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Full-Text Articles in Nature and Society Relations

Community Forest In Liberia: The Interface Between Sustainable Charcoal Production And Deforestation, Amavie Clement Oct 2019

Community Forest In Liberia: The Interface Between Sustainable Charcoal Production And Deforestation, Amavie Clement

Capstone Collection

The available data establishes a direct correlation between charcoal production and forest degradation and deforestation in Liberia. Charcoal is the primary energy source for Liberians, especially in urban areas where the bulk of the population lives. It is expected to be the mainstay energy source for years to come because it is affordable, accessible, and convenient to use compared to other forms of energy (i.e. electricity and petroleum gas). However, the current model of charcoal production, based on indiscriminate felling of trees, poses a danger to the environment as it results in widespread forest degradation and deforestation. Therefore, any ...


Unraveling The Ethnoterritorial Fix In The Peruvian Amazon: Indigenous Livelihoods And Resource Management After Communal Land Titling (1980s-2016), Ramzi M. Tubbeh, Karl S. Zimmerer Aug 2019

Unraveling The Ethnoterritorial Fix In The Peruvian Amazon: Indigenous Livelihoods And Resource Management After Communal Land Titling (1980s-2016), Ramzi M. Tubbeh, Karl S. Zimmerer

Journal of Latin American Geography

Indigenous rights organizations in Latin America consider territorial control the paramount condition for the reproduction of indigenous peoples’ cultures, the security of their livelihoods, and the pursuit of autonomy. In the past several decades Latin American governments have increasingly recognized indigenous peoples’ rights to cultural difference and channeled their territorial claims by titling their lands as common property. This “territorial turn” is supported by narratives about indigenous peoples as stewards of the environment. The geographic areas associated with indigenous land titling have increased since the late 1980s. This article presents research based on a case study of present-day livelihoods and ...


A Fishy Problem: Effects Of Atlantic Salmon Farming In The Pacific Ocean, Madeleine A. Griffith May 2019

A Fishy Problem: Effects Of Atlantic Salmon Farming In The Pacific Ocean, Madeleine A. Griffith

Student Theses 2015-Present

In this report, I explore the historical, climatological, economic, and ethical issues created by the contemporary industrial salmon farming practices off Pacific coast of the United States and Canada. Chapter 1 utilizes a variety of sources from Stephen Hume’s A Stain upon the Sea to Miller’s Living in the Environment, to examine the integral part salmon plays in both freshwater and marine ecosystems, the ecosystem services salmon contribute in wild and farmed settings, and the trends in salmon consumption around the world. Chapter 2 examines the historically relevant role salmon held among indigenous societies and how that role ...


The Impacts Of Warming Coffee: The Climate Change-Coffee-Migration Nexus In The Northern Triangle Of Central America, Connor Lynch Apr 2019

The Impacts Of Warming Coffee: The Climate Change-Coffee-Migration Nexus In The Northern Triangle Of Central America, Connor Lynch

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

As climate change continues to threaten every corner of the world, one of the key features of the 21st century is migration, as a response to the myriad of effects related to a warming planet. This paper seeks to analyze the role of climate change as a motive for migration. The climate change-migration nexus is illustrated in this paper by revealing how slow-onset effects of climate change jeopardize the production of coffee in the Northern Triangle of Central America (NTCA), a region that is particularly vulnerable to the many effects. Thousands of people who depend on coffee production around Guatemala ...


Creating An Indigenous Multicultural Faith: The Russian Orthodox Mission In Alaska And The Centrality Of Cosmology, Niklaus Von Houck Mar 2019

Creating An Indigenous Multicultural Faith: The Russian Orthodox Mission In Alaska And The Centrality Of Cosmology, Niklaus Von Houck

History Undergraduate Theses

This paper applies letters, journals, history interviews, government-company contracts, international treaties, theological works, and images to examine the convergence of Russian Orthodox Christianity and Alaskan Indigenous shamanism cultures to explicate the harmonizing of an Indigenous multicultural Christian faith in nineteenth-century Russian Alaska. Central to this examination is the evaluation of effects of Orthodox Christian missiology on native Alaskans and the Indigenous religio-cultural response to Russian missionaries. Not merely a historical overview of contact between natives and missionaries in Russian Alaska, this paper harmonizes the commonality of cosmology between native Alaskan shamanism and Orthodox Christianity. It analyzes the impacts of comparatively ...


Sacrifices For Development Or Thirst For Capital Accumulation? Case Study On The “El Diquís Hydroelectric Dam” In Costa Rica., Marco Mora Mar 2019

Sacrifices For Development Or Thirst For Capital Accumulation? Case Study On The “El Diquís Hydroelectric Dam” In Costa Rica., Marco Mora

International Development, Community and Environment (IDCE)

Costa Rica’s state-led model of energy generation based on large-scale investments in hydropower has given the country autonomy in generating its own energy as well as sovereignty over its natural resources. Successive governments have used nationalist and ecological discourses to support the continued expansion of hydropower as the path to economic development. In more recent decades however, a number of factors have been eroding the dominance of the state-led hydropower development model. Some of those elements are the national and international pressures to liberalize and privatize the energy sector, an increasing body of scientific evidence indicating that large-scale hydropower ...


Still Sitting On Men: Understanding The Continuities Of Indirect Rule Through Pre-Colonial Forms Of Female Resistance, Ethnic Power Politics And Economic Violence In Southeast Nigeria, Evan Richardson Jan 2019

Still Sitting On Men: Understanding The Continuities Of Indirect Rule Through Pre-Colonial Forms Of Female Resistance, Ethnic Power Politics And Economic Violence In Southeast Nigeria, Evan Richardson

Senior Projects Spring 2019

This project exposes that Indirect Rule in Southeastern Nigeria has had direct, significant ramifications on the Political Economic Development of Nigeria through the present day.


Adaptation Under The Canopy: Coffee Cooperative And Certification Contributions To Smallholder Livelihood Sustainability In Santa Lucía Teotepec, Oaxaca, Meghan C. Montgomery Jan 2019

Adaptation Under The Canopy: Coffee Cooperative And Certification Contributions To Smallholder Livelihood Sustainability In Santa Lucía Teotepec, Oaxaca, Meghan C. Montgomery

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

The collapse and reorganization of global coffee markets associated with the “coffee crisis” have had profound, negative impacts on smallholder producer livelihoods throughout the world. In Mexico, the collapse of the International Coffee Agreement (ICA) coincided with withdrawal of government support for agriculture, which devastated producers dependent on coffee for their livelihoods. Smallholders responded by shifting livelihood strategies to diversify income, migrating, and converting primary forest cover to subsistence crops and pasture to support household livelihood security. In some instances, producers also joined or formed cooperative organizations to access specialty certifications that offer higher priced markets, extension information, and other ...


Whitewater Ecotourism Development In Bhutan: Opportunities And Challenges For Local Communities, Kira E. Tenney Jan 2019

Whitewater Ecotourism Development In Bhutan: Opportunities And Challenges For Local Communities, Kira E. Tenney

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Whitewater raft and kayak ecotourism can provide environmental, social-cultural, and economic benefits and opportunities to local communities, but can also result in respective challenges. Globally, adventure ecotourism is seen as a potent win-win strategy for conservation and local community development; however, there is a significant proportion of adventure and whitewater tourism that do not meet ecotourism tenets, and there is a call for incorporating greater investment in local community involvement. Whitewater ecotourism is particularly significant because of the unique opportunities and challenges associated with rivers, the resource upon which the industry directly depends. Clean, free-flowing rivers provide a range of ...


Seasonal Masculinities: Seasonal Labor Migration And Masculinities In Rural Western India, Pronoy Rai Dec 2018

Seasonal Masculinities: Seasonal Labor Migration And Masculinities In Rural Western India, Pronoy Rai

Pronoy Rai

In this research article, I study seasonal labor migration in rural western India to understand gender negotiations in the course of labor migration. Based on qualitative research conducted in six villages in rural Maharashtra state in Western India during the early Kharif cropping season in 2014 and during Kharif and Rabi cropping seasons in 2015–16, I examine gendered labor in migrant home communities and at various rural and urban employment destinations, the relationship of labor to the social construction of masculinities, and gender negotiations across space. I show that in their home communities, the politics of resistance of returnee ...


La Gota Que Colma La Caguama: How A Brewery Development Sparked Public Participation In Water Decisions, Anthony J. Meluso Nov 2018

La Gota Que Colma La Caguama: How A Brewery Development Sparked Public Participation In Water Decisions, Anthony J. Meluso

Shared Knowledge Conference

Broad and diverse participation of actors is well recognized as a prerequisite for effective and equitable water management. However, scholarship in development and social movement literature in Latin America demonstrates that patterns of participation are shifting to more diverse strategies with non-traditional alliances. This project explores how an internationally owned brewery development sparked renewed participation from various urban and rural groups in the Mexicali Valley. I argue that widespread resistance from different groups was underpinned by neoliberal development tensions that have diminished local agency, but the strong symbolic nature of water, beer and politics provided the catalyst for a social ...


Spirituality And Conservation In Tujiin Nars, Lisa Torstenson Oct 2018

Spirituality And Conservation In Tujiin Nars, Lisa Torstenson

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

For centuries, Mongolians have relied heavily on the land for their survival. In Selenge aimag, the surrounding Tujiin Nars forest is an integral part of their lives. An area with many uses, it was once so heavily deforested that the majority of the area lost its ecological function. Now, these impacts are being reversed by dedicated government workers, community groups, and regular citizens. The people of this area believe that they are intimately connected with the forest, and that spirits reside within the trees and the land itself. As such, they stake importance in treating the land with respect. This ...


Stories From A Place Called Walung, Jenny Ding Oct 2018

Stories From A Place Called Walung, Jenny Ding

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

The goal of the project is to explore the relationship between people and the natural landscape through storytelling. I’m interested by elements like: terrain, topography, path, wayfinding, natural disasters, weather, natural resources, flora and fauna. How do these elements manifest in people’s oral history, daily lives, and spatial identity? How are these elements and the environment changing, and how are people adapting to these changes? My approach will be to talk to people at Walung about their interactions with elements of the natural landscape, both current and from the past. I will also document my own observations of ...


Translating Global Nature: Territoriality, Environmental Discourses, And Ecocultural Identities, José R. Castro-Sotomayor Aug 2018

Translating Global Nature: Territoriality, Environmental Discourses, And Ecocultural Identities, José R. Castro-Sotomayor

Communication ETDs

In this study, I explore environmental discourses circulating among Indigenous transboundary organizations working on environmental initiatives at the border between Ecuador and Colombia. I focus on three global environmental discourses –sustainability, development, and climate change– as they are at the core of the global environmental governance vernacular. La Gran Familia Awá Binacional (GFAB), one of the few transboundary Indigenous organizations working along the binational border, utilizes these global concepts to frame their environmental initiatives and projects. I use a critical and interpretive qualitative approach to investigate, deconstruct, and rearticulate global environmental discourses circulating among and translated by two of the ...


Rappaport, Roy (1926-97), Brian A. Hoey Jul 2018

Rappaport, Roy (1926-97), Brian A. Hoey

Brian A. Hoey, Ph.D.

A brief personal and intellectual biography of the late anthropologist, Roy Rappaport.


Degrowth Lessons From Cuba, Claire S. Bayler May 2018

Degrowth Lessons From Cuba, Claire S. Bayler

International Development, Community and Environment (IDCE)

Cuba is the global leader in practicing agroecology, but agroecology is just one component of a larger climate-ready socio-economic system. Degrowth economics address the need to constrain our total global metabolism to within biophysical limits, while allowing opportunity and resources for "underdeveloped" countries to rebuild themselves under new terms. Degrowth recognizes the role of overdeveloped countries in surpassing the ecological limits of our planet at the cost of wellbeing for billions of dispossessed people within and between countries. Cuba's circumstances during and following the Special Period exemplify both sides of the degrowth scenario, as well as demonstrating policy and ...


Creating Web Maps Of Forest Restoration Plots At Iracambi Atlantic Rainforest Research Center, Minas Gerais, Brazil, Daniel Lassila May 2018

Creating Web Maps Of Forest Restoration Plots At Iracambi Atlantic Rainforest Research Center, Minas Gerais, Brazil, Daniel Lassila

International Development, Community and Environment (IDCE)

The purpose of this report is to provide a detailed account, discussion, and analysis of my internship at Iracambi Atlantic Rainforest Research Center in Minas Gerais, Brazil during the summer of 2017, where I worked under the direction of GIS Supervisor Mr. Cliff Jones. The central focus of my work dealt with consolidating existing GIS data on the organization’s rainforest restoration effort into a single normalized database - based on the Atlantic Forest Restoration Pact, creating a structure for future forest restoration volunteers including enabling offline field collection using Collector for ArcGIS, then creating an ArcGIS Online web map based ...


Land Rights Of African Indigenous Groups: International Instruments And Main Issues, Anastasia Strouboulis Apr 2018

Land Rights Of African Indigenous Groups: International Instruments And Main Issues, Anastasia Strouboulis

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

For indigenous peoples, land is more than an economic commodity, it has guided their way of life for generations. This notion is particularly prevalent in Africa, where many diverse indigenous communities exist, from desert regions to vast forests. However, without the recognition of international laws and standards that seek to preserve and uphold their land rights, the indigenous peoples of Africa continue to face socio-environmental and political issues. This research paper seeks to understand what actors, documents, and mechanisms exist to protect and promote the land rights of indigenous peoples in Africa and assess their effectiveness. This research question was ...


Cuando La Vida Era Tranquila: Land Use And Livelihood Changes Following The Construction Of The Chan 75 Dam In Nance Del Risco, Bocas Del Toro, Patrick Mckenzie Apr 2018

Cuando La Vida Era Tranquila: Land Use And Livelihood Changes Following The Construction Of The Chan 75 Dam In Nance Del Risco, Bocas Del Toro, Patrick Mckenzie

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

The Ngobe are Panama’s most populous indigenous group. While the Ngobe that live in the comarca have land and resource rights, those that live immediately outside of it do not. This issue has been exacerbated by the creation of Palo Seco Forest Reserve which has removed all land rights from the Ngobe living within it. In order to meet its growing demand for energy, Panama is expanding its hydroelectric sector. One such hydroelectric dam built by AES is Chan 75. However, Chan 75 has had a controversial history, especially regarding its treatment of the Ngobe people of the corregimiento ...


Un Giro Ontológico En La Cosmovisión De La Naturaleza: El Papel Del Capitalismo Y Otras Influencias En El Cambio De Las Percepciones Tradicionales De La Naturaleza En La Comunidad Quechua De Paru Paru / An Ontological Turnover In The Cosmovision Of Nature: The Role Of Capitalism And Other Influences In The Change Of Traditional Perceptions Of The Nature In The Quechua Community Of Paru Paru, Jessica Pusch Apr 2018

Un Giro Ontológico En La Cosmovisión De La Naturaleza: El Papel Del Capitalismo Y Otras Influencias En El Cambio De Las Percepciones Tradicionales De La Naturaleza En La Comunidad Quechua De Paru Paru / An Ontological Turnover In The Cosmovision Of Nature: The Role Of Capitalism And Other Influences In The Change Of Traditional Perceptions Of The Nature In The Quechua Community Of Paru Paru, Jessica Pusch

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

En el contexto de la antropología ambiental y con un lente de ecología política, este informe analiza el papel del capitalismo en la degradación ecológica global a través de un estudio etnográfico específico y único. Este estudio ocurrió en el pueblo quechua Paru Paru, situada en las sierras andinas de Perú en la región de Cusco. El siguiente artículo incluye una examinación del aumento en las actividades económicamente capitalistas y la presencia de otros factores involucrados en el cambio de la relación y las percepciones sobre la naturaleza en el contexto de la cosmovisión. Había una pérdida clara de algunas ...


Preserving Identity Through Discourse In A Changing Ladakh, Emma Cyr Apr 2018

Preserving Identity Through Discourse In A Changing Ladakh, Emma Cyr

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Situated in the rain shadow of the Himalayas, Ladakh is a vast high altitude desert. It's looming mountains, rocky vistas, crystalline lakes, and unique indigenous culture makes Ladakh not only a favorite destination for adventurers, thrill seekers, and camera toters of all types, but also marks it as one of the most ecologically fragile areas in the world. However, Ladakh has only been open for tourism since 1974. Prior to then, the region was fairly isolated, open to travellers only a few months of the year, when the high, icy passes melted enough to let trade through. In the ...


Plant Poetics And Politics Of The West Usambaras: Power And Memory Of Narrative Botanical Science In Kizanda, Sagara, And The Mazumbai Forest Reserve, Cameron Daddis Apr 2018

Plant Poetics And Politics Of The West Usambaras: Power And Memory Of Narrative Botanical Science In Kizanda, Sagara, And The Mazumbai Forest Reserve, Cameron Daddis

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This is a story about people and plants. About the power of relationships between floral organisms and human lives. Using narrative botanical science as a methodological framework, this study highlights the power of local people’s ecological knowledge from the villages of Kizanda and Sagara in the West Usambara Mountains. Building from semi-structured interviews and personal conservations with thirty residents of these villages—voices of local healers, farmers, and forest guides—this work unfolds through a series of vignettes. Its aim is to identify both the precise yet diverse ways in which these people have developed botanical knowledge of their ...


‘Padre Nuestro Que Estás En La Tierra’: Una Exploración Teórica Del Territorio Ancestral Afroecuatoriano / 'Our Father Who Is On Earth': A Theoretical Exploration Of The Afro-Ecuadorian Ancestral Territory, Wes Vanderburgh Apr 2018

‘Padre Nuestro Que Estás En La Tierra’: Una Exploración Teórica Del Territorio Ancestral Afroecuatoriano / 'Our Father Who Is On Earth': A Theoretical Exploration Of The Afro-Ecuadorian Ancestral Territory, Wes Vanderburgh

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Este es un proyecto colaborativo que documenta el fenómeno del territorio y explora cómo influye en la identidad del pueblo afrodescendiente de la sierra ecuatoriana. Empezamos por presentar el marco teórico, incluso la distinción clave entre territorio y tierra en este contexto. Entonces nos lanzamos al análisis por problematizar el nombre mismo del área bajo discusión. Luego, discutimos su geografía física y social. A continuación, presentamos una historia breve de la región. Por fin, conducimos una sociología del territorio, revelando los elementos sociales y discursivos detrás de los conceptos de ancestralidad, identidad, derecho, y política. Concluimos con sugerencias para proyectos ...


The Production Of Space: Indigenous Resistance Movements In The Peruvian Amazon, Christian Calienes Feb 2018

The Production Of Space: Indigenous Resistance Movements In The Peruvian Amazon, Christian Calienes

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The resistance movement that resulted in the Baguazo in the northern Peruvian Amazon in 2009 was the culmination of a series of social, economic, political and spatial processes that reflected the Peruvian nation’s engagement with global capitalism and democratic consolidation after decades of crippling instability and chaos. The recently discovered oil and natural gas reserves that occupy the subsoil of much the Peruvian Amazon provide the latest natural resource upon which the national project can continue to be implemented. In a context of neo-imperialism and neo-extractivism where through accumulation by dispossession, new markets are introduced into global capitalist structures ...


Land Insecurity In Gulu, Uganda: A Clash Between Culture And Capitalism, Zachary Slotkin Oct 2017

Land Insecurity In Gulu, Uganda: A Clash Between Culture And Capitalism, Zachary Slotkin

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This paper presents the causes and consequences of land insecurity in Gulu, Uganda. In order to address this important and often sensitive issue, the paper analyzes the role of the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) insurgency and the government’s policy of forced encampment during the insurgency in contributing to land insecurity, causing widespread displacement among former internally displaced persons (IDPs). It further explores the importance of land ownership in providing economic productivity to rural landowners, as well as the nature of customary land tenure in Acholi culture and the government’s efforts to privatize communal land, to give a ...


“Don Guillermo” Or William Vickers Among The Secoya, María Susana Cipolletti Jun 2017

“Don Guillermo” Or William Vickers Among The Secoya, María Susana Cipolletti

Tipití: Journal of the Society for the Anthropology of Lowland South America

No abstract provided.


Upper Perené Arawak Narratives Of History, Landscape, And Ritual, Fernando Santos-Granero Jun 2017

Upper Perené Arawak Narratives Of History, Landscape, And Ritual, Fernando Santos-Granero

Tipití: Journal of the Society for the Anthropology of Lowland South America

No abstract provided.


Amazonia In The Anthropocene: Peoples, Soils, Plants, Forests, John Ben Soileau Jun 2017

Amazonia In The Anthropocene: Peoples, Soils, Plants, Forests, John Ben Soileau

Tipití: Journal of the Society for the Anthropology of Lowland South America

No abstract provided.


Images Of Public Wealth Or The Anatomy Of Well-Being In Indigenous Amazonia, Michael Chibnik Jun 2017

Images Of Public Wealth Or The Anatomy Of Well-Being In Indigenous Amazonia, Michael Chibnik

Tipití: Journal of the Society for the Anthropology of Lowland South America

No abstract provided.


Sex Roles And Social Change In Amazonian Ecuador, William T. Vickers Jun 2017

Sex Roles And Social Change In Amazonian Ecuador, William T. Vickers

Tipití: Journal of the Society for the Anthropology of Lowland South America

No abstract provided.