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Articles 1 - 30 of 95

Full-Text Articles in Nature and Society Relations

The Private And Free Roaming Street Dog Population In Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India, Tamara Kartal, Amit Chaudhari Jun 2018

The Private And Free Roaming Street Dog Population In Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India, Tamara Kartal, Amit Chaudhari

Stray and Feral Animal Populations

Humane Society International - India (HSI- India) together with Humane Animal Society (HAS) and a team of volunteers conducted two dog population surveys in 100 wards of Coimbatore, India (The 2011 census provides a human population of 10507211; An estimate from 2017 estimates a human population of 18900002). The first was a street dog survey and the other was a household survey of the private (pet) dog population and their owners.


Political Populations Of Large Carnivores, Chris T. Darimont, Paul C. Paquet, Adrian Treves, Kyle A. Artelle Jun 2018

Political Populations Of Large Carnivores, Chris T. Darimont, Paul C. Paquet, Adrian Treves, Kyle A. Artelle

Wildlife Population Management

No abstract provided.


Mismeasured Mortality: Correcting Estimates Of Wolf Poaching In The United States, Adrian Treves, Kyle A. Artelle, Chris T. Darimont, David R. Parsons Oct 2017

Mismeasured Mortality: Correcting Estimates Of Wolf Poaching In The United States, Adrian Treves, Kyle A. Artelle, Chris T. Darimont, David R. Parsons

Wildlife Population Management

Measuring rates and causes of mortalities is important in animal ecology and management. Observing the fates of known individuals is a common method of estimating life history variables, including mortality patterns. It has long been assumed that data lost when known animals disappear were unbiased. We test and reject this assumption under conditions common to most, if not all, studies using marked animals. We illustrate the bias for 4 endangered wolf populations in the United States by reanalyzing data and assumptions about the known and unknown fates of marked wolves to calculate the degree to which risks of different causes ...


Surveys Of The Street And Private Dog Population: Jamnagar, Gujarat India, Tamara Kartal, Amit Chaudhari Oct 2017

Surveys Of The Street And Private Dog Population: Jamnagar, Gujarat India, Tamara Kartal, Amit Chaudhari

Stray and Feral Animal Populations

Humane Society International (HSI) conducted two dog population surveys in all 4 Zones of Jamnagar (human population of 609,613). One was a street dog survey and the other was a survey of the private (pet) dog population.


Marine Mammals In Asian Societies; Trends In Consumption, Bait, And Traditional Use, Lindsay Porter, Hong Yu Lai Feb 2017

Marine Mammals In Asian Societies; Trends In Consumption, Bait, And Traditional Use, Lindsay Porter, Hong Yu Lai

Anthropogenics and Population Decline

In Asia many marine mammal species are consumed as food or for other purposes. The prevalence of this exploitation appears to increase from west to east. An escalating use of marine mammals and the emergence of commercialization of a trade in marine mammals is supported by:

  • Regular documentation of both open and covert trade;
  • A shift in focus in some diminishing traditional hunts to other marine mammal species;
  • A possible revival in some targeted hunts, which had previously ceased;
  • The recent implication of some cultures, which have little history of marine mammal consumption previously, in targeted hunts; and
  • The growing ...


Under Pressure: Cetaceans And Fisheries Co-Occurrence Off The Coasts Of Ghana And Côte D’Ivoire (Gulf Of Guinea), Marijke N. De Boer, James T. Saulino, Koen Van Waerebeek, Geert Aarts Sep 2016

Under Pressure: Cetaceans And Fisheries Co-Occurrence Off The Coasts Of Ghana And Côte D’Ivoire (Gulf Of Guinea), Marijke N. De Boer, James T. Saulino, Koen Van Waerebeek, Geert Aarts

Anthropogenics and Population Decline

Within the Gulf of Guinea high levels of fisheries-related cetacean mortality (bycatch and direct-capture) has been documented. For locally rare species such removals could potentially lead to significant population level effects. However, information on the cetacean abundance and distribution is scarce. Similarly, it remains largely unreported where fishing fleets operate offshore. A cetacean survey took place during geophysical surveys (2013–2014) along the coasts of Ghana and Côte d’Ivoire. This provided a unique opportunity to study both offshore cetacean and fishing communities. Due to large group-sizes, melon-headed whales were the most abundant (0.34 animals km−1) followed by ...


The Utilization Of Aquatic Bushmeat From Small Cetaceans And Manatees In South America And West Africa, A. Mel Cosentino, Sue Fisher Sep 2016

The Utilization Of Aquatic Bushmeat From Small Cetaceans And Manatees In South America And West Africa, A. Mel Cosentino, Sue Fisher

Anthropogenics and Population Decline

Aquatic bushmeat can be defined as the products derived from wild aquatic megafauna (e.g., marine mammals) that are used for human consumption and non-food purposes, including traditional medicine. It is obtained through illegal or unregulated hunts as well as from stranded (dead or alive) and bycaught animals. In most South American and West African countries aquatic mammals are or have been taken for bushmeat, including 33 small cetaceans and all three manatee species. Of these, two cetacean species are listed in the IUCN red list as “near threatened,” and one as “vulnerable,” as are all manatee species. Additionally, 22 ...


The International Whaling Commission—Beyond Whaling, Andrew J. Wright, Mark P. Simmonds, Barbara Galletti Vernazzani Aug 2016

The International Whaling Commission—Beyond Whaling, Andrew J. Wright, Mark P. Simmonds, Barbara Galletti Vernazzani

Wildlife Population Management

Since its establishment in 1946 as the international body intended to manage whaling, the International Whaling Commission (IWC) has expanded its areas of interest to ensure the wider conservation of whales. Several key conservation topics have been taken forward under its auspices including climate change, chemical and noise pollution, marine debris and whale watching. Work on each of these topics at the IWC has grown substantially since the 1990s and remains ongoing. Important developments were the establishment of the Standing Working Group on Environmental Concerns in 1996 and the IWC’s Conservation Committee in 2003. Trying to address this diverse ...


Does The Seal Licensing System In Scotland Have A Negative Impact On Seal Welfare?, Laetitia Nunny, Fritha Langford, Mark P. Simmonds Aug 2016

Does The Seal Licensing System In Scotland Have A Negative Impact On Seal Welfare?, Laetitia Nunny, Fritha Langford, Mark P. Simmonds

Wildlife Population Management

This study examined the licensing system that permits seal shooting in Scotland, which was established under Part 6 Conservation of Seals of the Marine (Scotland) Act 2010. Four approaches were used: data were collated and analyzed from both the Scottish Government and Scottish Marine Animal Stranding Scheme; a survey was sent to current license holders and informal interviews were conducted with key stakeholder types. Between February 2011 and the end of October 2015, 1229 gray seals, and 275 common seals were reported shot under license to the Scottish Government. The numbers of seals reported as shot has reduced year-on-year since ...


Report Of Roaming Dog Survey Of Dhaka City Corporation, Bangladesh, Amit Chaudhari Jan 2016

Report Of Roaming Dog Survey Of Dhaka City Corporation, Bangladesh, Amit Chaudhari

Stray and Feral Animal Populations

In January 2016, Humane Society International (HSI) conducted a dog population survey of Dhaka City to estimate abundance of roaming dogs in the city, including both North and South City Corporation areas. Abundance is the total population size in a given area. A “roaming dog” is defined to mean any dog that may move freely at times on the city streets or other public areas, such as a “stray”, “community dog” or unconfined owned dog.


Wildlife In U.S. Cities: Managing Unwanted Animals, John Hadidian Nov 2015

Wildlife In U.S. Cities: Managing Unwanted Animals, John Hadidian

CONSERVATION

Conflicts between people and wild animals in cities are undoubtedly as old as urban living itself. In the United States it is only of late, however, that many of the species now found in cities have come to live there. The increasing kind and number of human-wildlife conflicts in urbanizing environments makes it a priority that effective and humane means of conflict resolution be found. The urban public wants conflicts with wildlife resolved humanely, but needs to know what the alternative management approaches are, and what ethical standards should guide their use. This paper examines contemporary urban wildlife control in ...


Promoting Predators And Compassionate Conservation, Arian D. Wallach, Marc Bekoff, Michael Paul Nelson, David Ramp Oct 2015

Promoting Predators And Compassionate Conservation, Arian D. Wallach, Marc Bekoff, Michael Paul Nelson, David Ramp

CONSERVATION

No abstract provided.


Unowned Cat Management In The State Of Ohio: Elements Of Best Practice In Public-Private Collaborative Efforts, Daniel D. Spehar Jul 2015

Unowned Cat Management In The State Of Ohio: Elements Of Best Practice In Public-Private Collaborative Efforts, Daniel D. Spehar

HSU STUDENT THESES AND CAPSTONE PROJECTS

A contentious debate over the management of free-roaming cat populations is ongoing. Nevertheless, disparate groups of stakeholders share a common goal of fewer community cats. Unowned cat management typically necessitates a choice between utilization of lethal or non-lethal measures. Research has indicated strong public support for employment of non-lethal methods, like trap-neuter-return (TNR). Collaborative TNR programs are experiencing success in a growing number of communities. The purpose of this exploratory study was to identify new or underutilized public-private collaborative practices, and associated elemental factors, that have the potential to be used as—or incorporated into—templates of best practice for ...


Baseline Survey For Street Dogs In Guam, John D. Boone Dec 2014

Baseline Survey For Street Dogs In Guam, John D. Boone

Stray and Feral Animal Populations

As is the case for many inhabited islands in Pacific region, dogs are common, including freeroaming street dogs that may be owned or unowned. Reproduction among dogs is largely unchecked, and many owned dogs do not receive adequate levels of basic care in the home or veterinary care when needed. For all of these reasons, Humane Society International (HSI) is exploring options for improving the management of street dog populations and promoting better treatment and care of all dogs on Guam and on the nearby islands of Rota and Saipan. One of the initial steps in this process was to ...


Baseline Survey For Street Dogs In Haryana State, India, Amit Chaudhari Nov 2014

Baseline Survey For Street Dogs In Haryana State, India, Amit Chaudhari

Stray and Feral Animal Populations

This report describes a systematic dog survey program that was performed by Humane Society International (HSI) in Haryana state, India, in June and October 2014. This survey was conducted in support of the National Rabies Control (NRC) program, with its primary goals being to:

(1) Collect baseline data prior to initiation of a program of humane dog population management (DPM) and rabies control,

(2) Establish a standardized survey framework for future monitoring of DPM program impact, and

(3) Generate a population size estimate for street dogs to assist in strategic and logistic planning for the DPM and NRC programs in ...


Personhood, Ethics, And Animal Cognition: Situating Animals In Hare’S Two-Level Utilitarianism, By Gary E. Varner / The Philosophy Of Animal Minds, Edited By Robert W. Lurz., Kristin Andrews Jan 2014

Personhood, Ethics, And Animal Cognition: Situating Animals In Hare’S Two-Level Utilitarianism, By Gary E. Varner / The Philosophy Of Animal Minds, Edited By Robert W. Lurz., Kristin Andrews

SENTIENCE

It seems to be a widely held belief that we should not try to trap, kill, and eat any creature that can relate the story of its close call. While this turns out to be a good rule from the perspective of R. M. Hare’s version of utilitarianism, other intuitive-level rules about the proper treatment of sentient beings require revision, or so Gary Varner argues in his recent book Personhood, Ethics, and Animal Cognition. After defending Hare’s two-level utilitarianism in the first section, Varner turns to the question of the kinds of beings who worthy of kinds of ...


Landmark Ruling On Whaling From The International Court Of Justice, Mark P. Simmonds Jan 2014

Landmark Ruling On Whaling From The International Court Of Justice, Mark P. Simmonds

LAWS AND LEGISLATION

On 31 March 2014, the International Court of Justice (ICJ) ruled that Japan’s whaling activities in Antarctica did not comply with Article VIII of the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling (ICRW), which permits whaling for scientific purposes. Copious and confusing media commentary followed the decision. This included seemingly conflicting reports from within Japan, which initially indicated whole-hearted compliance with the ruling, which required this whaling to cease, but later suggested that implementation by Japan might be limited to a brief halt followed by a launch of a new Antarctic ‘research’ programme including lethal take.


Measuring Humaneness: Can It Be Done, And What Does It Mean If It Can?, John Hadidian, Bernard Unti, John Griffin Jan 2014

Measuring Humaneness: Can It Be Done, And What Does It Mean If It Can?, John Hadidian, Bernard Unti, John Griffin

Humane Treatment of Animals

Differences over what constitutes humaneness in the control of wildlife have traditionally presented a roadblock to understanding, not to mention agreement, between animal welfare and wildlife damage management professionals. Complaints that a proposed action or given program is not humane can refer to everything from specific techniques to broader administrative justifications. A number of concepts have been used to describe welfare standards and measurements, and different assessment metrics have been developed in attempts to bring objectivity to what might prove, in the end, to be an intractably subjective domain. Some of the most widely used and serviceable of the concepts ...


Grizzly Bear Monitoring By The Heiltsuk People As A Crucible For First Nation Conservation Practice, William G. Housty, Anna Noson, Gerald W. Scoville, John Boulanger, Richard M. Jeo, Chris T. Darimont, Christopher E. Filardi Jan 2014

Grizzly Bear Monitoring By The Heiltsuk People As A Crucible For First Nation Conservation Practice, William G. Housty, Anna Noson, Gerald W. Scoville, John Boulanger, Richard M. Jeo, Chris T. Darimont, Christopher E. Filardi

Wildlife Population Management

Guided by deeply held cultural values, First Nations in Canada are rapidly regaining legal authority to manage natural resources. We present a research collaboration among academics, tribal government, provincial and federal government, resource managers, conservation practitioners, and community leaders supporting First Nation resource authority and stewardship. First, we present results from a molecular genetics study of grizzly bears inhabiting an important conservation area within the territory of the Heiltsuk First Nation in coastal British Columbia. Noninvasive hair sampling occurred between 2006 and 2009 in the Koeye watershed, a stronghold for grizzly bears, salmon, and Heiltsuk people. Molecular demographic analyses revealed ...


Confronting Uncertainty In Wildlife Management: Performance Of Grizzly Bear Management, Kyle A. Artelle, Sean C. Anderson, Andrew B. Cooper, Paul C. Paquet, John D. Reynolds, Chris T. Darimont Nov 2013

Confronting Uncertainty In Wildlife Management: Performance Of Grizzly Bear Management, Kyle A. Artelle, Sean C. Anderson, Andrew B. Cooper, Paul C. Paquet, John D. Reynolds, Chris T. Darimont

Wildlife Population Management

Scientific management of wildlife requires confronting the complexities of natural and social systems. Uncertainty poses a central problem. Whereas the importance of considering uncertainty has been widely discussed, studies of the effects of unaddressed uncertainty on real management systems have been rare. We examined the effects of outcome uncertainty and components of biological uncertainty on hunt management performance, illustrated with grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) in British Columbia, Canada. We found that both forms of uncertainty can have serious impacts on management performance. Outcome uncertainty alone – discrepancy between expected and realized mortality levels – led to excess mortality in 19% of ...


Explaining China’S Wildlife Crisis: Cultural Tradition Or Politics Of Development, Peter J. Li Jan 2013

Explaining China’S Wildlife Crisis: Cultural Tradition Or Politics Of Development, Peter J. Li

Threatened and Endangered Animal Populations

This chapter is about China’s wildlife crisis. As the following sections attempt to demonstrate, abuse of and assault on wildlife in captivity and in the wild have reached an unprecedented level on the Chinese mainland in the reform era (1978–present). Shocking brutality against wildlife animals has been frequently exposed by Chinese and international media. To readers outside East Asia, they ask if the Chinese are culturally indifferent to animal suffering. Indeed, does the Chinese culture sanction cruelty to animals? Or is it the contemporary politics of economic development that is more directly responsible for the crisis?


Science, Sentience, And Animal Welfare, Robert C. Jones Jan 2013

Science, Sentience, And Animal Welfare, Robert C. Jones

Ethics and Animal Welfare

I sketch briefly some of the more influential theories concerned with the moral status of nonhuman animals, highlighting their biological/physiological aspects. I then survey the most prominent empirical research on the physiological and cognitive capacities of nonhuman animals, focusing primarily on sentience, but looking also at a few other morally relevant capacities such as self-awareness, memory, and mindreading. Lastly, I discuss two examples of current animal welfare policy, namely, animals used in industrialized food production and in scientific research. I argue that even the most progressive current welfare policies lag behind, are ignorant of, or arbitrarily disregard the science ...


A ‘‘Practical’’ Ethic For Animals, David Fraser Oct 2012

A ‘‘Practical’’ Ethic For Animals, David Fraser

Ethics and Animal Welfare

Drawing on the features of ‘‘practical philosophy’’ described by Toulmin (1990), a ‘‘practical’’ ethic for animals would be rooted in knowledge of how people affect animals, and would provide guidance on the diverse ethical concerns that arise. Human activities affect animals in four broad ways: (1) keeping animals, for example, on farms and as companions, (2) causing intentional harm to animals, for example through slaughter and hunting, (3) causing direct but unintended harm to animals, for example by cropping practices and vehicle collisions, and (4) harming animals indirectly by disturbing life-sustaining processes and balances of nature, for example by habitat ...


Interactions Between Short-Beaked Common Dolphin (Delphinus Delphis) And The Winter Pelagic Pair-Trawl Fishery Ff Southwest England (Uk), Marijke N. De Boer, James T. Saulino, Mardik F. Leopold, Peter J.H. Reijnders, Mark P. Simmonds Oct 2012

Interactions Between Short-Beaked Common Dolphin (Delphinus Delphis) And The Winter Pelagic Pair-Trawl Fishery Ff Southwest England (Uk), Marijke N. De Boer, James T. Saulino, Mardik F. Leopold, Peter J.H. Reijnders, Mark P. Simmonds

AQUACULTURE

During offshore and onshore studies (2004 to 2009), the interactions between pair-trawls and short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) were studied to better understand the impact of bycatch. A ‘hotspot’ area where pair-trawls overlapped with high dolphin abundance was identified. We made comparisons between boat-based data collected in absence and presence of pair-trawlers. The relative abundance and group-size of dolphins was significantly higher in the presence of pair-trawlers. Dolphins were observed associating with towing and hauling procedures. Significantly, more carcasses occurred in areas with hauling-activity than those without. Body-temperatures obtained from carcasses found near operating pair-trawlers indicated that bycatch mostly occurred ...


Whaling: Don’T Trade The Moratorium Away, Mark Peter Simmonds, Sue Fisher Feb 2012

Whaling: Don’T Trade The Moratorium Away, Mark Peter Simmonds, Sue Fisher

CONSERVATION

In their proposal to allocate ‘whale shares’ to both whalers and conservationists as an alternative to the International Whaling Commission (IWC) moratorium on commercial whaling, Christopher Costello and colleagues overlook several factors (Nature 481, 139–140; 2012).


Taking The “Pest” Out Of Pest Control: Humaneness And Wildlife Damage Management, John Hadidian Jan 2012

Taking The “Pest” Out Of Pest Control: Humaneness And Wildlife Damage Management, John Hadidian

ATTITUDES TOWARD ANIMALS

Humans have been in the pest control business for a long time. At least 3 major foci of pest control activity currently can be found in governmental and private sectors, with private services focused on both traditional commensal rodent work as well as the more recent control of “nuisance” wildlife in cities and towns. Beyond the traditional approaches and techniques historically employed, animal damage managers are increasingly faced with the challenge of addressing the social context within which their work occurs. An ever-increasing variety of stakeholders have brought new concerns, new thinking, and new approaches to the table in a ...


Integrating Values And Ethics Into Wildlife Policy And Management—Lessons From North America, Camilla H. Fox, Marc Bekoff Mar 2011

Integrating Values And Ethics Into Wildlife Policy And Management—Lessons From North America, Camilla H. Fox, Marc Bekoff

CONSERVATION

Few animals provoke as wide a range of emotions as wolves. Some see wolves as icons of a lost wilderness; others see them as intruders. As the battle continues between wolf proponents and opponents, finding solutions that resolve conflicts while supporting the integrity of nature is challenging. In this essay we argue that we need to make room for wolves and other native carnivores who are re-colonizing areas from which they were extirpated. Strategies that foster coexistence are necessary and wildlife agencies must consider all stakeholders and invest adequate resources to inform the public about how to mitigate conflicts between ...


Microclimate Preferences Of The Grey-Headed Flying Fox (Pteropus Poliocephalus) In The Sydney Region, Stephanie T. Snoyman, Culum Brown Jan 2011

Microclimate Preferences Of The Grey-Headed Flying Fox (Pteropus Poliocephalus) In The Sydney Region, Stephanie T. Snoyman, Culum Brown

SENTIENCE

The population size of the grey-headed flying fox (Pteropus poliocephalus) has decreased dramatically as a result of a variety of threatening processes. This species spends a great proportion of time in roosting large social aggregations in urban areas, causing conflict between wildlife and humans. Little is known about why these bats choose to roost in some locations in preference to others. Roost selection by cave-dwelling bats can be greatly influenced by microclimatic variables; however, far less is known about microclimate selection in tree-roosting species despite the direct management implications. This study aimed to determine the microclimate characteristics of P. poliocephalus ...


Humane Cat Population Management Guidance, International Companion Animal Management Coalition Jan 2011

Humane Cat Population Management Guidance, International Companion Animal Management Coalition

Stray and Feral Animal Populations

The International Companion Animal Management Coalition has produced this document to provide government bodies and non-governmental organisations with a detailed resource to support them in their development and implementation of effective and humane programmes to manage cat populations.


Population Survey (Census) Of Stray Dog Population In Ahmedabad, Gujarat, Rahul Sehgal, Sunil Chawla, Jack Reece Jan 2011

Population Survey (Census) Of Stray Dog Population In Ahmedabad, Gujarat, Rahul Sehgal, Sunil Chawla, Jack Reece

Stray and Feral Animal Populations

Ahmadabad, the biggest city of Gujarat with a human population of approximately, 6 million. The rapidly expanding population of Ahmadabad means that the metropolitan region extends far outside from the confines of the old city. However, the development is rapid but uncontrolled. Therefore, there are a large number of areas that are prone to stray dogs and these areas are constantly increasing. The old methods of population control by strychnine poisoning or electrocution employed by the municipal corporations have not proved effective in controlling street dog populations, as new dogs soon migrate into the areas, where the local dog population ...