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Full-Text Articles in Nature and Society Relations

Panel 3 Paper 3.1: Participatory Planning And Monitoring Of Protected Landscapes: A Case Study Of An Indigenous Rice Paddy Cultural Landscape In Taiwan, Kuang-Chung Lee Oct 2019

Panel 3 Paper 3.1: Participatory Planning And Monitoring Of Protected Landscapes: A Case Study Of An Indigenous Rice Paddy Cultural Landscape In Taiwan, Kuang-Chung Lee

Rural Heritage - Landscapes and Beyond / PATRIMOINE RURAL: Paysages et au-delà

Landscapes can be regarded as ‘a culture–nature link.’ Many examples of ‘living’ landscapes in the world are rich in natural and cultural values and have proven sustainable over centuries because of their maintenance by local communities. Satoyama, a traditional socio-ecological production landscape, provides a functional linkage between paddy fields and the associated environment with many ecosystem services. The idea of landscape conservation and paddy field revitalization was introduced into Taiwan’s amended Cultural Heritage Preservation Act in 2005 as a new legal instrument entitled ‘Cultural Landscape.’ To help stakeholders from governmental authorities and local communities apply this new instrument ...


Community Forest In Liberia: The Interface Between Sustainable Charcoal Production And Deforestation, Amavie Clement Oct 2019

Community Forest In Liberia: The Interface Between Sustainable Charcoal Production And Deforestation, Amavie Clement

Capstone Collection

The available data establishes a direct correlation between charcoal production and forest degradation and deforestation in Liberia. Charcoal is the primary energy source for Liberians, especially in urban areas where the bulk of the population lives. It is expected to be the mainstay energy source for years to come because it is affordable, accessible, and convenient to use compared to other forms of energy (i.e. electricity and petroleum gas). However, the current model of charcoal production, based on indiscriminate felling of trees, poses a danger to the environment as it results in widespread forest degradation and deforestation. Therefore, any ...


Unraveling The Ethnoterritorial Fix In The Peruvian Amazon: Indigenous Livelihoods And Resource Management After Communal Land Titling (1980s-2016), Ramzi M. Tubbeh, Karl S. Zimmerer Aug 2019

Unraveling The Ethnoterritorial Fix In The Peruvian Amazon: Indigenous Livelihoods And Resource Management After Communal Land Titling (1980s-2016), Ramzi M. Tubbeh, Karl S. Zimmerer

Journal of Latin American Geography

Indigenous rights organizations in Latin America consider territorial control the paramount condition for the reproduction of indigenous peoples’ cultures, the security of their livelihoods, and the pursuit of autonomy. In the past several decades Latin American governments have increasingly recognized indigenous peoples’ rights to cultural difference and channeled their territorial claims by titling their lands as common property. This “territorial turn” is supported by narratives about indigenous peoples as stewards of the environment. The geographic areas associated with indigenous land titling have increased since the late 1980s. This article presents research based on a case study of present-day livelihoods and ...


The Impacts Of Warming Coffee: The Climate Change-Coffee-Migration Nexus In The Northern Triangle Of Central America, Connor Lynch Apr 2019

The Impacts Of Warming Coffee: The Climate Change-Coffee-Migration Nexus In The Northern Triangle Of Central America, Connor Lynch

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

As climate change continues to threaten every corner of the world, one of the key features of the 21st century is migration, as a response to the myriad of effects related to a warming planet. This paper seeks to analyze the role of climate change as a motive for migration. The climate change-migration nexus is illustrated in this paper by revealing how slow-onset effects of climate change jeopardize the production of coffee in the Northern Triangle of Central America (NTCA), a region that is particularly vulnerable to the many effects. Thousands of people who depend on coffee production around Guatemala ...


Reparation Ecologies: Regimes Of Repair In Populist Agroecology, K. Valentine Cadieux, Stephen Carpenter, Alex Liebman, Renata Blumberg, Bhaskar Upadhyay Feb 2019

Reparation Ecologies: Regimes Of Repair In Populist Agroecology, K. Valentine Cadieux, Stephen Carpenter, Alex Liebman, Renata Blumberg, Bhaskar Upadhyay

K. Valentine Cadieux

Amidst the backdrop of attention to populism in general, it is instructive to understand populism through
social movements focused on food and agriculture. Agrarian populism is particularly salient in agrifood
movements. Agroecology has been widely identified as a domain of populist claims on environmental and
social governance surrounding agricultural-ecological and political-economic systems. As authoritarian
populist leaders gain power throughout the world at a time of expanding economic globalization and
contingent socio-ecological crises, contests over populism in agrifood regimes can highlight current
dynamics relevant for formative evaluation of alternative political agroecology strategies, and of populist
environmental governance more broadly. Can populism ...


Criar Y Dejarse Criar: Trans-Situ Crop Conservation And Indigenous Landscape Management Through A Network Of Global Food Neighborhoods, Cass Madden Jan 2019

Criar Y Dejarse Criar: Trans-Situ Crop Conservation And Indigenous Landscape Management Through A Network Of Global Food Neighborhoods, Cass Madden

Capstone Collection

As climate change progresses, global food security is likely to become increasingly threatened and crop biodiversity will be a significant source of resiliency and adaptability. However, these adaptations will only be fully realized through cooperative in situ and ex situ conservation and cultivation of domesticated crops, crop wild relatives, and wild foods. This conservation is best realized in places where communities have the cultural resources to invest meaningfully in the cultivation of native crops, and where the cultivation of those crops can reinforce place-specific livelihoods and identities. To this end, the principal objective of this research is to propose a ...


Adaptation Under The Canopy: Coffee Cooperative And Certification Contributions To Smallholder Livelihood Sustainability In Santa Lucía Teotepec, Oaxaca, Meghan C. Montgomery Jan 2019

Adaptation Under The Canopy: Coffee Cooperative And Certification Contributions To Smallholder Livelihood Sustainability In Santa Lucía Teotepec, Oaxaca, Meghan C. Montgomery

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

The collapse and reorganization of global coffee markets associated with the “coffee crisis” have had profound, negative impacts on smallholder producer livelihoods throughout the world. In Mexico, the collapse of the International Coffee Agreement (ICA) coincided with withdrawal of government support for agriculture, which devastated producers dependent on coffee for their livelihoods. Smallholders responded by shifting livelihood strategies to diversify income, migrating, and converting primary forest cover to subsistence crops and pasture to support household livelihood security. In some instances, producers also joined or formed cooperative organizations to access specialty certifications that offer higher priced markets, extension information, and other ...


¿Conservar O Consumir? El Impacto De Las Áreas Naturales Protegidas En La Seguridad Y La Soberanía Alimentaria De La Gente Indígena En Madre De Dios, Perú / Conserve Or Consume? The Impact Of Protected Natural Areas On Security And The Food Sovereignty Of Indigenous People In Mother Of God, Peru, Adde Sharp Oct 2018

¿Conservar O Consumir? El Impacto De Las Áreas Naturales Protegidas En La Seguridad Y La Soberanía Alimentaria De La Gente Indígena En Madre De Dios, Perú / Conserve Or Consume? The Impact Of Protected Natural Areas On Security And The Food Sovereignty Of Indigenous People In Mother Of God, Peru, Adde Sharp

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Mediante un enfoque comparativo-etnográfico, este estudio se enfocó en cómo la creación de dos Área Naturales Protegidas (ANPs): el Parque Nacional Bahuaja Sonene (PNBS) y la Reserva Nacional Tambopata (RNTAMB) en la Amazonía peruana han perjudicado el sistema de seguridad y soberanía alimentaria de la comunidad nativa (CN) de Infierno, o la gente del pueblo indígena Ese Eja. El estudio utiliza principalmente entrevistas de miembros de la CN para examinar como era la alimentación tradicional antes de la creación de las dos ANP en los años 1996 y 2000 (respectivamente) en comparación con la situación actual. Los resultados afirman que ...


From Conflict To Collaboration: Exploring Influences On Community Well-Being, Leana M. Weissberg, Jonathan P. Kusel, Kyle A. Rodgers May 2018

From Conflict To Collaboration: Exploring Influences On Community Well-Being, Leana M. Weissberg, Jonathan P. Kusel, Kyle A. Rodgers

Humboldt Journal of Social Relations

Decades after the Timber Wars, land management agencies continue to redefine approaches to forest restoration and management, with impacts for Western forest dependent communities. To better understand this evolving dynamic, we examined the recent history of a rural forest community in the northern Sierra Nevada against the backdrop of changing perspectives on and relationships to resource use, industry, and forest management. Guided by community priorities distilled from interview data, we examine the transition from the Timber Wars to collaborative forest management through the rise of area collaboratives. The success of this work and its potential to genuinely improve community well-being ...


Producing Edible Landscapes In Seattle's Urban Forest, Rebecca J. Mclain, Melissa R. Poe, Patrick T. Hurley, Joyce Lecompte, Marla R. Emery May 2018

Producing Edible Landscapes In Seattle's Urban Forest, Rebecca J. Mclain, Melissa R. Poe, Patrick T. Hurley, Joyce Lecompte, Marla R. Emery

Rebecca McLain

Over the next decades, green infrastructure initiatives such as tree planting campaigns, and ecological restoration will dramatically change the species composition, species distribution and structure of urban forests across the United States. These impending changes are accompanied by a demand for urban public spaces where people can engage in practices such as gleaning, gardening, and livestock production. This article analyzes the institutional framework that undergirds efforts in Seattle, Washington to normalize the production and use of edible landscapes. We focus attention on the role of grassroots fruit gleaning groups and highlight their bridging function between Seattle's agriculture and forestry ...


Degrowth Lessons From Cuba, Claire S. Bayler May 2018

Degrowth Lessons From Cuba, Claire S. Bayler

International Development, Community and Environment (IDCE)

Cuba is the global leader in practicing agroecology, but agroecology is just one component of a larger climate-ready socio-economic system. Degrowth economics address the need to constrain our total global metabolism to within biophysical limits, while allowing opportunity and resources for "underdeveloped" countries to rebuild themselves under new terms. Degrowth recognizes the role of overdeveloped countries in surpassing the ecological limits of our planet at the cost of wellbeing for billions of dispossessed people within and between countries. Cuba's circumstances during and following the Special Period exemplify both sides of the degrowth scenario, as well as demonstrating policy and ...


A Naturalist’S Guide To The Great Plains, Paul A. Johnsgard Mar 2018

A Naturalist’S Guide To The Great Plains, Paul A. Johnsgard

Zea E-Books

This book documents nearly 500 US and Canadian locations where wildlife refuges, nature preserves, and similar properties protect natural sites that lie within the North American Great Plains, from Canada’s Prairie Provinces to the Texas-Mexico border. Information on site location, size, biological diversity, and the presence of especially rare or interesting flora and fauna are mentioned, as well as driving directions, mailing addresses, and phone numbers or internet addresses, as available. US federal sites include 11 national grasslands, 13 national parks, 16 national monuments, and more than 70 national wildlife refuges. State properties include nearly 100 state parks and ...


Representation, Resistance, And Rhetoric: Bananas Catalyze Campus Activism, Abby M. Dubisar, Gabrielle E. Roesch-Mcnally Jan 2018

Representation, Resistance, And Rhetoric: Bananas Catalyze Campus Activism, Abby M. Dubisar, Gabrielle E. Roesch-Mcnally

English Publications

Examining food and agricultural systems cultivates nuanced understandings of rhetoric, campus activism, and cultural and scientific meanings of food. At Iowa State University, the banana has provoked discussions regarding biotechnology—prompting debates with competing narratives about food and agricultural systems. Because of its status as a genetically modified food (developed in campus food sciences and human nutrition labs and purportedly able to address hunger and malnutrition in the Global South), this particular biotech banana prompted reactions from sustainable agriculture students with social and ecological justice concerns. For those working at land grant universities conducting food and agriculture research especially, teaching ...


Land Insecurity In Gulu, Uganda: A Clash Between Culture And Capitalism, Zachary Slotkin Oct 2017

Land Insecurity In Gulu, Uganda: A Clash Between Culture And Capitalism, Zachary Slotkin

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This paper presents the causes and consequences of land insecurity in Gulu, Uganda. In order to address this important and often sensitive issue, the paper analyzes the role of the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) insurgency and the government’s policy of forced encampment during the insurgency in contributing to land insecurity, causing widespread displacement among former internally displaced persons (IDPs). It further explores the importance of land ownership in providing economic productivity to rural landowners, as well as the nature of customary land tenure in Acholi culture and the government’s efforts to privatize communal land, to give a ...


Economic Evaluation Of Coastal Land Loss In Louisiana, Stephen R. Barnes, Craig Bond, Nicholas Burger, Kate Anania, Aaron Strong, Sarah Weilant, Stephanie Virgets Jun 2017

Economic Evaluation Of Coastal Land Loss In Louisiana, Stephen R. Barnes, Craig Bond, Nicholas Burger, Kate Anania, Aaron Strong, Sarah Weilant, Stephanie Virgets

Journal of Ocean and Coastal Economics

Louisiana has lost approximately 1,880 square miles of land over the past eighty years. Projections suggest that in a future without action, the next fifty years could result in the loss of 1,750 additional square miles of land area. As land loss continues, a large portion of the natural and man-made capital stocks of coastal Louisiana will be at greater risk of damage, either from land loss or from the associated increase in storm damage. We estimate the replacement cost of capital stock directly at risk from land loss ranges from approximately $2.1 billion to $3.5 ...


The Market Transfer Effect In The Hawaiian Longline Fishery: Why Correlation Does Not Imply Causation, Jason D. Scorse, Shaun Richards, Philip King Jun 2017

The Market Transfer Effect In The Hawaiian Longline Fishery: Why Correlation Does Not Imply Causation, Jason D. Scorse, Shaun Richards, Philip King

Journal of Ocean and Coastal Economics

A lot of discussion and controversy has surrounded whether the “market transfer” effect in the Hawaii longline swordfish fishery occurred during the swordfish closure of 2001-2004, because of its potential impacts on sea turtle mortality. The primary academic work in support of the market transfer effect during the closure is a paper by Rausser et al. (2009): “Unintended Consequences: The Spillover Effects of Common Property Regulations.” In this paper, the authors claim to find evidence in support of the market transfer hypothesis.To our knowledge, no analysis has yet been undertaken to assess whether this analysis is sound, and yet ...


The Anthropocene, Overview, Scott W. Schwartz May 2017

The Anthropocene, Overview, Scott W. Schwartz

Open Educational Resources

This presentation offers an overview of the developing concept of The Anthropocene -- a term coined to describe our current geological epoch, in which human impact on the planet will leave a permanent trace.


Modelling Cash Crop Growth In Tn, Spencer Weston May 2017

Modelling Cash Crop Growth In Tn, Spencer Weston

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


The Passage Of The 2016 Ballot Question #3 In Massachusetts And Its Implications, Hannah Silverfine May 2017

The Passage Of The 2016 Ballot Question #3 In Massachusetts And Its Implications, Hannah Silverfine

International Development, Community and Environment (IDCE)

In the 2016 Massachusetts primary election, ballot question #3, “Massachusetts Minimum Size Requirements for Farm Animal Containment”, aimed to improve welfare standards for cows raised for veal, female sows confined to gestation crates, and chickens caged for eggs. This study seeks to analyze the complex relationship between local and national food systems, and articulate the multi-level implications of Question 3. Research examines the rationale behind voting, campaign narratives, and campaign financing in Massachusetts, and ultimately compares the implications of Question 3 with those of California’s 2008 Prevention of Farm Animal Cruelty Act. The lenses of animal geographies and the ...


Politics Below The Surface: A Political Ecology Of Mineral Rights And Land Tenure Struggles In Appalachia And The Andes, Lindsay Shade Jan 2017

Politics Below The Surface: A Political Ecology Of Mineral Rights And Land Tenure Struggles In Appalachia And The Andes, Lindsay Shade

Theses and Dissertations--Geography

This dissertation examines how confusion and lack of access to information about subsurface property rights facilitates the rapid acquisition of mineral rights by mining interests, leaving those who live 'above the surface' to contend with complicated corporate and bureaucratic apparatuses. The research focuses on the first proposed state-run large scale mining project in Ecuador, believed to contain copper ores, and on the natural gas hydrofracking industry in three counties in north central West Virginia. Qualitative and visual methods, including mapping, are employed to determine (i.) how the geography of subsurface ownership patterns is changing, (ii.) links between changes in subsurface ...


Climate Change Beliefs, Concerns, And Attitudes Toward Adaptation And Mitigation Among Farmers In The Midwestern United States, J. Gordon Arbuckle, Linda Stalker Prokopy, Tonya Haigh, Jon Hobbs, Tricia Knoot, Cody Knutson, Adam Loy, Amber Saylor Mase, Jean Mcguire, Lois Wright Morton, John Tyndall, Melissa Widhalm Jul 2015

Climate Change Beliefs, Concerns, And Attitudes Toward Adaptation And Mitigation Among Farmers In The Midwestern United States, J. Gordon Arbuckle, Linda Stalker Prokopy, Tonya Haigh, Jon Hobbs, Tricia Knoot, Cody Knutson, Adam Loy, Amber Saylor Mase, Jean Mcguire, Lois Wright Morton, John Tyndall, Melissa Widhalm

J. Gordon Arbuckle

A February 2012 survey of almost 5,000 farmers across a region of the U.S. that produces more than half of the nation’s corn and soybean revealed that 66% of farmers believed climate change is occurring (8% mostly anthropogenic, 33% equally human and natural, 25% mostly natural), while 31% were uncertain and 3.5% did not believe that climate change is occurring. Results of initial analyses indicate that farmers’ beliefs about climate change and its causes vary considerably, and the relationships between those beliefs, concern about the potential impacts of climate change, and attitudes toward adaptive and mitigative ...


Impact Of Agroecology Adoption, Migration And Remittance Receipt On Household Welfare, Joseph Kangmennaang Jun 2015

Impact Of Agroecology Adoption, Migration And Remittance Receipt On Household Welfare, Joseph Kangmennaang

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis aims to examine the impact of two livelihood strategies on household wellbeing in Northern and Central Malawi. Specifically, the study aims to examine how agroecology adoption, migration and remittance receipt impact household food security and asset poverty levels. Prior research has revealed that agroecological farming methods and remittance receipt can increase productivity, yield stability and resilience of family farmers as well as increase their incomes and propel them out of poverty. Agroecology as an alternative agricultural approach has gained momentum through some high-level FAO meetings as well as reports highlighting its potential. Migration and remittances flows have also ...


Signed Peer Reviews As A Means To Improve Scholarly Publishing, Linwood H. Pendleton Mar 2015

Signed Peer Reviews As A Means To Improve Scholarly Publishing, Linwood H. Pendleton

Journal of Ocean and Coastal Economics

Peer review is a necessary process with a long history of complaints, including over-solicitation of a small number of reviewers, delays, inadequate numbers of reviewers, and a lack of incentives to provide strong reviews or avoid reviews with little helpful information for the author. In the era of Web-based distribution of research, through working paper or project reports, anonymous peer reviews are much less likely. The Journal of Ocean and Coastal Economics will use signed peer reviews and an open communication process among authors, reviewers, and editors. This approach, to be developed over time, should lead to stronger communication of ...


The Evolution Of Non-Market Valuation Of U.S. Coastal And Marine Resources, Douglas Lipton, Dan K. Lew, Kristy Wallmo, Peter Wiley, Anthony Dvarskas Feb 2015

The Evolution Of Non-Market Valuation Of U.S. Coastal And Marine Resources, Douglas Lipton, Dan K. Lew, Kristy Wallmo, Peter Wiley, Anthony Dvarskas

Journal of Ocean and Coastal Economics

At the federal level, particularly within the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), regulatory and programmatic needs have driven the continued development and application of non-market valuation approaches to marine and coastal resources. The evolution of these valuation approaches not only entails adopting the recommendations of the 1993 NOAA blue ribbon panel on contingent valuation, but also an expansion of stated preference approaches with increased use of stated preference choice experiments. Revealed preference approaches have also advanced with more sophisticated random utility models. We provide an overview of this evolution in the areas of natural resources damage assessment, protected resources ...


What Have We Learned From The Deepwater Horizon Disaster? An Economist’S Perspective, Daniel R. Petrolia Feb 2015

What Have We Learned From The Deepwater Horizon Disaster? An Economist’S Perspective, Daniel R. Petrolia

Journal of Ocean and Coastal Economics

This paper outlines what we have learned about the impacts of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil disaster from the economics discipline as well as what effect the DWH disaster has had on the economics discipline. It appears that what we know about the economic impact of the DWH spill today is limited, possibly because such analysis is tied up in the federal Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) process and other state-led efforts. There is evidence, however, that the NRDA process has changed over time to de-emphasize economic valuation of damages. There is also evidence that economists may be producing fewer ...


Emergence Of Collective Action In A Groundwater Commons: Irrigators In The San Luis Valley Of Colorado, Kelsey C. Cody, Steven M. Smith, Michael Cox, Krister Andersson Jan 2015

Emergence Of Collective Action In A Groundwater Commons: Irrigators In The San Luis Valley Of Colorado, Kelsey C. Cody, Steven M. Smith, Michael Cox, Krister Andersson

Environmental Studies Graduate Contributions

Under what conditions are irrigators able to develop adaptive governance arrangements? This article addresses this question by developing an empirically grounded theory of self-governance of a snowmelt commons in southern Colorado. Drawing on previous work in collective action and institutional theory, we argue that self-regulation of the hydro-commons is driven by changes in shared user perceptions with regard to the salience and scarcity of the resource, as well as the perceived probability of salvaging the resource system. We further posit that several conditioning factors affect the likelihood of effective local responses, including the existing institutional arrangements for self-governance, techno-institutional complementarities ...


Raising Grain In Next Year Country: Dryland Farming, Drought, And Adaptation In The Golden Triangle, Montana, Caroline M. Stephens Jan 2015

Raising Grain In Next Year Country: Dryland Farming, Drought, And Adaptation In The Golden Triangle, Montana, Caroline M. Stephens

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Climate change has already and will likely continue to impact agriculture in the Western United States, threatening water supplies for both irrigated and rainfed agriculture (Calzadilla et al. 2010; Chambers and Pellant 2008; MacDonald et al. 2010; Pedersen et al. 2009). In the Golden Triangle, a region in north central Montana, known for its dryland grain production, the same is true. There is a need for in-depth, fine-grained, place-based, and qualitative research about the process of climate change adaptation in agriculture (Miller et al. 2013). Drought challenges farmers in the Triangle, which is semiarid and receives 10-15 inches of annual ...


The Economic Impacts Of Forest Pathogens In Washington State: A Hedonic Approach, Logan Blair Jan 2015

The Economic Impacts Of Forest Pathogens In Washington State: A Hedonic Approach, Logan Blair

All Master's Theses

An increase in the incidence of forest pathogens in the Western US has created new resource management issues. In this research I employ a dataset of 170,141 housing transactions in twelve Western Washington counties to quantify the impacts of parasitic forest damage on the proxy real estate market. Specifically, I estimate a set of hedonic fixed effects models to control for omitted variable bias and spatial autocorrelation. Results show statistically significant impacts on property values in the presence of species specific and aggregate defoliation, suggesting new information for forestry management and policy.


(Re)Localizing Finland’S Foodshed: Grassroots Movements In Food Distribution And Urban Agriculture, Sophia E. Albov Jan 2015

(Re)Localizing Finland’S Foodshed: Grassroots Movements In Food Distribution And Urban Agriculture, Sophia E. Albov

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Finland’s agricultural landscape and food production systems have deep societal roots and intimate connections to the Finnish cultural identity. The thesis explores this cultural heritage through an examination of grassroots food distribution networks rapidly diffusing across Finland and an examination of urban agricultural practices in the capital city of Helsinki. This thesis aims to address the following questions: (1) What is the role of grassroots food distribution networks in Finland, and to what extent are they creating alternative farmer-consumer linkages that support eating local? (2) How is urban agriculture structured and organized in Helsinki and within the broader context ...


Having It Both Ways?: Land Use Change In A U.S. Midwestern Agricultural Ecoregion, Roger Auch, Chris Laingen Dec 2014

Having It Both Ways?: Land Use Change In A U.S. Midwestern Agricultural Ecoregion, Roger Auch, Chris Laingen

Christopher R. Laingen

Urbanization has been directly linked to decreases in area of agricultural lands and, as such, has been considered a threat to food security. Although the area of land used to produce food has diminished, often overlooked have been changes in agricultural output. The Eastern Corn Belt Plains (ECBP) is an important agricultural region in the U.S. Midwest. It has both gained a significant amount of urban land, primarily from the conversion of agricultural land between 1973 and 2000, and at the same time continued to produce ever-increasing quantities of agricultural products. By 2002, more corn, soybeans, and hogs were ...