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Analysis And Conservation Of Native Forests At Kessler Mountain Fayetteville, Arkansas, Alan James Edmondson May 2019

Analysis And Conservation Of Native Forests At Kessler Mountain Fayetteville, Arkansas, Alan James Edmondson

Theses and Dissertations

Kessler Mountain in Fayetteville Arkansas has long been recognized for its beauty and natural resources. Parts of Kessler Mountain have been homesteaded and developed in the past, but most of the mountain has remained relatively undisturbed. The planned development of over 4,000 housing units to cover Kessler Mountain stimulated controversy and consideration of other management alternatives. A twist of fate involving an economic recession, a dedicated group of outdoor recreation enthusiasts, and environmental conservationists led to the permanent protection of 384 acres in the Kessler Mountain Regional Park. To help evaluate the natural resources at Kessler Mountain, forest composition ...


Comparison Of The Practical Applications And Limitations Of Insar And Structure From Motion Depictions Of Surface Elevation Flux For Academic Purposes, John Andrew Scherer Jan 2019

Comparison Of The Practical Applications And Limitations Of Insar And Structure From Motion Depictions Of Surface Elevation Flux For Academic Purposes, John Andrew Scherer

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This paper seeks to identify the strengths and weaknesses of two remote sensing methods used for determining surface elevation flux (the difference in land surface elevation heights over a given time period): Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) and Drone Imagery processed using Structure from Motion (SFM) Techniques. This goal was accomplished by processing imagery from both platforms separately, before conducting a study of the same area and comparing the two methods analytically. A time-series of interferograms was generated on the study area of the Climax Mine and Mill near Leadville, CO and multiple drone flights were flown over an additional ...


The Impacts Of Green Spaces On Crime In New York City, Matthew Edward Iannone Jr. May 2018

The Impacts Of Green Spaces On Crime In New York City, Matthew Edward Iannone Jr.

Student Theses 2015-Present

From the early 1960s through the mid-1990s, crime in New York City ran rampant. With a gradually dwindling police during this time, a high unemployment rate, and an rapidly increasing metropolitan population, crime peaked in the early 1990s, with the murder rate hitting a record-high of 2,245 in 1990. When Mayor Rudy Giuliani took office in 1994 and appoint Bill Bratton as the NYPD police commissioner, these rates immediately plunged. Numerous factors may have contributed to this sudden decline in crime: the police force grew significantly through the 1990s, more criminals were placed and held in prison, and the ...


Ecological Sustainability Within California's Improved Forest Management Carbon Offsets Program, Cory Hertog May 2018

Ecological Sustainability Within California's Improved Forest Management Carbon Offsets Program, Cory Hertog

International Development, Community and Environment (IDCE)

Forest Carbon offsets are being used as a climate change mitigation strategy in multiple programs around the world. But, are programs setup in a way that are ecologically sustainable? This paper reviews concepts pertinent to ecologically sustainable forest management and then examines if Improved Forest Management Carbon offset policies and projects within the California emissions trading scheme are setup in an ecologically sustainable manner. After a review of the Improved Forest Management Protocol and 31 project documents, it is apparent that policies and projects promote aspects of ecologically sustainable management. However, there is room for improvement when managing for natural ...


Creating Web Maps Of Forest Restoration Plots At Iracambi Atlantic Rainforest Research Center, Minas Gerais, Brazil, Daniel Lassila May 2018

Creating Web Maps Of Forest Restoration Plots At Iracambi Atlantic Rainforest Research Center, Minas Gerais, Brazil, Daniel Lassila

International Development, Community and Environment (IDCE)

The purpose of this report is to provide a detailed account, discussion, and analysis of my internship at Iracambi Atlantic Rainforest Research Center in Minas Gerais, Brazil during the summer of 2017, where I worked under the direction of GIS Supervisor Mr. Cliff Jones. The central focus of my work dealt with consolidating existing GIS data on the organization’s rainforest restoration effort into a single normalized database - based on the Atlantic Forest Restoration Pact, creating a structure for future forest restoration volunteers including enabling offline field collection using Collector for ArcGIS, then creating an ArcGIS Online web map based ...


Geochemistry Of Archaeological And Marine Environments In Southwest Maine, Heather L. Bushie Jan 2018

Geochemistry Of Archaeological And Marine Environments In Southwest Maine, Heather L. Bushie

Thinking Matters Symposium

Two archaeological excavations for the University of Southern Maine collected sediment columns from select units for geological and chemical analysis. The Spiller Farms site is a Native American site located in Wells, Maine marking a transition period between the Pleistocene and Holocene epochs, 12,000 BP. The Malaga Island site was a historic mixed-race community at the north end of Casco Bay where sediment columns were obtained in near-shore and subtidal zones. The samples obtained from Malaga Island have been radiocarbon dated to 3800 +/- 30 BP at 23 meters below the low-tide line. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis is being conducted ...


Geomorphic Consequences Of Hydroelectricity And Transportation Development Near Celilo Falls, Lower Mid-Colombia River, Washington, Noah I. Oliver Jan 2018

Geomorphic Consequences Of Hydroelectricity And Transportation Development Near Celilo Falls, Lower Mid-Colombia River, Washington, Noah I. Oliver

All Master's Theses

Along the Columbia River, hundreds of miles of transportation infrastructure and over sixty hydroelectric dams have been constructed. This altered a rich cultural landscape with evidence of 10,000 years of continuous occupation. Researchers have attempted to understand the impacts of anthropogenic factors on the Columbia River, focusing on the riverine environment. However, the effect of transportation and hydroelectricity developments to eolian landforms on the floodplains and adjoining slopes have not been studied. Focusing on 2,800 acres near Celilo Falls, this study 1) establishes a baseline condition of eolian landforms from 1805 to 1900; 2) conducts an air photo ...


The Sylvan Blindspot: The Archaeological Value Of Surface Vegetation And A Critique Of Its Documentation, John S. Harris Jan 2018

The Sylvan Blindspot: The Archaeological Value Of Surface Vegetation And A Critique Of Its Documentation, John S. Harris

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Surface vegetation at archaeological sites is a resource overlooked in cultural resource management. Drawing upon comparative documentary surveys of site forms and human surveys of 161 archaeologists in 12 U.S. states, this thesis explores why surface vegetation offers archaeological data potential; how archaeological documentation is an artifact of archaeologists, shaped by various subjectivities; and how improvements can be made for vegetal description in cultural inventory site forms. The surveys offer a critique on how the site form records are a product of disciplinary training oversights, differing work background experience, cultural bias, limitations in botanical knowledge, regional differences in U ...


Wilket Creek: Urbanization, Geomorphology, Policy, And Design, Danielle Barr May 2017

Wilket Creek: Urbanization, Geomorphology, Policy, And Design, Danielle Barr

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The understanding of the morphology of an urbanized channel is currently limited to a ‘black box’ understanding in that the main driving force of morphological change is hydrologic. This study aimed to expand our understanding of urbanized channels by conducting a socio-geomorphological investigation; that is, the natural and policy-driven events and processes leading to the current channel form. A fluvial audit including historical analysis and fieldwork was conducted in Wilket Creek, a southern Ontario urbanized channel, along with a review of provincial and municipal policy and reports. Overall, it was concluded that the current morphology of Wilket Creek is the ...


Where The Sidewalk Ends: Reimagining Urban Place And Governance In Semarang, Indonesia, Emmaleah K. Jones May 2017

Where The Sidewalk Ends: Reimagining Urban Place And Governance In Semarang, Indonesia, Emmaleah K. Jones

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Purpose: This project analyzes the uses of space and geography up the scales of political organization – from the village to the municipal – attempting to find the intersections where physical space meets governance using Semarang, Indonesia as my strategic case. This research employs a biocultural lens, addressing the existing gaps in literature by advancing a framework to function across disciplines and ultimately reconnecting to its practical application in urban planning and design. Such a framework is important in providing a blueprint for building a coherent and supportive structure on which to assess the human impact of design and contribute new “human-centered ...


Understanding The Vulnerability Of The Population Of Afghanistan Under Multiple Natural And Anthropogenic Risks With An Indicator-Based Analysis, Matthew Repine Miller May 2017

Understanding The Vulnerability Of The Population Of Afghanistan Under Multiple Natural And Anthropogenic Risks With An Indicator-Based Analysis, Matthew Repine Miller

Masters Theses

The purpose of this study is to understand the vulnerability to natural and anthropogenic hazards of the population of Afghanistan and the social factors which enhance or moderate such vulnerability. While vulnerability studies are commonly conducted in the United States, as well as many other global north countries, most studies of this type utilize data collected by central government entities in the form of a census which is periodically executed and uses standardized collection methods. In the case of Afghanistan, and many other countries in the global south, such data is hard to acquire, lacks a high level of confidence ...


Fundamental Insight To Protect Ecosystems: Factors Influencing Residents' Acceptance Of Land Conservation In Boulder, Colorado, Catherine A. Archer Jan 2017

Fundamental Insight To Protect Ecosystems: Factors Influencing Residents' Acceptance Of Land Conservation In Boulder, Colorado, Catherine A. Archer

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Abstract

Land conservation has become an essential scientific field for protecting our environment, species, and resources. While the benefits of land conservation are well known, there is still criticism from communities and individuals. The City of Boulder, Colorado is often revered as a celebrated example for land conservation and its residents’ participation in conservation initiatives. Through an in-person survey, this honors thesis examines what factors influence Boulder residents’ acceptance of land conservation. By pinpointing the factors that impact an individuals’ acceptance of land conservation efforts, government officials, nonprofit organizations, and communities can target their land conservation initiatives to appeal to ...


A New Data Set For Assessing The Cold Content Of The Rocky Mountain West Snowpack, Jeffrey Schmidt Jan 2017

A New Data Set For Assessing The Cold Content Of The Rocky Mountain West Snowpack, Jeffrey Schmidt

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Abstract

Snowpack cold content (CCsnow) is the energy required to bring a snowpack to an isothermal temperature of 0.0°C. CCsnow is a snow characteristic that integrates the response of a snowpack to components of the snow-cover energy balance. An improved understanding of the spatiotemporal variability of CCsnow may provide insight into dynamics and sensitivity of the snowpack to climate change. In this study, snowpit observations of snow water equivalent (SWE), snow temperature (Tsnow) and snow density (⍴snow) from the United States Geologic Survey Rocky Mountain Snowpack Chemistry Program (USGS RMS) were used to evaluate ...


A Comparison Of Land Use And Land Cover In Public Lands Of The Northwestern Great Plains And High Plains Ecoregions And The Implications For Grassland Birds, Dawn L. Siemonsma Jan 2017

A Comparison Of Land Use And Land Cover In Public Lands Of The Northwestern Great Plains And High Plains Ecoregions And The Implications For Grassland Birds, Dawn L. Siemonsma

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Loss and degradation of grassland habitat are driving forces that contribute to widespread declines of grassland birds in the United States. Many studies have evaluated habitat needs for the conservation of grassland birds, but the relative contribution of public lands in representing and maintaining avian biodiversity remains poorly understood. Having a better understanding of the role that publicly managed grasslands play in the conservation of grassland bird habitat is important for assessing the value of the investment the American public makes in these lands. Therefore, I investigated spatial relations among variations in amounts and distributions of publicly owned and managed ...


Living Infrastructure: Being, Time, And Government In New York City, Stephanie Diane Wakefield Sep 2016

Living Infrastructure: Being, Time, And Government In New York City, Stephanie Diane Wakefield

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation is a critical empirical and theoretical study of New York City’s post-Hurricane Sandy effort to build artificial oyster reefs off the coast of Staten Island, where it is hoped they will act as ‘resilient infrastructure’ capable of attenuating future storm surge and remediating polluted water in an urban environment now understood as a vast socio-technical-ecological system. Using oysters as a 'window' onto our present moment in NYC, I track a transformation in being, time and politics in the form of a new regime of government to manage systemic urban risk in the age of climate change. Rather ...


Impermeable Assemblages: Flooding, Urban Infrastructure, And Stormwater Politics In São Paulo, Brazil, Nate Millington Jan 2016

Impermeable Assemblages: Flooding, Urban Infrastructure, And Stormwater Politics In São Paulo, Brazil, Nate Millington

Theses and Dissertations--Geography

This project analyzes efforts to remake the relationship between water and city in São Paulo, Brazil. Currently experiencing overlapping problems of flooding, scarcity, and pollution, São Paulo illustrates the challenges of managing water in a contemporary mega-city. This dissertation subsequently considers the city’s water management through an approach that borrows from urban political ecology, social studies of science, and post-colonial urban theory. With an epistemological grounding in these literatures, this project analyzes ongoing conversations about water management in São Paulo, and focuses on how water is encountered and engaged with in the landscape by engineers, artists, and activists. This ...


Spatial Analysis Of Distributions And Habitat Conditions Of Fallopia Japonica (Japanese Knotweed) Invasive Species Applying Unmanned Helicopter Remote Sensing, Jiazhen Zhang Dec 2015

Spatial Analysis Of Distributions And Habitat Conditions Of Fallopia Japonica (Japanese Knotweed) Invasive Species Applying Unmanned Helicopter Remote Sensing, Jiazhen Zhang

Great Lakes Center Masters Theses

Abstract:

Fallopia japonica (Japanese knotweed) is a perennial herbaceous plant that is native to East Asia. It is considered as one of the worst invasive species worldwide because of its serious impact on biological diversity and human activities (Lowe et al., 2001). Once established, Japanese knotweed forms dense stands that shade and crowd out native plant species. The objectives of this research were to verify and confirm the distribution of Japanese knotweed as published online by the New York Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) – iMap and to identify the geographic areas of spreading and the local habitat conditions. In this ...


Transportation And Sanitation Drivers Of Land Use/Land Cover Change: Loss Of The Jamaica Bay Wetlands, Margaret Joy Cytryn Aug 2015

Transportation And Sanitation Drivers Of Land Use/Land Cover Change: Loss Of The Jamaica Bay Wetlands, Margaret Joy Cytryn

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

This thesis presents an analysis (1830-2014) of the historical events of land use/land cover change in the Jamaica Bay estuary, identification of the agents of change, and a perspective on the potential drivers of transportation and sanitation in land use/land cover change.


Environment And Human Health In The Anthropocene: Interaction Between Natural And Social Systems In Coastal Tanzania, Frederick A. Armah Jul 2015

Environment And Human Health In The Anthropocene: Interaction Between Natural And Social Systems In Coastal Tanzania, Frederick A. Armah

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Coastal Tanzania, a region of historical and geopolitical importance in the western Indian Ocean, is a place where the problem of rapid environmental change is inextricably entwined with the challenges of development. In this region, although the fingerprint of the anthropocene has been discernible over the last century, there is paucity of research on how the population has interacted with the changing environment to generate disparities in perceptions of climate change and human health outcomes. The objectives of this thesis are four-fold: to assess barriers to climate change adaptation based on context (place), to explain group disparities in barriers to ...


A Decade Of Lessons Learned: The Local Implementation Of Stormwater Programs In Tennessee, Catherine Trudy Olsen May 2015

A Decade Of Lessons Learned: The Local Implementation Of Stormwater Programs In Tennessee, Catherine Trudy Olsen

Masters Theses

Over the past decade, communities across the nation have innovated, regulated, and constructed their way to managing urban stormwater runoff, with the grand goal of making the nation’s waters fishable and swimmable. Regulated under federal NPDES MS4 Phase II stormwater permits, communities have endeavored to implement the comprehensive requirements of this unfunded federal mandate. Reducing the considerable impact of municipal runoff on water resources across the country is imperative to the achievement of grand goals under the Clean Water Act: to restore and protect the quality of the nation’s waters (USEPA, 2000). Across the state of Tennessee, the ...


Time Series Analysis Of Modis Ndvi Data With Cloudy Pixels: Frequency-Domain And Sizer Analyses Of Vegetation Change In Western Rwanda, Ephraim Robert Love May 2015

Time Series Analysis Of Modis Ndvi Data With Cloudy Pixels: Frequency-Domain And Sizer Analyses Of Vegetation Change In Western Rwanda, Ephraim Robert Love

Masters Theses

Remote sensing is a valuable source of data for the study of human ecology in rural areas. In this thesis, I attempt to analyze the presence of a long-term trend indicative of post-resettlement adaptation in the vegetation signals of Western Rwanda. There is a dearth of research utilizing medium resolution imagery to study difficult environments, such as tropical-montane regions, where complex topography and cloud cover diminish image accuracy. I attempt to add to the extant literature on frequency-domain smoothing methods as well as the literature on human-environment interaction in tropical-montane regions by applying a harmonic filtering and smoothing algorithm to ...


The Demand For Change: A Study Of Recreational Amenities For Ramona Park, Nicholas K. Mucha May 2015

The Demand For Change: A Study Of Recreational Amenities For Ramona Park, Nicholas K. Mucha

Master's Theses

For years, Ramona Park has been a summer destination spot for residents of the City of Portage. With beach access as well as picnic areas and playground structures, Ramona Park has offered visitors a place to beat the summer heat. This thesis looks at what priorities visitors have for potential future developments in the park. Park visitors were surveyed during the summer months of May, June, July, and August of 2014 to see what should be included in future developments of the park, and the potential impacts of those improvements on future park usage. Initial findings indicated that visitors are ...


Environmental Impact Of Conference Realignment, Bradley Farley May 2015

Environmental Impact Of Conference Realignment, Bradley Farley

Master's Theses

Sports have a large impact on the environment. While leagues and teams are looking at improving their sustainability at stadiums, they also have increased their travel distances. NCAA Division I athletic conferences have recently endured conference realignments. This expanding geographic footprint of these conferences has led to teams having an increased travel distances for all sports. This research investigates the environmental impact of travel distances that conference realignment has had in NCAA Division I athletics, particularly regarding the Power 5 conferences carbon footprint. The research question examined is, based on travel distances, has the carbon footprint of the conferences changed ...


Habitat Suitability Study Of Parcel In Gourdneck State Game Area For Downy Woodpeckers, Emma Fojtik Apr 2015

Habitat Suitability Study Of Parcel In Gourdneck State Game Area For Downy Woodpeckers, Emma Fojtik

Honors Theses

This study examines the habitat suitability for Downy woodpecker for a parcel of land in Gourdneck State Game Area, Portage, Michigan. Land within the State Game Area has undergone habitat restoration from forest and shrub to savanna and prairie, intentionally excluding two parcels directly north of the restoration. This study took place on one of the excluded parcels. Using the Habitat Suitability Index Model produced by the Fish and Wildlife Service, basal area and number of snags within the study site were measured to determine suitability of the study site for Downy woodpeckers. Ten-1/10th acre sample plots were randomly ...


Maritime Exposure And Economic Prosperity: Why Location Matters, Jesse M. Lane Apr 2015

Maritime Exposure And Economic Prosperity: Why Location Matters, Jesse M. Lane

Geography Master's Theses

Maritime trade and access to deep water territory are important when determining a country’s economic success. Today, as much as 75% percent of trade is done over water. This thesis examines issues in economic geography such as the landlocked curse, resource curse, maritime port dependency, import and export competition, and trade openness, and attempts to explain the importance of maritime exposure. This study explores the relationship between six major factors in maritime exposure and overall economic prosperity. Findings suggest a positive correlation between maritime exposure and Gross Domestic Product (purchasing power parity and per capita). Interestingly, findings also show ...


Changing States: Using State-And-Transition Models To Evaluate Channel Evolution Following Dam Removal Along The Clark Fork River, Montana, Christopher Van Dyke Jan 2015

Changing States: Using State-And-Transition Models To Evaluate Channel Evolution Following Dam Removal Along The Clark Fork River, Montana, Christopher Van Dyke

Theses and Dissertations--Geography

Located just east of Missoula, Montana, Milltown Dam stood from 1908 to 2008 immediately downstream of the Clark Fork River’s confluence with the Blackfoot River. After the discovery of arsenic-contaminated groundwater in the nearby community of Milltown, as well as extensive deposits of contaminated sediment in the dam’s upstream reservoir, in 1981, the area was designated a Superfund site – along with much of the Upper Clark Fork Watershed. This motivated the eventual decision to remove the dam, perform environmental remediation, and reconstruct approximately five kilometers of the Clark Fork River and its floodplain. This study is part conceptual ...


Exploring Climate Change Driven Shifts To Water Rights And Policy Along The Colorado River, David Scarr Jan 2015

Exploring Climate Change Driven Shifts To Water Rights And Policy Along The Colorado River, David Scarr

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The goal of this study is to evaluate the current discussion on how climate driven shifts in hydrology will affect water rights and policy on the upper Colorado River. Global and local temperatures have been increasing steadily. In certain areas of Colorado snowmelt has shifted earlier and is likely to continue to do so. Precipitation as snow is decreasing at certain elevations in the Rocky Mountains. Focusing on water users in the western slope of Colorado, these environmental changes suggest a number of shifts in river hydrology. There will likely be less overall storage as snowpack and possibly earlier more ...


Stream Temperature Management In The Tualatin Watershed: Is It Improving Salmonid Habitat?, Raymond Banks Hennings Nov 2014

Stream Temperature Management In The Tualatin Watershed: Is It Improving Salmonid Habitat?, Raymond Banks Hennings

Geography Masters Research Papers

The purpose of this paper is to examine the literature from scientific and governmental entities that describes the problems with elevated stream temperatures in the Tualatin basin, the actions being taken to resolve those problems, and to assess whether these actions are meeting the goal of improving salmonid habitat in the basin. Elevated stream temperatures are considered a pollutant under the US Clean Water Act (Clean Water Act 1972, as amended) because increased stream temperatures can be harmful to native aquatic biota, particularly salmonid fish species that have evolved to use cold water (IMST 2004).


Michigan's Clay Bluffs: The Description And Comparison Of An Erosion-Dependent Natural Community, Nathaniel G. Fuller Aug 2014

Michigan's Clay Bluffs: The Description And Comparison Of An Erosion-Dependent Natural Community, Nathaniel G. Fuller

Master's Theses

The clay bluffs of Michigan are a natural community found along the shores of the Great Lakes. Groundwater is found to be critical to sustaining the alkaline wetlands on the face of the bluff as well as the source of most erosion events. The clay bluffs are unusual in their vegetation, disturbance regime and geographical context. This thesis focuses primarily on describing seeping clay bluffs and exploring the comparison to other natural communities. The purpose of this is twofold, to better understand the ways in which natural communities are described as distinct from one another, and to assess the distinctness ...


Integrating Seismic Activity Into Land Use Management: A Case Study From Central Arkansas Using Hazus Software Application, Robert Dean Breashears May 2014

Integrating Seismic Activity Into Land Use Management: A Case Study From Central Arkansas Using Hazus Software Application, Robert Dean Breashears

Theses and Dissertations

Almost 20 years after a remarkable swarm of more than 30,000 micro-earthquakes, a new swarm revisited the same region of central Arkansas, less than 30 miles northeast of Conway, Arkansas. A main shock on May 4, 2001 of magnitude MR = 4.4 was followed by a large number of aftershocks in a small crustal volume about 2,500 events for about 2 months. Preliminary locations of aftershocks from the portable network together with the locations based on data from regional networks lead us to conclude that both swarms (2001 and 1982) occupy virtually the same crustal volume. In following ...