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Full-Text Articles in Nature and Society Relations

California Groundwater Management, Science-Policy Interfaces, And The Legacies Of Artificial Legal Distinctions, David Owen, Alida Cantor, Nell Green Nylen, Thomas Harter, Michael Kiparsky Feb 2019

California Groundwater Management, Science-Policy Interfaces, And The Legacies Of Artificial Legal Distinctions, David Owen, Alida Cantor, Nell Green Nylen, Thomas Harter, Michael Kiparsky

Geography Faculty Publications and Presentations

California water law has traditionally treated groundwater and surface water as separate resources. The 2014 Sustainable Groundwater Management Act (SGMA) broke with this tradition by requiring groundwater managers to avoid significant and unreasonable adverse impacts to beneficial uses of surface water. This paper considers the trajectory of this partial integration of science, law, and resource management policy. Drawing on legal analysis and participatory workshops with subject area experts, we describe the challenges of reconciling the separate legal systems that grew out of an artificial legal distinction between different aspects of the same resource.

Our analysis offers two main contributions. First ...


Balance And Imbalance: The Necessity Of Natural Disasters In Balinese Hinduism, Lorin Foster Demuth Oct 2018

Balance And Imbalance: The Necessity Of Natural Disasters In Balinese Hinduism, Lorin Foster Demuth

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

No abstract provided.


Land Insecurity In Gulu, Uganda: A Clash Between Culture And Capitalism, Zachary Slotkin Oct 2017

Land Insecurity In Gulu, Uganda: A Clash Between Culture And Capitalism, Zachary Slotkin

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This paper presents the causes and consequences of land insecurity in Gulu, Uganda. In order to address this important and often sensitive issue, the paper analyzes the role of the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) insurgency and the government’s policy of forced encampment during the insurgency in contributing to land insecurity, causing widespread displacement among former internally displaced persons (IDPs). It further explores the importance of land ownership in providing economic productivity to rural landowners, as well as the nature of customary land tenure in Acholi culture and the government’s efforts to privatize communal land, to give a ...


The Anthropocene, Overview, Scott W. Schwartz May 2017

The Anthropocene, Overview, Scott W. Schwartz

Open Educational Resources

This presentation offers an overview of the developing concept of The Anthropocene -- a term coined to describe our current geological epoch, in which human impact on the planet will leave a permanent trace.


Dewitt, Iowa: Smart Growth Design, Dr. Christopher Strunk, Melisa Ribikawskis Jan 2017

Dewitt, Iowa: Smart Growth Design, Dr. Christopher Strunk, Melisa Ribikawskis

2016-2017: DeWitt, Iowa

As part of the Sustainable Working Landscapes Initiative project, two urban geography and planning classes researched Smart Growth principles and their applicability for the City of DeWitt. Smart Growth is a cohesive set of design philosophies that prioritizes mixed-use development over single-use development, pedestrian–friendly and bike-friendly transportation over automobile-dominated transportation, and infill development over peripheral development. Dozens of governmental, businesses, and civic organizations, including the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), have recognized the movement by founding the Smart Growth Network, which is an association that promotes Smart Growth nationwide.

Local officials in DeWitt are interested in incorporating the principles of ...


Variability Of Lacustrine Sediment Proxy Responses To Late Holocene Climate Change As Modified By Lake Specific Processes: A Review Of Ecological And Geophysical Processes Across Northern And Eastern Iceland, Mallory Mintz Oct 2016

Variability Of Lacustrine Sediment Proxy Responses To Late Holocene Climate Change As Modified By Lake Specific Processes: A Review Of Ecological And Geophysical Processes Across Northern And Eastern Iceland, Mallory Mintz

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Consistenly-deposited lake sediments provide some of the highest resolution records of local and global climates in the past, offering the potential to better understand modern climate change in the context of past climate variability. In relating proxies to their respective climate regimes, the environmental cues that the specific proxies reacted to must be isolated from the general noise of possible local influences. In this investigation, biogenic silica (BSi), total organic carbon (TOC), δ13C values, and carbon: nitrogen ratios were analyzed between lakes through northern Iceland, to review possible complicating factors specific to the use of lacustrine proxies in the interpretation ...


Proxy Dating In Iceland Testing The Validity Of Silene Acaulis As A Phytometric Proxy, Madelyn Grant Oct 2016

Proxy Dating In Iceland Testing The Validity Of Silene Acaulis As A Phytometric Proxy, Madelyn Grant

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Climate change is causing drastic changes in the cryosphere, particularly in the Arctic region where average warming is 1.9 times greater than in the rest of the world due to Arctic amplification. Understanding the response of essential climate variables such as glaciers and ice caps to rapid Arctic warming is essential to predicting future changes in the Arctic region and around the world. Proxy dating methods can help construct a record of warming-induced glacial retreat in areas where long-term monitoring systems are not in place. In Arctic regions, the cushion plant Silene acaulis represents one of the only feasible ...


One Year Later: The Politics And Stories Of Post-Earthquake Nepal, Boyer Andrew Apr 2016

One Year Later: The Politics And Stories Of Post-Earthquake Nepal, Boyer Andrew

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

A 7.8 magnitude earthquake struck Nepal on April 25th, 2015. This was followed by a second major earthquake of magnitude 7.3 on May 12th , 2015. These disasters took the lives of thousands of Nepali people, destroyed hundreds of thousands of structures, and displaced an estimated two million people. Immediately following the disaster, there was an outpouring of humanitarian aid from around the world. This lead to a conference where $4.1 billion USD of reconstruction funds were pledged to Nepal by international donors. Five months later, a new constitution passed into law and an informal blockade ...


Pre-Colonial Foodways, Christina Gish Hill Jan 2016

Pre-Colonial Foodways, Christina Gish Hill

World Languages and Cultures Publications

By the time Europeans reached the shores of the Americas, the Indigenous peoples of the northern continent had developed food systems that efficiently utilized their abundant landscape to provide a relatively nutritious diet. The diversity of Indigenous food ways mirrored the diversity of the ecosystems of each people’s homeland. Lush forests east of the Mississippi harbored plentiful game and provided fertile soil for fields of corn, beans, and squash. Peoples who lived along the ocean coasts gathered tidewater resources, like shellfish, seaweed, and sea urchins. They also perfected seafaring vessels that could take them far from land, even to ...


Index-Based Insurance And Risk Management Among Nomadic Mongolian Herders , Kelsey Larson Dec 2014

Index-Based Insurance And Risk Management Among Nomadic Mongolian Herders , Kelsey Larson

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Mongolian herders must contend with the risk of dzuds, harsh winters that can kill large numbers of livestock. To do so, they use a mixture of formal financial tools and traditional risk mitigation techniques. This paper is a study of the interaction between the Mongolian Index-based Livestock Insurance Program and traditional informal risk mitigation techniques. The researcher interviews herders in Bulgan soum, Arhangai aimag and Galuut soum, Bayanhongor aimag to compare the IBLI program’s impact in a community that has had IBLI since 2006 and one that only received IBLI in 2012. This study finds that insurance purchase is ...


Assessing The Impacts Of Climate And Land Use And Land Cover Change On The Freshwater Availability In The Brahmaputra River Basin, M. S. Pervez, G. M. Henebry Oct 2014

Assessing The Impacts Of Climate And Land Use And Land Cover Change On The Freshwater Availability In The Brahmaputra River Basin, M. S. Pervez, G. M. Henebry

Natural Resource Management Faculty Publications

Study Region: Brahmaputra River basin in South Asia.

Study Focus: The Soil and Water Assessment Tool was used to evaluate sensitivities and patterns in freshwater availability due to projected climate and land use changes in the Brahmaputra basin. The daily observed discharge at Bahadurabad station in Bangladesh was used to calibrate and validate the model and analyze uncertainties with a sequential uncertainty fitting algorithm. The sensitivities and impacts of projected climate and land use changes on basin hydrological components were simulated for the A1B and A2 scenarios and analyzed relative to a baseline scenario of 1988–2004.

New hydrological insights ...


Climate Change Vulnerabilities: Case Studies Of The Maldives And Kenya, Katherine A. Peinhardt May 2014

Climate Change Vulnerabilities: Case Studies Of The Maldives And Kenya, Katherine A. Peinhardt

Honors Scholar Theses

This paper examines the political and social vulnerabilities of climate change, with the use of two salient case studies, the Republic of the Maldives and Kenya as exemplars of effects observed and projected. The susceptibilities for each nation are examined, with unique sensitivities highlighted and common themes synthesized between the two states. Examples of existing conflict, and implications of projected territorial conflict will be discussed. Policy outcomes will also be discussed for the situation of each nation, each with its own set of contextual sensitivities in the face of climatic shifts. Generalized policy options will be proposed for the common ...


Early Humboldtian Influences On Alfred Russel Wallace's Scheme Of Nature [Presented At The Alfred Russel Wallace And His Legacy Royal Society Of London Meeting, 21 October 2013], Charles H. Smith Oct 2013

Early Humboldtian Influences On Alfred Russel Wallace's Scheme Of Nature [Presented At The Alfred Russel Wallace And His Legacy Royal Society Of London Meeting, 21 October 2013], Charles H. Smith

DLPS Faculty Publications

Alfred Russel Wallace’s 1858 Ternate paper on natural selection is a famous work in the history of science. Beyond his co-discovery of the principle, moreover, Wallace is known for a large number of early applications of the idea, both to biological and biogeographical subjects. Yet how much do we really know about Wallace’s own evolution of thought, and his actual intentions before his views were swallowed up by the inertia of Darwin’s revolution? A number of differences between Wallace’s and Darwin’s views are apparent and have been much treated over the years, but related discussions ...


Helping Connecticut Towns Plan For Climate Change, Juliana Barrett, Jennifer Pagach Apr 2013

Helping Connecticut Towns Plan For Climate Change, Juliana Barrett, Jennifer Pagach

Wrack Lines

A NOAA Climate Change Adaptation Training Workshop helps Connecticut towns plan ahead.


Wallace: The Review, And Wallace: The Preview, Charles H. Smith Jan 2013

Wallace: The Review, And Wallace: The Preview, Charles H. Smith

DLPS Faculty Publications

In this essay commemorating the one hundred year anniversary of his death, Alfred Russel Wallace (1823–1913) is remembered for his main contributions to biogeography, and pointed to as a possible source of inspiration for future work in that field. As one of the science’s “fathers,” Wallace established both methods for study and a long-lived geographical systemization of animal distribution patterns. His efforts, moreover, may yet have the potential to inspire further new studies in the subject.


An Evaluation Of Data Collected By Middle School And College-Level Students In Stream Channel Geomorphic Assessment, Martin D. Lafrenz Jan 2013

An Evaluation Of Data Collected By Middle School And College-Level Students In Stream Channel Geomorphic Assessment, Martin D. Lafrenz

Geography Faculty Publications and Presentations

This project tested the accuracy and repeatability of geomorphic stream channel assessments conducted by two different middle school classes from the Walt Morey Middle School in Troutdale, OR and college students from Portland State University in Portland, OR. Each group surveyed the same three cross-sections in Fairview Creek, a tributary to the Lower Columbia River, in order to assess stream channel geometry, discharge, composition of the bed material, and water quality. The three student groups were all able to accurately document the stream channel geometry, including stream width and mean depth, indicating that these data can be successfully collected by ...


Threshold Responses Of Forest Birds To Landscape Changes Around Exurban Development, Todd R. Lookingbill, Marcela Suarez-Rubio, Scott Wilson, Peter Leimgruber Jan 2013

Threshold Responses Of Forest Birds To Landscape Changes Around Exurban Development, Todd R. Lookingbill, Marcela Suarez-Rubio, Scott Wilson, Peter Leimgruber

Geography and the Environment Faculty Publications

Low-density residential development (i.e., exurban development) is often embedded within a matrix of protected areas and natural amenities, raising concern about its ecological consequences. Forest-dependent species are particularly susceptible to human settlement even at low housing densities typical of exurban areas. However, few studies have examined the response of forest birds to this increasingly common form of land conversion. The aim of this study was to assess whether, how, and at what scale forest birds respond to changes in habitat due to exurban growth. We evaluated changes in habitat composition (amount) and configuration (arrangement) for forest and forest-edge species ...


Remote Sensing-Based Time Series Models For Malaria Early Warning In The Highlands Of Ethiopia, A. Midekisa, G. Senay, G. M. Henebry, P. Semuniguse, M. C. Wimberly May 2012

Remote Sensing-Based Time Series Models For Malaria Early Warning In The Highlands Of Ethiopia, A. Midekisa, G. Senay, G. M. Henebry, P. Semuniguse, M. C. Wimberly

Natural Resource Management Faculty Publications

Background

Malaria is one of the leading public health problems in most of sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in Ethiopia. Almost all demographic groups are at risk of malaria because of seasonal and unstable transmission of the disease. Therefore, there is a need to develop malaria early-warning systems to enhance public health decision making for control and prevention of malaria epidemics. Data from orbiting earth-observing sensors can monitor environmental risk factors that trigger malaria epidemics. Remotely sensed environmental indicators were used to examine the influences of climatic and environmental variability on temporal patterns of malaria cases in the Amhara region of Ethiopia ...


Grts And Graphs: Monitoring Natural Resources In Urban Landscapes, Todd R. Lookingbill, John Paul Schmit, Shawn L. Carter Jan 2012

Grts And Graphs: Monitoring Natural Resources In Urban Landscapes, Todd R. Lookingbill, John Paul Schmit, Shawn L. Carter

Geography and the Environment Faculty Publications

Environmental monitoring programs are an important tool for providing land managers with a scientific basis for management decisions. However, many ecological processes operate on spatial scales that transcend management boundaries (Schonewald-Cox 1988). For example, adjacent lands may influence protected-area resources via edge effects, source-sink dynamics, or invasion processes (Jones et al. 2009). Hydrologic alterations outside management units also may have profound effects on the integrity of resources being managed (Pringle 2000). The impacts of climate change are presenting challenges to resource management at local-to-global scales (Karl et al. 2009). This potential disparity between ecological and political boundaries presents an interesting ...


The Geography Of Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Within Urban Areas Of Asia, Jochen Albrecht, Peter Marcotullio, Andrea Sarzynski, Niels Schulz Jan 2012

The Geography Of Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Within Urban Areas Of Asia, Jochen Albrecht, Peter Marcotullio, Andrea Sarzynski, Niels Schulz

Publications and Research

This paper aims to advance two objectives: (1) identify and explore greenhouse gas emissions from urban areas in Asia at the regional level; and (2) explore covariates of urban greenhouse gas emissions. We use the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research estimates for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and sulfur hexafluoride from 14 source activities for the year 2000, which are allocated on a 1/108 global grid. We extract emissions for 3535 urban extents all with populations over 50,000, accounting for approximately 91% of the region’s urban population. We use regression analysis to associate emissions with urban ...


Brooklyn's Thirst, Long Island's Water: Consolidation, Local Control, And The Aquifer, Jeffrey A. Kroessler Jan 2011

Brooklyn's Thirst, Long Island's Water: Consolidation, Local Control, And The Aquifer, Jeffrey A. Kroessler

Publications and Research

The creation of greater New York City in 1898 promised a solution to the problem of supplying Brooklyn and Queens with water. In the 1850s, the City of Brooklyn tapped ponds and streams on the south side of Queens County, and in the 1880s, dug wells for additional supply. This lowered the water table and caused problems for farmers and oystermen, many of whom sued the city for damages. Ultimately, salt water seeped into some wells from over-pumping. By 1896, Brooklyn’s system had reached its limit. Prevented by the state legislature from tapping the aquifer beneath Suffolk’s Pine ...


The Geography Of Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Within Urban Areas Of India, Jochen Albrecht, Peter Marcotullio, Andrea Sarzynski Jan 2011

The Geography Of Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Within Urban Areas Of India, Jochen Albrecht, Peter Marcotullio, Andrea Sarzynski

Publications and Research

This paper examines the patterns of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from urban areas in India—a rapidly growing and urbanizing nation. It uses a new dataset, Emission Dataset for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) to estimate the urban share of national GHG emissions. It presents a geographic picture of emission variation by urban form (urban population size, area size, density, and growth rate), and economic (GDP and GDP per capita), geographic (location of emissions released: 20, 40, and 80 km from urban areas), and biophysical (ecosystem and climate: cooling degree days) characteristics. Dependent variables include emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane ...


Analysis Of Streamflow In The St. Croix River: A Hydrologic Model, Stephanie A. Kleinschmidt Apr 2010

Analysis Of Streamflow In The St. Croix River: A Hydrologic Model, Stephanie A. Kleinschmidt

Geography Honors Projects

This project assesses how streamflow is affected by anthropogenic changes to the environment, looking specifically at the St. Croix River Basin. In 2004 the United States Geologic Survey (USGS) published a report on streamflow in the St. Croix River at two gaging stations: Danbury and St. Croix Falls. The streamflow at the upstream station near Danbury, Wisconsin remained stable over time, while an increase was observed at the station in St. Croix Falls, Wisconsin further downstream. In order to evaluate this disparity, this project utilizes a GIS hydrologic model to analyze the factors expected to be influencing the flow rate ...


On The Physical Geography Of The Malay Archipelago (1863), Alfred Russel Wallace Mar 2010

On The Physical Geography Of The Malay Archipelago (1863), Alfred Russel Wallace

Alfred Russel Wallace Classic Writings

No abstract provided.


Combining A Dispersal Model With Network Theory To Assess Habitat Connectivity, Todd R. Lookingbill, Robert H. Gardner, Joseph R. Ferrari, Cherry E. Keller Jan 2010

Combining A Dispersal Model With Network Theory To Assess Habitat Connectivity, Todd R. Lookingbill, Robert H. Gardner, Joseph R. Ferrari, Cherry E. Keller

Geography and the Environment Faculty Publications

Assessing the potential for threatened species to persist and spread within fragmented landscapes requires the identification of core areas that can sustain resident populations and dispersal corridors that can link these core areas with isolated patches of remnant habitat. We developed a set of GIS tools, simulation methods, and network analysis procedures to assess potential landscape connectivity for the Delmarva fox squirrel (DFS; Sciurus niger cinereus), an endangered species inhabiting forested areas on the Delmarva Peninsula, USA. Information on the DFS’s life history and dispersal characteristics, together with data on the composition and configuration of land cover on the ...


Reanalysis Data Underestimate Significant Changes In Growing Season Weather In Kazakhstan, C. K. Wright, K. M. De Beurs, Z. K. Akhmadiyeva, P. Y. Groisman, G. M. Henebry Oct 2009

Reanalysis Data Underestimate Significant Changes In Growing Season Weather In Kazakhstan, C. K. Wright, K. M. De Beurs, Z. K. Akhmadiyeva, P. Y. Groisman, G. M. Henebry

Natural Resource Management Faculty Publications

We present time series analyses of recently compiled climate station data which allowed us to assess contemporary trends in growing season weather across Kazakhstan as drivers of a significant decline in growing season normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) recently observed by satellite remote sensing across much of Central Asia. We used a robust nonparametric time series analysis method, the seasonal Kendall trend test to analyze georeferenced time series of accumulated growing season precipitation (APPT) and accumulated growing degree-days (AGDD). Over the period 2000–2006 we found geographically extensive, statistically significant (p < 0.05) decreasing trends in APPT and increasing trends in AGDD. The temperature trends were especially apparent during the warm season and coincided with precipitation decreases in northwest Kazakhstan, indicating that pervasive drought conditions and higher temperature excursions were the likely drivers of NDVI declines observed in Kazakhstan over the same period. We also compared the APPT and AGDD trends at individual stations with results from trend analysis of gridded monthly precipitation data from the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) Full Data Reanalysis v4 and gridded daily near surface air temperature from the National Centers for Climate Prediction Reanalysis v2 (NCEP R2). We found substantial deviation between the station and the reanalysis trends, suggesting that GPCC and NCEP data substantially underestimate the geographic extent of recent drought in Kazakhstan. Although gridded climate products offer many advantages in ease of use and complete coverage, our findings for Kazakhstan should serve as a caveat against uncritical use of GPCC and NCEP reanalysis data and demonstrate the importance of compiling and standardizing daily climate data from data-sparse regions like Central Asia.


A Cluster Identification Framework Illustrated By A Filtering Model For Earthquake Occurrences, Zhengxiao Wu Jan 2009

A Cluster Identification Framework Illustrated By A Filtering Model For Earthquake Occurrences, Zhengxiao Wu

Research Collection School of Economics

A general dynamical cluster identification framework including both modeling and computation is developed.The earthquake declustering problem is studied to demonstrate how this framework applies.A stochastic model is proposed for earthquake occurrences that considers the sequence of occurrencesas composed of two parts: earthquake clusters and single earthquakes. We suggest that earthquake clusterscontain a “mother quake” and her “offspring.” Applying the filtering techniques, we use the solution offiltering equations as criteria for declustering. A procedure for calculating maximum likelihood estimations(MLE’s) and the most likely cluster sequence is also presented.


Biodiversity In Space And Time: Towards A Grid Mapping For Mongolia, Michael Stubbe, Annegret Stubbe, Henrik Von Wehrden, N. Batsajchan, R. Samjaa Jan 2007

Biodiversity In Space And Time: Towards A Grid Mapping For Mongolia, Michael Stubbe, Annegret Stubbe, Henrik Von Wehrden, N. Batsajchan, R. Samjaa

Erforschung biologischer Ressourcen der Mongolei / Exploration into the Biological Resources of Mongolia, ISSN 0440-1298

In the future, grid mapping of animal and plant organisms will also play a major role in Mongolia. Based on geographical coordinates, a grid with a resolution of 100 x 100 km was created, which contained 561 cells. Methods and level of current understanding are exemplified by means of two raptors and three mammal species. This establishes a basis for an initial project, which will summarize all breeding occurrences of raptors based on all records, publications, or diary notes. For the first time, the short toed Eagle was verified in Mongolia as a breeding bird in 2004. By 2006, ten ...


Conceptualizing Wilderness Through Gis, Sarah Stevens Jan 2007

Conceptualizing Wilderness Through Gis, Sarah Stevens

Undergraduate Research Symposium (UGRS)

The word “wilderness” in America is generally identified with pristine places where humans are not among the primary influences on the land and its ecology. The American wilderness ethic creates a strict dichotomy between humans and nature. The Wilderness Preservation Act of 1964 defines wilderness as “an area where the earth and its community of life are untrammeled by man, where man himself is a visitor who does not remain” (wilderness.net). This statutory definition of wilderness is essentially the functional embodiment of the American wilderness ethic. Wilderness can also be interpreted in ways that incorporate humans as active players ...


Sacred Space/Place, Paul Faulstich Jan 2006

Sacred Space/Place, Paul Faulstich

Pitzer Faculty Publications and Research

Landscape, space, and place are three concepts that merge together to create the human experience of the environment. Space is the most basic concept of geography; it is the three-dimensional extent in which objects and events occur. Landscapes and places are both contained within space.