Coregonus Peled (Gmelin, 1788) In Some Water Bodies Of Mongolia, Ayuriin Dulmaa Jan 2012

New Data On The Fish Coregonus Peled (Gmelin, 1788) In Some Water Bodies Of Mongolia, Ayuriin Dulmaa

Erforschung biologischer Ressourcen der Mongolei / Exploration into the Biological Resources of Mongolia, ISSN 0440-1298

In connection with the planned establishment of a coregonid fishery and the construction of a specialized hatchery in the area of Western Mongolia a study was undertaken with the aim of studying some parts of the reproductive biology of population of Coregonus peled inhabiting the lake Ulaagchnii Khar (Zavhan aimag). This species was introduced into this Mongolian lake, originally lacking any fish stock, in the period from 1980–1982. 11,230 fish were collected and examined during the periods from 1993–1999 and 2005–2011 and consisted partly of the fish originating from imported and introduced larvae and partly of ...


Diversity And Distribution Of Mongolian Fish: Recent State, Trends And Studies, Yuri Dgebuadze, Bud Mendsaikhan, Ayurin Dulmaa Jan 2012

Diversity And Distribution Of Mongolian Fish: Recent State, Trends And Studies, Yuri Dgebuadze, Bud Mendsaikhan, Ayurin Dulmaa

Erforschung biologischer Ressourcen der Mongolei / Exploration into the Biological Resources of Mongolia, ISSN 0440-1298

The studies in recent years (2000-2011) have allowed to make more precise the list and ranges of Mongolian fish. This is connected with new findings as well as the continuing process of invasion of alien species. Climate change and increase of human impact transformed ranges and local distribution of fish during last 30 years. Bias on ratio of ecological guilds, number of pathological findings are increasing, and declining of local diversity, rate of growth and fecundity of many species of fish are observed. In the course of long-term observation was confirmed periodically drying of waters of the Central Asian Lake ...


Some Taxonomic Records Of Aquatic Insects In The Eroo River Basin (West Khentii, Northern Mongolia), Purevdorj Surenkhorloo, Ravchig Samiya, Jolanta Slowik, Michael Mühlenberg Jan 2012

Some Taxonomic Records Of Aquatic Insects In The Eroo River Basin (West Khentii, Northern Mongolia), Purevdorj Surenkhorloo, Ravchig Samiya, Jolanta Slowik, Michael Mühlenberg

Erforschung biologischer Ressourcen der Mongolei / Exploration into the Biological Resources of Mongolia, ISSN 0440-1298

In the Eroo basin of Mongolia, many species of aquatic insects have been recorded including five species of Diptera in the families Psychodidae, Dixidae, and Blephaceridae and 25 species across eight families of stoneflies. One species of Psychodidae, Bazarella baikalensis Wagner is reported for the first time in Mongolia while the other families are discussed and a species list is provided for the country.


Magnitude And Structure Of Lymantria Dispar Asiatica Infestations Of Common Forest Steppe Tree Species In Northern Mongolia, Nina Tiralla, Kai Füldner, Stefan Schütz Jan 2012

Magnitude And Structure Of Lymantria Dispar Asiatica Infestations Of Common Forest Steppe Tree Species In Northern Mongolia, Nina Tiralla, Kai Füldner, Stefan Schütz

Erforschung biologischer Ressourcen der Mongolei / Exploration into the Biological Resources of Mongolia, ISSN 0440-1298

Lymantria dispar L. is one of the most serious forest pests worldwide by infesting large forest areas involving massive tree dieback. Unlike outbreaks of Lymantria dispar L. in Germany that cause massive defoliation, observations of outbreaks of Lymantria dispar asiatica made in the research area Khonin Nuga, West Khentii, Mongolia during the past six years showed only punctual defoliation, and dieback was extremely scarce. However, information on the performance of Lymantria dispar asiatica and the corresponding reaction of host tree species in Khonin Nuga is rare. Therefore, this study concentrates on the examination of primarily affected tree species and the ...


Uniformity In A Diversity Of Landscapes – Branchiopod Communities In Eastern And Central Mongolia, Ansgar Poloczek, Michael Mühlenberg, Ingo W. Stürmer Jan 2012

Uniformity In A Diversity Of Landscapes – Branchiopod Communities In Eastern And Central Mongolia, Ansgar Poloczek, Michael Mühlenberg, Ingo W. Stürmer

Erforschung biologischer Ressourcen der Mongolei / Exploration into the Biological Resources of Mongolia, ISSN 0440-1298

While investigating the branchiopod fauna of Mongolia, the uniformity of these crustacean communities through a multitude of different ecological conditions is conspicuous.

We sampled branchiopods in 24 sites through Central- and East-Mongolia, as living animals as well as cysts in soil samples. These sites represent the main types of Mongolia’s vegetation- and ecological-zones: Taiga forests in the western and eastern edge of the Khentey-Mountain ridge, the central and eastern steppe regions, and the Gobi-desert in the south.

In this large amount of differing ecological conditions with a changing human impact, compared to the width of the covered area, we ...


An Approach To The Virtual Flora Of Mongolia – From A Data Repository To An Expert System, Http://greif.uni-greifswald.de/Floragreif/, Jörg Hartleib, Martin Schnittler, Sabrina Rilke, Anne Zemmrich, Bernd Bobertz, Ulrike Najmi, Reinhard Zölitz, Susanne Starke Jan 2012

An Approach To The Virtual Flora Of Mongolia – From A Data Repository To An Expert System, Http://greif.uni-greifswald.de/Floragreif/, Jörg Hartleib, Martin Schnittler, Sabrina Rilke, Anne Zemmrich, Bernd Bobertz, Ulrike Najmi, Reinhard Zölitz, Susanne Starke

Erforschung biologischer Ressourcen der Mongolei / Exploration into the Biological Resources of Mongolia, ISSN 0440-1298

FloraGREIF is an internet accessible information system providing taxonomic, phytogeographic and ecological information on Mongolia’s flora in terms of descriptions, high-resolution plant images and an interactive WebGIS application. Organised along an updated checklist of the approx. 3000 Mongolian vascular plants that serves as a taxonomic backbone, information is split into the taxon level, referring to plant species, and the record level, referring to record or a collected plant specimen. At the latter level, images of living plants, scans of herbarium sheets, habitat photos and further notes can be found. Both data levels are linked by the name of the ...


Indicators Of Pasture Digression In Steppe Ecosystems Of Mongolia, Elena V. Danzhalova, S. N. Bazha, P. D. Gunin, Yu. I. Drobyshev, T. I. Kazantseva, A. V. Prischepa, N. N. Slemnev, E. Ariunbold Jan 2012

Indicators Of Pasture Digression In Steppe Ecosystems Of Mongolia, Elena V. Danzhalova, S. N. Bazha, P. D. Gunin, Yu. I. Drobyshev, T. I. Kazantseva, A. V. Prischepa, N. N. Slemnev, E. Ariunbold

Erforschung biologischer Ressourcen der Mongolei / Exploration into the Biological Resources of Mongolia, ISSN 0440-1298

The research shows that widely used key measures of vegetation structure (species diversity, projected cover and above-ground phytomass) are not always suitable as indicators of pasture degradation. Based on an analysis above-ground phytomass composition, new quantitative indices are offered that give a more realistic picture of rangeland condition in Mongolia.


Osnabrück Botanical Expeditions To Mongolia, Barbara Neuffer, Nikolai Friesen, Batlai Oyuntsetseg, Tseden Jamsran, Herbert Hurka Jan 2012

Osnabrück Botanical Expeditions To Mongolia, Barbara Neuffer, Nikolai Friesen, Batlai Oyuntsetseg, Tseden Jamsran, Herbert Hurka

Erforschung biologischer Ressourcen der Mongolei / Exploration into the Biological Resources of Mongolia, ISSN 0440-1298

Three botanical expeditions to Mongolia have been undertaken by the Botany Department of the University of Osnabrück in cooperation with the Botany Department of the National Mongolian University of Ulaanbaatar. The first expedition in 2000 took us to the Mongolian Altay, the second in 2001 to the Gobi and Gobi Altay, and the third in 2010 to East Mongolia including the Khingan Mts. (Numrug). In 2000, we were the first botanists being allowed to enter the border area between China and Russia in the Mongolian Altay since a long time, because this had been a prohibited area for decades. We ...


Opposing Growth Trends Created By External Disturbances In Larch Forests Of The Mongolian Altai, Choimaa Dulamsuren, Mookhoor Khishigjargal Jan 2012

Opposing Growth Trends Created By External Disturbances In Larch Forests Of The Mongolian Altai, Choimaa Dulamsuren, Mookhoor Khishigjargal

Erforschung biologischer Ressourcen der Mongolei / Exploration into the Biological Resources of Mongolia, ISSN 0440-1298

If tree-ring series from different trees are merged to a chronology, in order to for example make inferences on climate, these series must be checked for consistency. Statistical parameters, including the Gleichläufigkeit (GL = coefficient of agreement) and standard t value have been applied for this purpose and are usually combined to boost the informative value. We tested the hypothesis that low GL and t values can, in turn, be used as indicators of external disturbance in a case study in forests of Siberian larch (Larix sibirica) in the Mongolian Altai. Since these forests were known to have been subjected to ...


Protection Of The Natural And Cultural Heritage Of The Mongolian Altai, Ulikpan Beket, Hans D. Knapp Jan 2012

Protection Of The Natural And Cultural Heritage Of The Mongolian Altai, Ulikpan Beket, Hans D. Knapp

Erforschung biologischer Ressourcen der Mongolei / Exploration into the Biological Resources of Mongolia, ISSN 0440-1298

The Altai-Sayan Ecoregion is known as a hotspot of biodiversity with large wilderness landscapes and a high rate of endemism in Central Asia and Siberia. There are many large and important protected areas of different categories. Parts of the Russian Altai, the “Golden Mountains of Altai”, are inscribed as World Natural Heritage. Also the neighbouring countries contain pristine landscapes, which could be a potential for an extension to a transnational serial World Heritage Site.

The Mongolian part of the ecoregion is characterized by very diverse landscapes and vegetation complexes: Deserts, semi-deserts and desert steppes in arid basins, river floodplains, salt ...


Toxic Tourism: Promoting The Berkeley Pit And Industrial Heritage In Butte, Montana, Bridget R. Barry Jan 2012

Toxic Tourism: Promoting The Berkeley Pit And Industrial Heritage In Butte, Montana, Bridget R. Barry

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research, Department of History

Butte, Montana’s Berkeley Pit and its deadly water are a part of the country’s largest Superfund site. In 1994 the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a Record of Decision designating Butte, along with the neighboring town and mining site of Anaconda (twenty-five miles northwest of Butte), and 120 miles of Montana’s Clark Fork River as a single Superfund complex. The vast mining operations undertaken in the area, including five hundred underground mines and four open pit mines, have resulted in hazardous concentrations of metals in groundwater, surface water, and soils.

Butte’s mines once extracted ...


Shifting Policies, Access, And The Tragedy Of Enclosures In Ecuadorian Mangrove Fisheries: Towards A Political Ecology Of The Commons, Christine M. Beitl Jan 2012

Shifting Policies, Access, And The Tragedy Of Enclosures In Ecuadorian Mangrove Fisheries: Towards A Political Ecology Of The Commons, Christine M. Beitl

Anthropology Faculty Scholarship

After decades of mangrove deforestation for the development of shrimp farming, the Ecuadorian state began to officially recognize the ancestral rights of traditional users of coastal mangrove resources in the late 1990s. This article traces the trajectory of coastal policy change and the transformation of mangrove tenure regimes from an implicit preference for shrimp aquaculture to a focus on conservation and sustainable development with greater community participation through the establishment of community-managed mangrove areas called custodias. I argue that while the custodias have empowered local communities in their struggle to defend their livelihoods and environment against the marginalizing forces of ...


The Detection Of Forest Structures In The Monongahela National Forest Using Lidar, Dominique Norman Jan 2012

The Detection Of Forest Structures In The Monongahela National Forest Using Lidar, Dominique Norman

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

The mapping of structural elements of a forest is important for forestry management to provide a baseline for old and new-growth trees while providing height strata for a stand. These activities are important for the overall monitoring process which aids in the understanding of anthropogenic and natural disturbances. Height information recorded for each discrete point is key for the creation of canopy height, canopy surface, and canopy cover models. The aim of this study is to assess if LiDAR can be used to determine forest structures. Small footprint, leaf-off LiDAR data were obtained for the Monongahela National Forest, West Virginia ...


Producing Edible Landscapes In Seattle's Urban Forest, Rebecca J. Mclain, Melissa R. Poe, Patrick T. Hurley, Joyce Lecompte, Marla R. Emery Jan 2012

Producing Edible Landscapes In Seattle's Urban Forest, Rebecca J. Mclain, Melissa R. Poe, Patrick T. Hurley, Joyce Lecompte, Marla R. Emery

Environmental Studies Faculty Publications

Over the next decades, green infrastructure initiatives such as tree planting campaigns, and ecological restoration will dramatically change the species composition, species distribution and structure of urban forests across the United States. These impending changes are accompanied by a demand for urban public spaces where people can engage in practices such as gleaning, gardening, and livestock production. This article analyzes the institutional framework that undergirds efforts in Seattle, Washington to normalize the production and use of edible landscapes. We focus attention on the role of grassroots fruit gleaning groups and highlight their bridging function between Seattle's agriculture and forestry ...


Gathering In The City: An Annotated Bibliography And Review Of The Literature About Human-Plant Interactions In Urban Ecosystems, Rebecca J. Mclain, L. P. Buttolph, Melissa R. Poe, K. Macfarland, J. Hebert, N. Gabriel, Patrick T. Hurley, Laura Brody, Martina Dzuna, Marla R. Emery, S. Charnley Jan 2012

Gathering In The City: An Annotated Bibliography And Review Of The Literature About Human-Plant Interactions In Urban Ecosystems, Rebecca J. Mclain, L. P. Buttolph, Melissa R. Poe, K. Macfarland, J. Hebert, N. Gabriel, Patrick T. Hurley, Laura Brody, Martina Dzuna, Marla R. Emery, S. Charnley

Environmental Studies Faculty Publications

The past decade has seen resurgence in interest in gathering wild plants and fungi in cities. In addition to gathering by individuals, dozens of groups have emerged in U.S., Canadian, and European cities to facilitate access to nontimber forest products (NTFPs), particularly fruits and nuts, in public and private spaces. Recent efforts within cities to encourage public orchards and food forests, and to incorporate more fruit and nut trees into street tree planting programs indicate a growing recognition among planners that gathering is an important urban activity. Yet the academic literature has little to say about urban gathering practices ...


Using Participatory Scenarios To Stimulate Social Learning For Collaborative Sustainable Development, Kris A. Johnson, Genya Dana, Nicholas R. Jordan, Kathy J. Draeger, Anne Kapuscinski Jan 2012

Using Participatory Scenarios To Stimulate Social Learning For Collaborative Sustainable Development, Kris A. Johnson, Genya Dana, Nicholas R. Jordan, Kathy J. Draeger, Anne Kapuscinski

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Interdependent human and biophysical systems are highly complex and behave in unpredictable and uncontrollable ways. Social and ecological challenges that emerge from this complexity often defy straightforward solutions, and efforts to address these problems will require not only scientific and technological capabilities but also learning and adaptation. Scenarios are a useful tool for grappling with the uncertainty and complexity of social-ecological challenges because they enable participants to build adaptive capacity through the contemplation of multiple future possibilities. Furthermore, scenarios provide a platform for social learning, which is critical to acting in the face of uncertain, complex, and conflict-laden problems. We ...


The Environmental And Cultural Effects On The Conquest Of Mexico, Tristan Siegel Jan 2012

The Environmental And Cultural Effects On The Conquest Of Mexico, Tristan Siegel

Senior Projects Spring 2012

In this work I examine the environment and cultural attitudes of Mesoamericans, specifically the Mexica (Atzec), and how these factors played a role in the Conquest of Mexico by Hernan Cortes. I begin by examining Mesoamerican agriculture, lithic technology, and metallurgy. I conclude by examining how these factors played out in the Conquest.


From The Heavens To The Markets: Development, Nation, And The Mediation Of Water In Northwest China, Afton Eben Clarke-Sather Jan 2012

From The Heavens To The Markets: Development, Nation, And The Mediation Of Water In Northwest China, Afton Eben Clarke-Sather

Geography Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Over the past 20 years the relationship between peasants and water in the semi-arid Zuli Valley of Northwest China has been radically altered by a series of state-backed development projects. 20 years ago peasant grew primarily rain-fed subsistence crops and relied on centuries-old rainwater harvesting techniques for their domestic water supplies. Following a series of state-backed interventions, peasants today grow primarily cash crops and depend on state-backed projects for their domestic water supplies. These changes were brought about through development projects. In the Reform and Opening Period a series of spatial hierarchies has emerged--westernness, rurality, and poverty--that categorized certain regions ...


The Management Of Feral Pig Socio-Ecological Systems In Far North Queensland, Australia, Gabriela Shuster Jan 2012

The Management Of Feral Pig Socio-Ecological Systems In Far North Queensland, Australia, Gabriela Shuster

Dissertations & Theses

The development of management programs for socio-ecological systems that include multiple stakeholders is a complex process and requires careful evaluation and planning. This is particularly a challenge in the presence of intractable conflict. The feral pig (Sus scrofa) in Australia is part of one such socio-ecological system. There is a large and heterogeneous group of stakeholders interested in pig management. Pigs have diverse effects on wildlife and plant ecology, economic, health, and social sectors. This study used the feral pig management system as a vehicle to examine intractable conflict in socio-ecological systems. The purpose of the study was to evaluate ...


Grts And Graphs: Monitoring Natural Resources In Urban Landscapes, Todd R. Lookingbill, John Paul Schmit, Shawn L. Carter Jan 2012

Grts And Graphs: Monitoring Natural Resources In Urban Landscapes, Todd R. Lookingbill, John Paul Schmit, Shawn L. Carter

Geography and the Environment Faculty Publications

Environmental monitoring programs are an important tool for providing land managers with a scientific basis for management decisions. However, many ecological processes operate on spatial scales that transcend management boundaries (Schonewald-Cox 1988). For example, adjacent lands may influence protected-area resources via edge effects, source-sink dynamics, or invasion processes (Jones et al. 2009). Hydrologic alterations outside management units also may have profound effects on the integrity of resources being managed (Pringle 2000). The impacts of climate change are presenting challenges to resource management at local-to-global scales (Karl et al. 2009). This potential disparity between ecological and political boundaries presents an interesting ...


The Geography Of Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Within Urban Areas Of Asia, Jochen Albrecht, Peter Marcotullio, Andrea Sarzynski, Niels Schulz Jan 2012

The Geography Of Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Within Urban Areas Of Asia, Jochen Albrecht, Peter Marcotullio, Andrea Sarzynski, Niels Schulz

Publications and Research

This paper aims to advance two objectives: (1) identify and explore greenhouse gas emissions from urban areas in Asia at the regional level; and (2) explore covariates of urban greenhouse gas emissions. We use the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research estimates for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and sulfur hexafluoride from 14 source activities for the year 2000, which are allocated on a 1/108 global grid. We extract emissions for 3535 urban extents all with populations over 50,000, accounting for approximately 91% of the region’s urban population. We use regression analysis to associate emissions with urban ...


Streamflow Analysis And A Comparison Of Hydrologic Metrics In Urban Streams, Matthew Lawton Wood Jan 2012

Streamflow Analysis And A Comparison Of Hydrologic Metrics In Urban Streams, Matthew Lawton Wood

Dissertations and Theses

This study investigates the hydrologic effects of urbanization in two Portland, Oregon streams through a comparison of three hydrologic metrics. Hydrologic metrics used in this study are the mean annual runoff ratio (Qa), mean seasonal runoff ratio (Qw and Qd), and the fraction of time that streamflow exceeds the mean streamflow during the year (TQmean). Additionally, the relative change in streamflow in response to storm events was examined for two watersheds. For this investigation urban development is represented by two urbanization metrics: percent impervious and road density. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to evaluate the relationship between the hydrologic ...


What Does Being "Well Prepared" For Wildfire Mean?, Christine Eriksen, Timothy Prior Dec 2011

What Does Being "Well Prepared" For Wildfire Mean?, Christine Eriksen, Timothy Prior

Christine Eriksen

No abstract provided.


Isenhour, Cindy. On The Politics Of Climate Knowledge: Sir Giddens, Sweden And The Paradox Of Climate (In)Justice. Local Environment:, Cindy Isenhour Dec 2011

Isenhour, Cindy. On The Politics Of Climate Knowledge: Sir Giddens, Sweden And The Paradox Of Climate (In)Justice. Local Environment:, Cindy Isenhour

Cindy Isenhour

No abstract provided.


The Illegal Dumping Of Waste In Forest Areas - Evidence From Rural Territory, Andreea Lămășanu, Florin C. Mihai Dec 2011

The Illegal Dumping Of Waste In Forest Areas - Evidence From Rural Territory, Andreea Lămășanu, Florin C. Mihai

Florin C MIHAI

Household waste generated is often uncolleted in rural areas causing various types of pollution like: air and water pollution, soil pollution and the aesthetic degradation of the landscape. The environmental legislation proposed by the European Union was transposed on the national legislation but the implementation process was difficult because of particular situations encountered in practice. Rudimentary infrastructure of waste management and limited access to waste collection services lead to uncontrolled household waste disposal. In this context, the geographical location of rural settlements influences the way of waste disposal either on river banks or open dumps placed on roadsides or forest ...


A Postulate For Tiger Recovery: The Case Of The Caspian Tiger, Carlos A. Driscoll, I Chestin, H Jungius, Y Darman, E Dinerstein, J Seidensticker, J Sanderson, S Christie, S J. Luo, M Shrestha, Y Zhuravlev, O Uphyrkina, Y V. Jhala, S P. Yadav, D G. Pikunov, N Yamaguchi, D E. Wildt, J D. Smith, Marker, Philip J. Nyhus, R Tilson, D W. Macdonald, S J. O'Brien Dec 2011

A Postulate For Tiger Recovery: The Case Of The Caspian Tiger, Carlos A. Driscoll, I Chestin, H Jungius, Y Darman, E Dinerstein, J Seidensticker, J Sanderson, S Christie, S J. Luo, M Shrestha, Y Zhuravlev, O Uphyrkina, Y V. Jhala, S P. Yadav, D G. Pikunov, N Yamaguchi, D E. Wildt, J D. Smith, Marker, Philip J. Nyhus, R Tilson, D W. Macdonald, S J. O'Brien

Philip J. Nyhus

Recent genetic analysis has shown that the extinct Caspian Tiger (P. t. virgata) and the living Amur Tigers (P. t. altaica) of the Russian Far East are actually taxonomically synonymous and that Caspian and Amur groups historically formed a single population, only becoming separated within the last 200 years by human agency. A major conservation implication of this finding is that tigers of Amur stock might be reintroduced, not only back into the Koreas and China as is now proposed, but also through vast areas of Central Asia where the Caspian tiger once lived. However, under the current tiger conservation ...


Shifting Policies, Access, And The Tragedy Of Enclosures In Ecuadorian Mangrove Fisheries: Towards A Political Ecology Of The Commons, Christine M. Beitl Dec 2011

Shifting Policies, Access, And The Tragedy Of Enclosures In Ecuadorian Mangrove Fisheries: Towards A Political Ecology Of The Commons, Christine M. Beitl

Christine M Beitl

After decades of mangrove deforestation for the development of shrimp farming, the Ecuadorian state began to officially recognize the ancestral rights of traditional users of coastal mangrove resources in the late 1990s. This article traces the trajectory of coastal policy change and the transformation of mangrove tenure regimes from an implicit preference for shrimp aquaculture to a focus on conservation and sustainable development with greater community participation through the establishment of community-managed mangrove areas called custodias. I argue that while the custodias have empowered local communities in their struggle to defend their livelihoods and environment against the marginalizing forces of ...