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Full-Text Articles in Nature and Society Relations

Reanalysis Data Underestimate Significant Changes In Growing Season Weather In Kazakhstan, C. K. Wright, K. M. De Beurs, Z. K. Akhmadiyeva, P. Y. Groisman, G. M. Henebry Oct 2016

Reanalysis Data Underestimate Significant Changes In Growing Season Weather In Kazakhstan, C. K. Wright, K. M. De Beurs, Z. K. Akhmadiyeva, P. Y. Groisman, G. M. Henebry

Geoffrey Henebry

We present time series analyses of recently compiled climate station data which allowed us to assess contemporary trends in growing season weather across Kazakhstan as drivers of a significant decline in growing season normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) recently observed by satellite remote sensing across much of Central Asia. We used a robust nonparametric time series analysis method, the seasonal Kendall trend test to analyze georeferenced time series of accumulated growing season precipitation (APPT) and accumulated growing degree-days (AGDD). Over the period 2000–2006 we found geographically extensive, statistically significant (p < 0.05) decreasing trends in APPT and increasing trends in AGDD. The temperature trends were especially apparent during the warm season and coincided with precipitation decreases in northwest Kazakhstan, indicating that pervasive drought conditions and higher temperature excursions were the likely drivers of NDVI declines observed in Kazakhstan over the same period. We also compared the APPT and AGDD trends at individual stations with results from trend analysis of gridded monthly precipitation data from the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) Full Data Reanalysis v4 and gridded daily near surface air temperature from the National Centers for Climate Prediction Reanalysis v2 (NCEP R2). We found substantial deviation between the station and the reanalysis trends, suggesting that GPCC and NCEP data substantially underestimate the geographic extent of recent drought in Kazakhstan. Although gridded climate products offer many advantages in ease of use and complete coverage, our findings for Kazakhstan should serve as a caveat against uncritical use of GPCC and NCEP reanalysis data and demonstrate the importance of compiling and standardizing daily climate data from data-sparse regions like Central Asia.


Remote Sensing-Based Time Series Models For Malaria Early Warning In The Highlands Of Ethiopia, A. Midekisa, G. Senay, G. M. Henebry, P. Semuniguse, M. C. Wimberly Oct 2016

Remote Sensing-Based Time Series Models For Malaria Early Warning In The Highlands Of Ethiopia, A. Midekisa, G. Senay, G. M. Henebry, P. Semuniguse, M. C. Wimberly

Geoffrey Henebry

Background

Malaria is one of the leading public health problems in most of sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in Ethiopia. Almost all demographic groups are at risk of malaria because of seasonal and unstable transmission of the disease. Therefore, there is a need to develop malaria early-warning systems to enhance public health decision making for control and prevention of malaria epidemics. Data from orbiting earth-observing sensors can monitor environmental risk factors that trigger malaria epidemics. Remotely sensed environmental indicators were used to examine the influences of climatic and environmental variability on temporal patterns of malaria cases in the Amhara region of Ethiopia ...


Assessing The Impacts Of Climate And Land Use And Land Cover Change On The Freshwater Availability In The Brahmaputra River Basin, M. S. Pervez, G. M. Henebry Oct 2016

Assessing The Impacts Of Climate And Land Use And Land Cover Change On The Freshwater Availability In The Brahmaputra River Basin, M. S. Pervez, G. M. Henebry

Geoffrey Henebry

Study Region: Brahmaputra River basin in South Asia.

Study Focus: The Soil and Water Assessment Tool was used to evaluate sensitivities and patterns in freshwater availability due to projected climate and land use changes in the Brahmaputra basin. The daily observed discharge at Bahadurabad station in Bangladesh was used to calibrate and validate the model and analyze uncertainties with a sequential uncertainty fitting algorithm. The sensitivities and impacts of projected climate and land use changes on basin hydrological components were simulated for the A1B and A2 scenarios and analyzed relative to a baseline scenario of 1988–2004.

New hydrological insights ...


Variability Of Lacustrine Sediment Proxy Responses To Late Holocene Climate Change As Modified By Lake Specific Processes: A Review Of Ecological And Geophysical Processes Across Northern And Eastern Iceland, Mallory Mintz Oct 2016

Variability Of Lacustrine Sediment Proxy Responses To Late Holocene Climate Change As Modified By Lake Specific Processes: A Review Of Ecological And Geophysical Processes Across Northern And Eastern Iceland, Mallory Mintz

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Consistenly-deposited lake sediments provide some of the highest resolution records of local and global climates in the past, offering the potential to better understand modern climate change in the context of past climate variability. In relating proxies to their respective climate regimes, the environmental cues that the specific proxies reacted to must be isolated from the general noise of possible local influences. In this investigation, biogenic silica (BSi), total organic carbon (TOC), δ13C values, and carbon: nitrogen ratios were analyzed between lakes through northern Iceland, to review possible complicating factors specific to the use of lacustrine proxies in the interpretation ...


Proxy Dating In Iceland Testing The Validity Of Silene Acaulis As A Phytometric Proxy, Madelyn Grant Oct 2016

Proxy Dating In Iceland Testing The Validity Of Silene Acaulis As A Phytometric Proxy, Madelyn Grant

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Climate change is causing drastic changes in the cryosphere, particularly in the Arctic region where average warming is 1.9 times greater than in the rest of the world due to Arctic amplification. Understanding the response of essential climate variables such as glaciers and ice caps to rapid Arctic warming is essential to predicting future changes in the Arctic region and around the world. Proxy dating methods can help construct a record of warming-induced glacial retreat in areas where long-term monitoring systems are not in place. In Arctic regions, the cushion plant Silene acaulis represents one of the only feasible ...


Living Infrastructure: Being, Time, And Government In New York City, Stephanie Diane Wakefield Sep 2016

Living Infrastructure: Being, Time, And Government In New York City, Stephanie Diane Wakefield

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation is a critical empirical and theoretical study of New York City’s post-Hurricane Sandy effort to build artificial oyster reefs off the coast of Staten Island, where it is hoped they will act as ‘resilient infrastructure’ capable of attenuating future storm surge and remediating polluted water in an urban environment now understood as a vast socio-technical-ecological system. Using oysters as a 'window' onto our present moment in NYC, I track a transformation in being, time and politics in the form of a new regime of government to manage systemic urban risk in the age of climate change. Rather ...


Patterns Of Time, Place, And Culture: Land Use Zoning In Portland, Oregon, 1918-1924, Meg Merrick Jul 2016

Patterns Of Time, Place, And Culture: Land Use Zoning In Portland, Oregon, 1918-1924, Meg Merrick

Meg Merrick

Until recently, few have questioned the notion that the separation of uses in land use zoning is inherently correct. Many observers of the city are now suggesting that zoning, as it has been practiced in this country over the last 80 years, has created cities that are fractured and function poorly. Others propose that zoning should be reconsidered as a remedy for urban dysfunction. They suggest that the whole notion of zoning be rethought.

The purpose of this study is to uncover some of the underlying rationales and methodologies that set the model for zoning. This study examines the rationales ...


Atlanta Greenspace, Travis Robinson Apr 2016

Atlanta Greenspace, Travis Robinson

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


One Year Later: The Politics And Stories Of Post-Earthquake Nepal, Boyer Andrew Apr 2016

One Year Later: The Politics And Stories Of Post-Earthquake Nepal, Boyer Andrew

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

A 7.8 magnitude earthquake struck Nepal on April 25th, 2015. This was followed by a second major earthquake of magnitude 7.3 on May 12th , 2015. These disasters took the lives of thousands of Nepali people, destroyed hundreds of thousands of structures, and displaced an estimated two million people. Immediately following the disaster, there was an outpouring of humanitarian aid from around the world. This lead to a conference where $4.1 billion USD of reconstruction funds were pledged to Nepal by international donors. Five months later, a new constitution passed into law and an informal blockade ...


Impermeable Assemblages: Flooding, Urban Infrastructure, And Stormwater Politics In São Paulo, Brazil, Nate Millington Jan 2016

Impermeable Assemblages: Flooding, Urban Infrastructure, And Stormwater Politics In São Paulo, Brazil, Nate Millington

Theses and Dissertations--Geography

This project analyzes efforts to remake the relationship between water and city in São Paulo, Brazil. Currently experiencing overlapping problems of flooding, scarcity, and pollution, São Paulo illustrates the challenges of managing water in a contemporary mega-city. This dissertation subsequently considers the city’s water management through an approach that borrows from urban political ecology, social studies of science, and post-colonial urban theory. With an epistemological grounding in these literatures, this project analyzes ongoing conversations about water management in São Paulo, and focuses on how water is encountered and engaged with in the landscape by engineers, artists, and activists. This ...


Pre-Colonial Foodways, Christina Gish Hill Jan 2016

Pre-Colonial Foodways, Christina Gish Hill

World Languages and Cultures Publications

By the time Europeans reached the shores of the Americas, the Indigenous peoples of the northern continent had developed food systems that efficiently utilized their abundant landscape to provide a relatively nutritious diet. The diversity of Indigenous food ways mirrored the diversity of the ecosystems of each people’s homeland. Lush forests east of the Mississippi harbored plentiful game and provided fertile soil for fields of corn, beans, and squash. Peoples who lived along the ocean coasts gathered tidewater resources, like shellfish, seaweed, and sea urchins. They also perfected seafaring vessels that could take them far from land, even to ...


Spatial Analysis Of Distributions And Habitat Conditions Of Fallopia Japonica (Japanese Knotweed) Invasive Species Applying Unmanned Helicopter Remote Sensing, Jiazhen Zhang Dec 2015

Spatial Analysis Of Distributions And Habitat Conditions Of Fallopia Japonica (Japanese Knotweed) Invasive Species Applying Unmanned Helicopter Remote Sensing, Jiazhen Zhang

Great Lakes Center Masters Theses

Abstract:

Fallopia japonica (Japanese knotweed) is a perennial herbaceous plant that is native to East Asia. It is considered as one of the worst invasive species worldwide because of its serious impact on biological diversity and human activities (Lowe et al., 2001). Once established, Japanese knotweed forms dense stands that shade and crowd out native plant species. The objectives of this research were to verify and confirm the distribution of Japanese knotweed as published online by the New York Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) – iMap and to identify the geographic areas of spreading and the local habitat conditions. In this ...


Transportation And Sanitation Drivers Of Land Use/Land Cover Change: Loss Of The Jamaica Bay Wetlands, Margaret Joy Cytryn Aug 2015

Transportation And Sanitation Drivers Of Land Use/Land Cover Change: Loss Of The Jamaica Bay Wetlands, Margaret Joy Cytryn

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

This thesis presents an analysis (1830-2014) of the historical events of land use/land cover change in the Jamaica Bay estuary, identification of the agents of change, and a perspective on the potential drivers of transportation and sanitation in land use/land cover change.


Bringing Football Back To Los Angeles, Gabriel Leiner Jul 2015

Bringing Football Back To Los Angeles, Gabriel Leiner

Gabriel Leiner

Identifying a suitable parcel for a large scale professional football stadium in the greater Los Angeles, CA area, which does not conflict with current uses, environmental protection codes, or airspace rights, and also has adequate transportation access and nearby populated neighborhoods.


Environment And Human Health In The Anthropocene: Interaction Between Natural And Social Systems In Coastal Tanzania, Frederick A. Armah Jul 2015

Environment And Human Health In The Anthropocene: Interaction Between Natural And Social Systems In Coastal Tanzania, Frederick A. Armah

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Coastal Tanzania, a region of historical and geopolitical importance in the western Indian Ocean, is a place where the problem of rapid environmental change is inextricably entwined with the challenges of development. In this region, although the fingerprint of the anthropocene has been discernible over the last century, there is paucity of research on how the population has interacted with the changing environment to generate disparities in perceptions of climate change and human health outcomes. The objectives of this thesis are four-fold: to assess barriers to climate change adaptation based on context (place), to explain group disparities in barriers to ...


A Decade Of Lessons Learned: The Local Implementation Of Stormwater Programs In Tennessee, Catherine Trudy Olsen May 2015

A Decade Of Lessons Learned: The Local Implementation Of Stormwater Programs In Tennessee, Catherine Trudy Olsen

Masters Theses

Over the past decade, communities across the nation have innovated, regulated, and constructed their way to managing urban stormwater runoff, with the grand goal of making the nation’s waters fishable and swimmable. Regulated under federal NPDES MS4 Phase II stormwater permits, communities have endeavored to implement the comprehensive requirements of this unfunded federal mandate. Reducing the considerable impact of municipal runoff on water resources across the country is imperative to the achievement of grand goals under the Clean Water Act: to restore and protect the quality of the nation’s waters (USEPA, 2000). Across the state of Tennessee, the ...


Time Series Analysis Of Modis Ndvi Data With Cloudy Pixels: Frequency-Domain And Sizer Analyses Of Vegetation Change In Western Rwanda, Ephraim Robert Love May 2015

Time Series Analysis Of Modis Ndvi Data With Cloudy Pixels: Frequency-Domain And Sizer Analyses Of Vegetation Change In Western Rwanda, Ephraim Robert Love

Masters Theses

Remote sensing is a valuable source of data for the study of human ecology in rural areas. In this thesis, I attempt to analyze the presence of a long-term trend indicative of post-resettlement adaptation in the vegetation signals of Western Rwanda. There is a dearth of research utilizing medium resolution imagery to study difficult environments, such as tropical-montane regions, where complex topography and cloud cover diminish image accuracy. I attempt to add to the extant literature on frequency-domain smoothing methods as well as the literature on human-environment interaction in tropical-montane regions by applying a harmonic filtering and smoothing algorithm to ...


The Demand For Change: A Study Of Recreational Amenities For Ramona Park, Nicholas K. Mucha May 2015

The Demand For Change: A Study Of Recreational Amenities For Ramona Park, Nicholas K. Mucha

Master's Theses

For years, Ramona Park has been a summer destination spot for residents of the City of Portage. With beach access as well as picnic areas and playground structures, Ramona Park has offered visitors a place to beat the summer heat. This thesis looks at what priorities visitors have for potential future developments in the park. Park visitors were surveyed during the summer months of May, June, July, and August of 2014 to see what should be included in future developments of the park, and the potential impacts of those improvements on future park usage. Initial findings indicated that visitors are ...


Environmental Impact Of Conference Realignment, Bradley Farley May 2015

Environmental Impact Of Conference Realignment, Bradley Farley

Master's Theses

Sports have a large impact on the environment. While leagues and teams are looking at improving their sustainability at stadiums, they also have increased their travel distances. NCAA Division I athletic conferences have recently endured conference realignments. This expanding geographic footprint of these conferences has led to teams having an increased travel distances for all sports. This research investigates the environmental impact of travel distances that conference realignment has had in NCAA Division I athletics, particularly regarding the Power 5 conferences carbon footprint. The research question examined is, based on travel distances, has the carbon footprint of the conferences changed ...


Empowering Young Children: Multi-Method Exploration Of Young Children’S Preference For Natural Or Manufactured Elements In Outdoor Preschool Settings, Zahra Zamani Apr 2015

Empowering Young Children: Multi-Method Exploration Of Young Children’S Preference For Natural Or Manufactured Elements In Outdoor Preschool Settings, Zahra Zamani

Zahra Zamani

When designing play environments for children, it is critical to understand children’s accounts of their experiences rather than making inferences based on observations or parental report. However, limited data is available on the views of young children. Further, few studies have focused on understanding young children’s perspective on enjoyable cognitive play opportunities via different elements in outdoor settings. Emphasizing on the value of hearing children’s voices, this study combined drawings, photo preferences, and interview methods to understand the perspectives of 22 four- to five-year-old children. These children were enrolled in a preschool with a manufactured, mixed, and ...


Habitat Suitability Study Of Parcel In Gourdneck State Game Area For Downy Woodpeckers, Emma Fojtik Apr 2015

Habitat Suitability Study Of Parcel In Gourdneck State Game Area For Downy Woodpeckers, Emma Fojtik

Honors Theses

This study examines the habitat suitability for Downy woodpecker for a parcel of land in Gourdneck State Game Area, Portage, Michigan. Land within the State Game Area has undergone habitat restoration from forest and shrub to savanna and prairie, intentionally excluding two parcels directly north of the restoration. This study took place on one of the excluded parcels. Using the Habitat Suitability Index Model produced by the Fish and Wildlife Service, basal area and number of snags within the study site were measured to determine suitability of the study site for Downy woodpeckers. Ten-1/10th acre sample plots were randomly ...


Using Gis To Identify At-Risk Populations Of Military-Generated Dust, Darcy Ann Ayers Apr 2015

Using Gis To Identify At-Risk Populations Of Military-Generated Dust, Darcy Ann Ayers

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

This project uses GIS and an anthropological perspective to identify local populations surrounding Pohakuloa Training Area (PTA) that are most at risk from military vehicle-generated dust. Using ArcGIS, the following data was analyzed in order to better understand impacts from dust on the local population: • Prevailing wind rose data from National Water and Climate Center under the USDA National Resources Conservation Service, • Digital Elevation Model (DEM) map of the island provided by National Elevation Dataset from USGS, and • The US Census data of the local population distribution surrounding the military base at PTA. When studying demographics, I evaluated the spatial ...


Maritime Exposure And Economic Prosperity: Why Location Matters, Jesse M. Lane Apr 2015

Maritime Exposure And Economic Prosperity: Why Location Matters, Jesse M. Lane

Geography Master's Theses

Maritime trade and access to deep water territory are important when determining a country’s economic success. Today, as much as 75% percent of trade is done over water. This thesis examines issues in economic geography such as the landlocked curse, resource curse, maritime port dependency, import and export competition, and trade openness, and attempts to explain the importance of maritime exposure. This study explores the relationship between six major factors in maritime exposure and overall economic prosperity. Findings suggest a positive correlation between maritime exposure and Gross Domestic Product (purchasing power parity and per capita). Interestingly, findings also show ...


Changing States: Using State-And-Transition Models To Evaluate Channel Evolution Following Dam Removal Along The Clark Fork River, Montana, Christopher Van Dyke Jan 2015

Changing States: Using State-And-Transition Models To Evaluate Channel Evolution Following Dam Removal Along The Clark Fork River, Montana, Christopher Van Dyke

Theses and Dissertations--Geography

Located just east of Missoula, Montana, Milltown Dam stood from 1908 to 2008 immediately downstream of the Clark Fork River’s confluence with the Blackfoot River. After the discovery of arsenic-contaminated groundwater in the nearby community of Milltown, as well as extensive deposits of contaminated sediment in the dam’s upstream reservoir, in 1981, the area was designated a Superfund site – along with much of the Upper Clark Fork Watershed. This motivated the eventual decision to remove the dam, perform environmental remediation, and reconstruct approximately five kilometers of the Clark Fork River and its floodplain. This study is part conceptual ...


Exploring Climate Change Driven Shifts To Water Rights And Policy Along The Colorado River, David Scarr Jan 2015

Exploring Climate Change Driven Shifts To Water Rights And Policy Along The Colorado River, David Scarr

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The goal of this study is to evaluate the current discussion on how climate driven shifts in hydrology will affect water rights and policy on the upper Colorado River. Global and local temperatures have been increasing steadily. In certain areas of Colorado snowmelt has shifted earlier and is likely to continue to do so. Precipitation as snow is decreasing at certain elevations in the Rocky Mountains. Focusing on water users in the western slope of Colorado, these environmental changes suggest a number of shifts in river hydrology. There will likely be less overall storage as snowpack and possibly earlier more ...


Roosevelt Lodge: Essence Of The Old West, Tamsen Hert, Karl Byrand, William Wyckoff, Lee Whittlesey, Langdon Smith, Diane Papineau, Yolonda Youngs Dec 2014

Roosevelt Lodge: Essence Of The Old West, Tamsen Hert, Karl Byrand, William Wyckoff, Lee Whittlesey, Langdon Smith, Diane Papineau, Yolonda Youngs

Tamsen Hert

This collection of essays explores the changing cultural landscapes and built environments of Yellowstone National Park.


Index-Based Insurance And Risk Management Among Nomadic Mongolian Herders , Kelsey Larson Dec 2014

Index-Based Insurance And Risk Management Among Nomadic Mongolian Herders , Kelsey Larson

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Mongolian herders must contend with the risk of dzuds, harsh winters that can kill large numbers of livestock. To do so, they use a mixture of formal financial tools and traditional risk mitigation techniques. This paper is a study of the interaction between the Mongolian Index-based Livestock Insurance Program and traditional informal risk mitigation techniques. The researcher interviews herders in Bulgan soum, Arhangai aimag and Galuut soum, Bayanhongor aimag to compare the IBLI program’s impact in a community that has had IBLI since 2006 and one that only received IBLI in 2012. This study finds that insurance purchase is ...


Stream Temperature Management In The Tualatin Watershed: Is It Improving Salmonid Habitat?, Raymond Banks Hennings Nov 2014

Stream Temperature Management In The Tualatin Watershed: Is It Improving Salmonid Habitat?, Raymond Banks Hennings

Geography Masters Research Papers

The purpose of this paper is to examine the literature from scientific and governmental entities that describes the problems with elevated stream temperatures in the Tualatin basin, the actions being taken to resolve those problems, and to assess whether these actions are meeting the goal of improving salmonid habitat in the basin. Elevated stream temperatures are considered a pollutant under the US Clean Water Act (Clean Water Act 1972, as amended) because increased stream temperatures can be harmful to native aquatic biota, particularly salmonid fish species that have evolved to use cold water (IMST 2004).


Assessing The Impacts Of Climate And Land Use And Land Cover Change On The Freshwater Availability In The Brahmaputra River Basin, M. S. Pervez, G. M. Henebry Oct 2014

Assessing The Impacts Of Climate And Land Use And Land Cover Change On The Freshwater Availability In The Brahmaputra River Basin, M. S. Pervez, G. M. Henebry

Natural Resource Management Faculty Publications

Study Region: Brahmaputra River basin in South Asia.

Study Focus: The Soil and Water Assessment Tool was used to evaluate sensitivities and patterns in freshwater availability due to projected climate and land use changes in the Brahmaputra basin. The daily observed discharge at Bahadurabad station in Bangladesh was used to calibrate and validate the model and analyze uncertainties with a sequential uncertainty fitting algorithm. The sensitivities and impacts of projected climate and land use changes on basin hydrological components were simulated for the A1B and A2 scenarios and analyzed relative to a baseline scenario of 1988–2004.

New hydrological insights ...


Book Review - Roadside Geology Of Georgia, Melissa E. Johnson Oct 2014

Book Review - Roadside Geology Of Georgia, Melissa E. Johnson

Georgia Library Quarterly

A review of the book, Roadside Geography of Georgia.