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2011

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Articles 1 - 30 of 148

Full-Text Articles in Political Economy

The Evolution Of Unemployment Relief In Great Britain, George R. Boyer Dec 2011

The Evolution Of Unemployment Relief In Great Britain, George R. Boyer

George R. Boyer

[Excerpt] Relatively little has been written about unemployment relief during the period between the passage of the Poor Law Amendment Act in 1834 and the adoption of national unemployment insurance in 1911. This study is an attempt to help fill the gap in the literature. It examines the changing roles played by poor relief, private charity, trade unions, and public employment in the lives of the urban unemployed during cyclical downturns from 1834 to 1911. The story that emerges offers no support for a "Whig theory of welfare." Public assistance for the unemployed was more generous, and more certain, from ...


The Development Of The Neoclassical Tradition In Labor Economics, George R. Boyer, Robert S. Smith Dec 2011

The Development Of The Neoclassical Tradition In Labor Economics, George R. Boyer, Robert S. Smith

George R. Boyer

This essay on labor economics examines neoclassical theory's rise to ascendancy following the second World War, with a secondary focus on the relative decline but continued influence of institutionalist economic theory. The authors describe the evolution of institutional and neoclassical theory from the late nineteenth to mid-twentieth centuries, examine some early intellectual debates between the two camps, briefly describe the work of neoclassical labor economics pioneers, and look at major developments over the past 30 years. They argue that neoclassical economists' increasing intellectual breadth and influence in public policy have led them to pay closer attention to issues that ...


The Historical Background Of The Communist Manifesto, George R. Boyer Dec 2011

The Historical Background Of The Communist Manifesto, George R. Boyer

George R. Boyer

[Excerpt] The Manifesto of the Communist Party, published 150 years ago in London in February 1848, is one of the most influential and widely-read documents of the past two centuries. The historian A. J. P. Taylor (1967, p. 7) has called it a "holy book," and contends that because of it, "everyone thinks differently about politics and society." And yet, despite its enormous influence in the 20th century, the Manifesto is very much a period piece, a document of what was called the "hungry" 1840s. It is hard to imagine it being written in any other decade of the 19th ...


Malthus Was Right After All: Poor Relief And Birth Rates In Southeastern England, George R. Boyer Dec 2011

Malthus Was Right After All: Poor Relief And Birth Rates In Southeastern England, George R. Boyer

George R. Boyer

The payment of child allowances to laborers with large families was widespread in early nineteenth-century England. This paper tests Thomas Malthus's hypothesis that child allowances caused the birth rate to increase. A cross-sectional regression model is estimated to explain variations in birth rates across parishes in 1826-30. Birth rates are found to be related to child allowances, income, and the availability of housing, as Malthus contended. The paper concludes by examining the role played by the adoption of child allowances after 1795 in the fertility increase of the early nineteenth century.


The Poor Law, Migration, And Economic Growth, George R. Boyer Dec 2011

The Poor Law, Migration, And Economic Growth, George R. Boyer

George R. Boyer

The loss to the English economy caused by decreased migration resulting from relief payments to agricultural laborers is estimated. I conclude that, at worst, the Poor Law had a small negative impact on national product. If poor relief and wages were substitutes, the Poor Law may have had a positive impact on capital formation and economic growth.


What Did Unions Do In Nineteenth-Century Britain?, George R. Boyer Dec 2011

What Did Unions Do In Nineteenth-Century Britain?, George R. Boyer

George R. Boyer

The article examines the development of the insurance function of trade unions. It analyzes how such policies worked, and why union benefit packages differed across occupations. It also addresses the impact of insurance policies on union organization. Insurance benefits increased the ability of unions to attract and retain members. They did not, however, significantly increase the power of union leaders relative to employers or union rank and file.


Unemployment And The Uk Labour Market Before, During And After The Golden Age, Timothy J. Hatton, George R. Boyer Dec 2011

Unemployment And The Uk Labour Market Before, During And After The Golden Age, Timothy J. Hatton, George R. Boyer

George R. Boyer

During the ‘golden age’ of the 1950s and 1960s unemployment in Britain averaged 2 per cent. This was far lower than ever before or since and a number of hypotheses have been put forward to account for this unique period in labour market history. But there has been little attempt to isolate precisely how the determinants of wage setting and unemployment differed before, during and after the golden age. We estimate a two-equation model over the whole period from 1872 to 1999 using a newly constructed set of long-run labour market data. We find that the structure of real wage ...


Labour Migration In Southern And Eastern England, 1861-1901, George R. Boyer Dec 2011

Labour Migration In Southern And Eastern England, 1861-1901, George R. Boyer

George R. Boyer

This paper examines the determinants of migration from 19 southern counties to six major destinations in England and Wales from 1861-70 to 1891-1900. I find that, while the size of origin-destination wage gaps and the distance between origin and destination areas were important determinants of migration flows, as expected, migration was also strongly influenced by the number of previous migrants from an origin county living in a destination. The assistance provided by previous migrants to friends and relatives contemplating migration led to a perpetuation of earlier migration patterns, and helps to explain the continued dominance of London as a destination ...


New Estimates Of British Unemployment, 1870-1913, George R. Boyer, Timothy J. Hatton Dec 2011

New Estimates Of British Unemployment, 1870-1913, George R. Boyer, Timothy J. Hatton

George R. Boyer

We present new estimates of the British industrial unemployment rate for 1870- 1913, which improve on the Board of Trade's prior estimates. We use similar sources, but our series includes additional industrial sectors, allows for short-time working, and aggregates the various sectors using appropriate labor-force weights from the census. The resulting index suggests a rate of industrial unemployment that was generally higher, but less volatile, than the board's index. We then adjust our series to an economywide basis, and construct a consistent time series of overall unemployment for 1870-1999.


Economic Approaches To Global Regulation: Expanding The International Law And Economics Paradigm, Dan Danielsen Dec 2011

Economic Approaches To Global Regulation: Expanding The International Law And Economics Paradigm, Dan Danielsen

Dan Danielsen

The recent economic crisis has demonstrated with startling clarity the importance of developing a more robust framework for assessing the effects of national rules on global welfare. For more than fifty years, law and economics scholars have examined the effects of domestic legal rules on economic activity and general welfare in the United States. More recently, international law scholars have begun to use economic methods to analyze the international legal order. In this article I survey this evolving body of “international law and economics scholarship” with a view to articulating its principle methodological innovations as well as assessing its contributions ...


Local Rules And A Global Economy: An Economic Policy Perspective, Dan Danielsen Dec 2011

Local Rules And A Global Economy: An Economic Policy Perspective, Dan Danielsen

Dan Danielsen

This article explores the growing significance and theoretical implications of ‘local rules’—such as Chinese labour standards, US financial regulation and Swiss bank secrecy rules—in the global economy. In particular, the argument developed is that Ronald Coase’s framework for analysing the effects of legal rules on economic welfare can help to reveal important weaknesses in current international legal approaches to analysing the transnational impact of local rules as well as contribute to a ‘global economic policy perspective’ better attuned to problems of power in the global regulatory order. Such a perspective will help us to see the effects ...


Understanding The Legitimacy Of Both Dissension And Acceptance Of Accommodative Monetary Policy, Maximilian Bevan Dec 2011

Understanding The Legitimacy Of Both Dissension And Acceptance Of Accommodative Monetary Policy, Maximilian Bevan

Maximilian Bevan

No abstract provided.


What's Up With The Economy?, Barry Bluestone Dec 2011

What's Up With The Economy?, Barry Bluestone

Barry Bluestone

No abstract provided.


Housing And The U.S. Economy, Barry Bluestone Dec 2011

Housing And The U.S. Economy, Barry Bluestone

Barry Bluestone

No abstract provided.


The Greater Boston Housing Report Card 2009: Positioning Boston In A Post-Crisis World, Barry Bluestone, Chase Billingham, Jessica Herrmann Dec 2011

The Greater Boston Housing Report Card 2009: Positioning Boston In A Post-Crisis World, Barry Bluestone, Chase Billingham, Jessica Herrmann

Barry Bluestone

No abstract provided.


The Greater Boston Housing Report Card 2010: Taking Stock In An Uncertain Time, Barry Bluestone, Chase Billingham, Jessica Casey, Anna Gartsman Dec 2011

The Greater Boston Housing Report Card 2010: Taking Stock In An Uncertain Time, Barry Bluestone, Chase Billingham, Jessica Casey, Anna Gartsman

Barry Bluestone

No abstract provided.


A New "Grand Bargain" For The Commonwealth, Barry Bluestone Dec 2011

A New "Grand Bargain" For The Commonwealth, Barry Bluestone

Barry Bluestone

No abstract provided.


The Greater Boston Housing Report Card 2011: Housing’S Role In The Ongoing Economic Crisis, Barry Bluestone, Chase Billingham Dec 2011

The Greater Boston Housing Report Card 2011: Housing’S Role In The Ongoing Economic Crisis, Barry Bluestone, Chase Billingham

Barry Bluestone

No abstract provided.


The Oecd And Phases In The International Political Economy, 1961-2011, Judith Clifton, Daniel Díaz-Fuentes Dec 2011

The Oecd And Phases In The International Political Economy, 1961-2011, Judith Clifton, Daniel Díaz-Fuentes

Judith Clifton

In 2011, the OECD turned fifty. To provide a broad foundation for further thinking on this organization, we analyse its evolution over half a century from two perspectives: phases in the international political economy and the literature on IPE. By so doing, we uncover two paradoxes. Firstly, we find that the organization’s evolution closely mirrored major phases in the postwar international political economy until recently. However, the OECD’s long-term dependence on theWest has now become an obstacle to its efforts to adapt to the latest phase, characterised by the rise of non-Western powers. Secondly, we show that, during ...


Out Of Sight, Out Of Mind: The Value Of Political Connections In Social Networks, Quoc-Anh Do, Bang Dang Nguyen, Yen Teik Lee, Kieu-Trang Nguyen Dec 2011

Out Of Sight, Out Of Mind: The Value Of Political Connections In Social Networks, Quoc-Anh Do, Bang Dang Nguyen, Yen Teik Lee, Kieu-Trang Nguyen

Research Collection School Of Economics

This paper investigates the impact of social-network connections to politicians on firm value. We focus on the networks of university classmates and alumni among directors of U.S. public firms and congressmen. Using the Regression Discontinuity Design based on close elections from 2000 to 2008, we identify that a director’s connection to an elected congressman causes a Weighted Average Treatment Effect on Cumulative Abnormal Returns of -2.65% surrounding the election date. The effect is robust and consistent through various specifications, parametric and nonparametric, with different outcome measures and social network definitions, and across many subsamples. We find evidence ...


Globalization And Commitment In Corporate Social Responsibility: Cross-National Analyses Of Institutional And Political-Economy Effect, Alwyn Lim, Kiyoteru Tsutsui Dec 2011

Globalization And Commitment In Corporate Social Responsibility: Cross-National Analyses Of Institutional And Political-Economy Effect, Alwyn Lim, Kiyoteru Tsutsui

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

This article examines why global corporate social responsibility (CSR) frameworks havegained popularity in the past decade, despite their uncertain costs and benefits, and how theyaffect adherents’ behavior. We focus on the two largest global frameworks—the United NationsGlobal Compact and the Global Reporting Initiative—to examine patterns of CSR adoption bygovernments and corporations. Drawing on institutional and political-economy theories, wedevelop a new analytic framework that focuses on four key environmental factors—globalinstitutional pressure, local receptivity, foreign economic penetration, and national economicsystem. We propose two arguments about the relationship between stated commitment andsubsequent action: decoupling due to lack of capacity and ...


One Mandarin Benefits The Whole Clan: Hometown Infrastructure And Nepotism In An Autocracy, Kieu-Trang Nguyen, Quoc-Anh Do, Anh Tran Dec 2011

One Mandarin Benefits The Whole Clan: Hometown Infrastructure And Nepotism In An Autocracy, Kieu-Trang Nguyen, Quoc-Anh Do, Anh Tran

Research Collection School Of Economics

This paper studies nepotism by government officials in an authoritarian regime. We collect a unique dataset of political promotions of officials in Vietnam and estimate their impact on public infrastructure in their hometowns. We find strong positive effects on several outcomes, some with lags, including roads to villages, marketplaces, clean water access, preschools, irrigation, and local radio broadcasters, as well as the hometown’s propensity to benefit from the State’s “poor commune support program”. Nepotism is not limited to only top-level officials, pervasive even among those without direct authority over hometown budgets, stronger when the hometown chairperson’s and ...


Economic Integration, Political Integration Or Both?, Daniel Brou, Michele Ruta Nov 2011

Economic Integration, Political Integration Or Both?, Daniel Brou, Michele Ruta

Daniel Brou

We study the effects of economic and political integration by presenting a model in which firms compete with each other in both an economic market—where they produce a good and compete for market share—and in a political (rent seeking) market—where they compete for transfers from the government. Growth is driven by firms’ cost-reducing innovation activity and economic and political integration affect firms’ incentive to innovate differently. In this setting, economic and political integration can be seen as complementary. Economic integration, when not accompanied by political integration, can lead to less innovation and slower growth as firms respond ...


La Sociedad Mercantil Unipersonal: Pertinencia De Su Utilización En México, Max Garcia Nov 2011

La Sociedad Mercantil Unipersonal: Pertinencia De Su Utilización En México, Max Garcia

Max Garcia Sanchez

No abstract provided.


The Enduring Power Of Coase, Elizabeth Hoffman, Matthew L. Spitzer Nov 2011

The Enduring Power Of Coase, Elizabeth Hoffman, Matthew L. Spitzer

Economics Publications

By many measures, Ronald Coase has been among the most influential economists of the past 60 years. Why is this so? We suggest that Coase’s work has enduring appeal to and insight for social scientists in part because it addresses the biggest and most important social problems: How do we solve governance and coordination problems when limited information, common resource issues, and public good issues produce conflicts among several people at once? Any scholar who works on issues of corporate or common-pool governance, pollution, allocation of seats on legislative committees, regulation of systemic risk in financial markets, provision of ...


Community-University Research Partnerships For Workers' And Environmental Health In Campinas Brazil, Maria Inês Monteiro, Carlos Eduardo Siqueira, Heleno Rodrigues Correa-Filho Oct 2011

Community-University Research Partnerships For Workers' And Environmental Health In Campinas Brazil, Maria Inês Monteiro, Carlos Eduardo Siqueira, Heleno Rodrigues Correa-Filho

C. Eduardo Siqueira

Three partnerships between the University of Campinas, community, and pubLic health care services are discussed in this article. A theoretical framework underpins the critical reviews of their accomplishments following criteria proposed by scholars of community-university partnerships and community-based participatory research. The article concludes that despite the significant achievements, there still remain important barriers for their development due to performance criteria that do not value research that partner with communities, health care services, or labor unions.


L'Unione Fiscal Svolta Per L'Europa, Jaime Luque, Massimo Morelli, José Tavares Oct 2011

L'Unione Fiscal Svolta Per L'Europa, Jaime Luque, Massimo Morelli, José Tavares

Jaime P. Luque

No abstract provided.


Socio-Economic Profile Of Brazilian Businesses In Allston-Brighton, Alvaro Lima, Carlos Eduardo Siqueira Oct 2011

Socio-Economic Profile Of Brazilian Businesses In Allston-Brighton, Alvaro Lima, Carlos Eduardo Siqueira

C. Eduardo Siqueira

Several studies published in Brazil and in the U.S. focus on the ethnic identity formation, immigration histories, cultural development, and demographic trends of Brazilians in Boston and in Massachusetts (Margolis, 1995; Martes, 1999; Beserra, 2003; Sales, 2003; Siqueira & de Lourenço, 2006; Lima & Siqueira, 2007). A profile of Brazilian businesses and their economic contributions to the nation and the state is still missing. This report is a preliminary attempt to fill this gap for Brazilian immigrants in Boston. Under the sponsorship of the Mauricio Gastón Institute for Latino Community Development and Public Policy and with support from the City of Boston’s Department ...


Impacts Of Social Upbringing On Family Integration In Military Life In Sudan, Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed Oct 2011

Impacts Of Social Upbringing On Family Integration In Military Life In Sudan, Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

In a country on the eve of losing one third of its land, 80% of potential natural resources and 75% of external exports value, economic future seems gloomy. Many opinions were given for economic solutions after the Southern Sudan secession. However, that does not support a theoretical framework that those are the only reasons for the expected economic collapse. Our theory here is that such collapse already happened because of economic mismanagement, corruption and hoarding initiated by the calls for empowerment and carried out by the regime's members. Such acts extended to the banks, economic institutions and randomized privatization ...


Multinational Companies And Investments In Sudan: Case Study Of Oil Exploration And Extraction, Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed Oct 2011

Multinational Companies And Investments In Sudan: Case Study Of Oil Exploration And Extraction, Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

The purpose of this paper is to present the role of multinational companies in general then its role in Sudan with particular emphasis on oil exploration and extraction. Chinese companies of multinationalities currently control the newly born oil industry in the country. Needless to say that the dire needs of the government because of its international isolation and sanctions compelled it to be subjected to bellow standards conditions in all economic and environmental aspects. The government accepted the conditions for the past twelve years. However, the secession of Southern Sudan into new country gives better re-negotiations opportunity to the newly ...