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Full-Text Articles in Political Economy

Travel To Cuba: A Case Study Of Media Branding In A Politicized Context, Yaneisis Infante Dec 2019

Travel To Cuba: A Case Study Of Media Branding In A Politicized Context, Yaneisis Infante

Student Theses

The purpose of this research is to detail a case study of U.S. tourism to Cuba in a politicized context; specifically, to compare and contrast the Obama and Trump administrations. This study seeks to examine how the Cuban “brand” and the island’s overall tourism strategy is formulated, circulated, shaped and reshaped by various actors and the public in the changing context of the newly antagonistic bilateral U.S.-Cuba political relationship. The research questions explore issues of how diplomatic relations impact Cuban tourism and advertising messaging. This paper also discusses the changes in the U.S. news media ...


The Origins Of The Jones Act Of Puerto Rico, Stephanie Mercedes Sep 2019

The Origins Of The Jones Act Of Puerto Rico, Stephanie Mercedes

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

After the Spanish-American War that ended in 1898, Puerto Rico was given to the United States by Spain as a war booty, becoming a US colony. The first law ever created by the United States to control Puerto Rico was the Foraker Act (also known as the Organic Act of 1900). This established a civilian government in Puerto Rico. It also extended the federal government rulings to the island. After its creation, the Puerto Rican population began to wonder what their political status was since nothing was concretized until the Jones Act was signed. The Merchant Marine Act of 1920 ...


The Oppressive Pressures Of Globalization And Neoliberalism On Mexican Maquiladora Garment Workers, Jenna Demeter Jul 2019

The Oppressive Pressures Of Globalization And Neoliberalism On Mexican Maquiladora Garment Workers, Jenna Demeter

Pursuit - The Journal of Undergraduate Research at the University of Tennessee

The international economic trends of globalization and neoliberalism have exposed and enabled the exploitation of Mexican workers, especially women in the maquiladora garment industry. During the 1950s, globalization gave rise to the new international division of labor and transnational corporations (TNCs) that have offshored labor-intensive phases of production to developing countries, many of which have pursued export-led industrialization. Export processing in Mexico was encouraged in the 1960s by Item 807 of the U.S. Tariff Code and Mexico’s Border Industrialization Program. Especially following the Latin American debt crisis of the 1980s, advanced capitalist countries and International Financial Institutions foisted ...


Do Global Cities Make Green Cities? How Global Governance Impacts Transportation In Bogotá And Medellín, Eleanor Jackson Jan 2019

Do Global Cities Make Green Cities? How Global Governance Impacts Transportation In Bogotá And Medellín, Eleanor Jackson

Honors Theses

This thesis examines how global and local governance has combined to deliver effective and sustainable public transportation in cities by comparing Bogotá’s bus rapid transit (BRT) system, TransMilenio, with Medellín’s mass transit system, STIMVA, often referred to as Metro de Medellín. After considering the rationales used to justify local and global authority over climate change, this analysis problematizes the supposed benefits of empowering global and local actors by highlighting the conflicts of interest that plague the elites who mediate the global and the local. In analyzing the global and local interactions, this work draws from extensive literature to ...


Through The Eyes Of Locals: A Changing Climate In Bolivia, Jacob D. Rex Jan 2019

Through The Eyes Of Locals: A Changing Climate In Bolivia, Jacob D. Rex

Undergraduate Theses and Professional Papers

Deforestation and Agricultural Land-Use Change in Bolivia as a Function of Socio-Economic Realities.

This research combines semi-structured interviews of key informants and local participants, as well as field observations, which were conducted between January and April of 2019 in the Departments of Santa Cruz & Chuquisaca.


Resource Nationalism And Energy Integration In Latin America: The Paradox Of Populism, Brian Hollingsworth Jun 2018

Resource Nationalism And Energy Integration In Latin America: The Paradox Of Populism, Brian Hollingsworth

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation examines the relationship between resource nationalism and energy integration, and uses Bolivia and Brazil as a test case. Essentially, does resource nationalism affect energy integration? The findings nest within more expansive questions on international political economy and export-driven models of development. Why do populist regimes, historically operating under an economic nationalist cum protectionist paradigm, simultaneously pursue policies of economic integration? What is the relationship between resource nationalists and open markets, especially in the hydrocarbons sector? What is the relationship between populists, who are typically resource nationalists, and their decision to choose policies of energy integration?

The most common ...


Promesa, Puerto Rico And The American Empire, Pedro Caban May 2018

Promesa, Puerto Rico And The American Empire, Pedro Caban

Latin American, Caribbean, and U.S. Latino Studies Faculty Scholarship

As the United States ascended to hyper-power status during the late 1970s, it changed colonial policy in Puerto Rico. The change, which included the elimination of favorable tax legislation and demilitarization, devastated Puerto Rico’s economy. Puerto Rico borrowed heavily in a failed effort to offset the dramatic decline in capital inflows. The federal government enacted PROMESA after Puerto Rico announced it could not repay the debt. The law was designed to restore Puerto Rico to financial solvency by imposing oppressive austerity measures. PROMESA was a watershed event because it stripped Puerto Rico of the limited sovereignty the federal government ...


Venezuela: Oil And Madness. Politics, Propaganda, And Realities Of The Chavista Era, Alvaro E. De Prat May 2018

Venezuela: Oil And Madness. Politics, Propaganda, And Realities Of The Chavista Era, Alvaro E. De Prat

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This thesis is an interdisciplinary exploration of Venezuela’s political paradoxes and their consequences during the Chavista years. On a concrete level, in this work I propose how the manner in which Hugo Chávez implemented his at first apparently benign redistributive politics in fact precipitated the country's current humanitarian crisis and what I will argue are the times of starkest inequality in modern Venezuelan history. Integral to this, although on a more philosophical level, here I also offer a theory of how and why Chávez’s representations might have been so misinterpreted.

The list of eminent political thinkers who ...


El Valor De Verde Neoliberalismo, Crisis Económica Y Políticas Polarizadas: Cómo Afecta En La Vida Cotidiana De La Gente De Clase Media En Buenos Aires. / The Value Of Green Neoliberalism, Economic Crisis And Polarized Politics: How They Affect The Everyday Life Of The Citizens Of The Middle Class In Buenos Aires., Sierra Conboy Apr 2018

El Valor De Verde Neoliberalismo, Crisis Económica Y Políticas Polarizadas: Cómo Afecta En La Vida Cotidiana De La Gente De Clase Media En Buenos Aires. / The Value Of Green Neoliberalism, Economic Crisis And Polarized Politics: How They Affect The Everyday Life Of The Citizens Of The Middle Class In Buenos Aires., Sierra Conboy

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

The history of a country can haunt them for decades. For Argentina, the history of neoliberal economics has plagued the economic development of the country; so much so that as a result of neoliberalism, Argentina experienced the worst social, political, and economic crisis of the countries entire existence between the years of 1998 and 2002. With the height of the crisis being in 2001, it continues to lurk in the economic and political infrastructure of the country today. The threat of constant economic dilemmas has manifested into the minds of the citizens of Argentina, but how far has it gone ...


Corruption: Brazil's Everlasting Parasite, Patricia Vilhena Jan 2018

Corruption: Brazil's Everlasting Parasite, Patricia Vilhena

Honors Undergraduate Theses

The purpose of this thesis is to explore corruption in Brazil, how it has endured for so such a long period, and the effects it has in the country. Understanding the history of Brazil, how the government was established, and how the branches operate is crucial to comprehend the rooting causes of the Brazilian corruption. The focus is not just about what corruption is and the effects it has on education, economy, and infrastructure, but also on the factors that contributed to its expansion and the circumstances that allowed it to sustain until today. Brazil is a country known for ...


Why Not Mexico? Policy Recommendations For A Globally-Oriented Economic Strategy, Víctor Manuel Hernández-Rodríguez Jan 2018

Why Not Mexico? Policy Recommendations For A Globally-Oriented Economic Strategy, Víctor Manuel Hernández-Rodríguez

CMC Senior Theses

Mexico, one of the world’s largest economies and an increasingly relevant actor in international affairs, is at a crucial point in defining its future policy course. Given the uncertainty surrounding the global economy, as well as the political situation in Mexico, it is important to have a clear vision for policy going forward. This thesis offers a foundation for a national economic strategy with a long-term vision, upon which future administrations can build as appropriate to maximize on the country’s economic potential. The task is undertaken through a three-part approach. First, a thorough and analytical overview of the ...


The Demilitarization Of Costa Rica, Patrick Buscone May 2017

The Demilitarization Of Costa Rica, Patrick Buscone

Honors Theses

Costa Rica is one of the few developed countries in the world to be completely demilitarized. In the first chapter, this thesis explores why the country decided to demilitarize and how effective their demilitarization has been. Further statistical analysis is applied in Chapter 2 to determine the effect military spending has on growth in Latin America. With Costa Rica experiencing great stability and growth following their demilitarization and the statistical analysis showing military spending to have a negative impact on growth in Latin America, the third and final chapter explores other Latin American countries that could benefit from demilitarization.


Politics Below The Surface: A Political Ecology Of Mineral Rights And Land Tenure Struggles In Appalachia And The Andes, Lindsay Shade Jan 2017

Politics Below The Surface: A Political Ecology Of Mineral Rights And Land Tenure Struggles In Appalachia And The Andes, Lindsay Shade

Theses and Dissertations--Geography

This dissertation examines how confusion and lack of access to information about subsurface property rights facilitates the rapid acquisition of mineral rights by mining interests, leaving those who live 'above the surface' to contend with complicated corporate and bureaucratic apparatuses. The research focuses on the first proposed state-run large scale mining project in Ecuador, believed to contain copper ores, and on the natural gas hydrofracking industry in three counties in north central West Virginia. Qualitative and visual methods, including mapping, are employed to determine (i.) how the geography of subsurface ownership patterns is changing, (ii.) links between changes in subsurface ...


Emigration, Repatriation And The Reality Of Returned Youth In El Salvador, Isabel C. Duarte Vasquez Dec 2016

Emigration, Repatriation And The Reality Of Returned Youth In El Salvador, Isabel C. Duarte Vasquez

Master's Theses

According to US Customs and Border Protection, over 59 thousand unaccompanied minors from the Northern Triangle (Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador) have been detained at the US border, of those 59 thousand, 17 thousand are from El Salvador. El Salvador is home to some of the most dangerous and ruthless gangs of the twenty-first century. Their ruthlessness comes from 1980s guerrilla warfare experience. In addition, El Salvador serves as a transshipment point for illicit substances from South America into Mexico. These dynamics fuel the homicide rate of the region as local gang members must protect their territory by any means ...


Natural Disasters In Latin America: The Role Of Disaster Type And Productive Sector On The Urban-Rural Income Gap And Rural To Urban Migration, Madeline Alice Messick Aug 2016

Natural Disasters In Latin America: The Role Of Disaster Type And Productive Sector On The Urban-Rural Income Gap And Rural To Urban Migration, Madeline Alice Messick

Dissertations

This research provides insight into the impact of natural disasters as drivers of rural to urban migration in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Disasters of varying types are predicted to have differing impacts on the productive sectors of agriculture, industry, and services; which due to the concentration of the various productive sectors in either urban or rural areas, subsequently changes the urban-rural wage differential. Changes to the wage differential (as measured by the urban-rural income gap) are predicted to lead to movement between urban and rural areas until a new equilibrium wage is reached.

This dissertation first identifies a ...


Indigenous Rights Policy And Terrorist Discourse: A Strategy To Stifle Mapuche Self-Determination In Chile, Reyna Mckinnon Jan 2016

Indigenous Rights Policy And Terrorist Discourse: A Strategy To Stifle Mapuche Self-Determination In Chile, Reyna Mckinnon

Scripps Senior Theses

When President Sebastián Piñera entered office in 2010 the Mapuche indigenous people were receiving two contrasting messages from the Chilean State. On the one hand, the government ratified ILO Convention 169, pledging to protect the indigenous right to prior consultation in programs that affect their communities. On the other hand, the government was involved in the oppression of Mapuche communities in the region of the Araucanía through militarisation and the application of the Anti-Terrorist Law to punish radical Mapuche activists that protest corporate encroachment on their land. While Piñera had the opportunity to legitimize the Mapuche demand for self-determination by ...


Three Essays On Economic Stages And Transition, Ricardo R. Fuentes-Ramírez Jan 2016

Three Essays On Economic Stages And Transition, Ricardo R. Fuentes-Ramírez

Doctoral Dissertations

Cuba and Venezuela have been argued to be examples of state capitalism, populist capitalism, socialism, or simply the ambiguous “mixed economy.” By focusing on these countries as social formations in movement, or in transition, a more adequate understanding is presented. The first essay develops a theory of socialist transition, with focus on the dynamic, rather than static character of socialism. Furthermore, worker cooperatives are analyzed with a focus on the roles they play in the different stages of the transition to socialism. Finally, this framework is utilized to analyze the experience of the Bolivarian Revolution in Venezuela.

The second essay ...


Tipping The Scales: The Public Health Crisis In Mexico, Haley M. Wilhelm Jan 2016

Tipping The Scales: The Public Health Crisis In Mexico, Haley M. Wilhelm

Scripps Senior Theses

Mexico is in the midst of a public health crisis. A country formerly plagued by malnutrition and malaria is now host to obesity, diabetes, and other nutrition-related issues. Despite public policy efforts by the Mexican government, rates of obesity and non-communicable diseases steadily rise. The persistence of the crisis is the result of legislation that does not properly address the crisis. The efforts made by the Mexican government only address the education of consumers and consumer protection. Policies are limited by corporate power and corporate influence throughout Mexico. The public health crisis is a result of underlying political economy issues ...


Políticas De Precios Y Comercialización Agrícola Durante La Transición: Experiencias Y Lecciones Para Cuba, Mario A. Gonzalez-Corzo Aug 2015

Políticas De Precios Y Comercialización Agrícola Durante La Transición: Experiencias Y Lecciones Para Cuba, Mario A. Gonzalez-Corzo

Publications and Research

Las políticas de precios y comercialización de productos agrícolas desempeñaron un importante papel durante las transiciones en los antiguos países socialistas. Estas transiciones agrícolas primordialmente se caracterizaron por el desmantelamiento, en algunos casos como China y Vietnam de forma gradual y calibrada y en otros de forma acelerada como en algunos países de Europa del Este y la Unión Soviética, del colectivismo, los subsidios estatales y los controles de precios y por mayores grados de participación de actores no-estatales en la comercialización de productos agrícolas. A pesar de notables diferencias estructurales y coyunturales, las experiencias de los antiguos países socialistas ...


A Market Study Of Organic And Fair Trade Coffee In Bolivia, Christopher L. Estevez Jun 2015

A Market Study Of Organic And Fair Trade Coffee In Bolivia, Christopher L. Estevez

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this research is to study the commercialization of Fairtrade and Organic coffee in the Bolivia. Fairtrade and Organic coffee are alternative trade systems designed to promote the equitable and environmentally sustainable production of coffee. However, these alternative trading systems often fail to meet these goals. The producers and environment these systems are intended to protect remain marginalized. These failures are due to a number of local institutions. In order to better understand these institutions, this research conducted interviews of various stakeholders including producers, cooperative leaders, organic/Fair Trade certifiers, government agencies and private buyers. All these stakeholders ...


Gold Mining And Unequal Exchange In Western Amazonia: A Theoretical Photo Essay, Gordon L. Ulmer May 2015

Gold Mining And Unequal Exchange In Western Amazonia: A Theoretical Photo Essay, Gordon L. Ulmer

disClosure: A Journal of Social Theory

I combine fieldwork photography and ethnographic documentation of gold mining in Madre de Dios, Peru, to examine the localized material, social, environmental, and health outcomes of the global gold boom. This 'theoretical photo essay’ examines how local and global forces coalesce around gold mining and influence peoples and environments in Western Amazonia. I use embodiment theory in anthropology, ecological economics, and theories of underdevelopment to understand local consequences of the global gold trade and to elucidate how opulence and the machinations of capital accumulation in economic centers of the world occur at the expense of human lives and environments in ...


Premature Births And Maternal Health: An Analysis Of Risk Factors That Affect The Rate Of Prematurity / Los Nacimientos Prematuros Y La Salud Materna: Un Análisis De Los Factores De Riesgo Que Afecta La Tasa De Prematuridad, Alexandria Mickler Dec 2014

Premature Births And Maternal Health: An Analysis Of Risk Factors That Affect The Rate Of Prematurity / Los Nacimientos Prematuros Y La Salud Materna: Un Análisis De Los Factores De Riesgo Que Afecta La Tasa De Prematuridad, Alexandria Mickler

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Research Question: What are the major socio-demographic risk factors influencing the rate of preterm birth in Valparaiso, Chile? Objectives: The objective of this study is to identify risk factors that influence the rate of preterm birth in an urban population of women living in Valparaiso, Chile. This study aims to understand whether a relationship exists between socio-demographic characteristics, such as economic level, education, lifestyle, access to medical attention and resources and the risk of prematurity. The outcomes of this study seek to determine the major biological, cultural, and social relationships and identify at-risk social groups. Additionally, this study considers the ...


Troubles In Paradise: The United States’ Biggest Challenge In The Carribean, Juan Clar Apr 2014

Troubles In Paradise: The United States’ Biggest Challenge In The Carribean, Juan Clar

Ex-Patt Magazine

As many Caribbean economies grow, and the threat of Cuban communism fades, the challenge in the Caribbean for the US comes from the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.


'Clean Energy' At What Cost?, Rachel E. Conrad Apr 2013

'Clean Energy' At What Cost?, Rachel E. Conrad

Pitzer Senior Theses

Ecuador was ‘refounded’ at the turn of the 21st century, with the articulation of progressive and inclusive ideals in a new Constitution. Social movements and leftist intellectuals in Ecuador have expressed that president Rafael Correa has failed to uphold the 2008 Constitution’s goals and values. President Correa and his Alianza PAIS government have utilized the rhetoric of the revolutionary ideals articulated in the Constitution, but in practice, they have continued to implement the status quo Western development model, and a large part of their development strategy involves ‘neo-extractive’ activities. Hydroelectric energy production is contributing to the ‘neo-extractive’ development ...


The Impact Of The International Budget Partnership's Open Budget Survey And Its Partner Institution's Advocacy On Budget Transparency In Honduras, Hugo Noe Pino, International Budget Partnership Feb 2013

The Impact Of The International Budget Partnership's Open Budget Survey And Its Partner Institution's Advocacy On Budget Transparency In Honduras, Hugo Noe Pino, International Budget Partnership

International Budget Partnership

This case study looks at how the preparation and publication of the Open Budget Survey 2010 in Honduras increased awareness of Honduras’ budget transparency problems. The increased attention given to these issues brought together local civil society organizations, the International Budget Partnership, the Millennium Challenge Corporation, and the government of Honduras to make progress on budget transparency. Also, the IBP’s technical assistance to the government of Honduras played an important role in the recent publication of budget documents, which combined with a strong government will have provided the basis for public finance management reforms. Although the main incentive for ...


The Politics Of Transgenic Food: An Ethnographically Informed Analysis Of The Ban On Genetically Modified Crops In Bolivia, Kristin Gjelsteen Jan 2013

The Politics Of Transgenic Food: An Ethnographically Informed Analysis Of The Ban On Genetically Modified Crops In Bolivia, Kristin Gjelsteen

Summer Research

This research investigates a country that has recently committed itself to replacing all genetically modified crops with non-altered crops. Limitations and benefits associated with allowing or banning transgenic technology are examined through interviews with farmers, agricultural researchers, agronomists, biologists and environmental advocates in three diverse communities in Bolivia. This research explores how these stakeholders experience and understand the recent national rejection of this agricultural technology. Controversy surrounding development and use of transgenic technology illustrates moral, political, social and economic conflicts, presents risks and creates complex societal decisions with the potential to impact ecological systems, diversity of life, health (both natural ...


Water Governance In Bolivia: Policy Options For Pro-Poor Infrastructure Reform, Daniel M. Maxwell Jan 2013

Water Governance In Bolivia: Policy Options For Pro-Poor Infrastructure Reform, Daniel M. Maxwell

CMC Senior Theses

As the case with most countries across Latin America, unprecedented migration to urban areas has strained city infrastructure systems. More particularly, the region faces a pressing crisis of water security, where rapid urbanization has outpaced water sector development. This thesis addresses the water infrastructure reform in El Alto and La Paz, Bolivia, focusing on strategies to better promote water access for the peri-urban poor. The research investigates the level of progressivity of water service expansion and pricing regimes: in other words, does the present model of water distribution positively improve the lives of the poorest groups? By investigating these social ...


Women's Mobilization In Latin America: A Case Study Of Venezuela, Brianna Russell Dec 2012

Women's Mobilization In Latin America: A Case Study Of Venezuela, Brianna Russell

Master's Theses

Abstract

I examine the following elements in regards to women’s mobilization in Latin America and Venezuela from the late 1950s to the present: (a) the influence of the state and economy on times when women mobilized (b) class division within the movement (c) women’s demands during different time periods (d) the ways in which women were successful in working towards gender equality. This thesis reviews the literature on women’s mobilization in Latin America during the second half of the twentieth century. I find that women mobilized across class lines with the masses to end dictatorships. Women demobilized ...


A Difusão Do Orçamento Participativo Brasileiro: ‘Boas Práticas' Devem Ser Promovidas?, Brian Wampler Nov 2012

A Difusão Do Orçamento Participativo Brasileiro: ‘Boas Práticas' Devem Ser Promovidas?, Brian Wampler

Brian Wampler

The "third wave" of democratization has been accompanied by the spread of new institutions that allow citizens to deliberate and decide policy outcomes. Leading international organizations, such as the World Bank and the United Nations, have disseminated "best practice" programs identified with "good government" policy reform efforts. One of the most well-known programs, Participatory Budgeting (PB), was first adopted by Brazil's Workers' Party (PT) in 1989 as a means to promote social justice, accountability, and transparency. There has been widespread adoption of PB in Brazil, led by the PT. Yet, by 2001, nearly half of PB programs had been ...


How Do Latino Groups Fare In A Changing Economy? Occupation In Latino Groups In The Greater New York City Area, 1980-2009, Stephen Ruszczyk Nov 2012

How Do Latino Groups Fare In A Changing Economy? Occupation In Latino Groups In The Greater New York City Area, 1980-2009, Stephen Ruszczyk

Center for Latin American, Caribbean, and Latino Studies

Introduction: This study examines demographic and socioeconomic factors of racial/ethnic groups in New York City between 1980 and 2009 – particularly the Latino population.

Methods: Data on Latinos and other racial/ethnic groups were obtained from the U.S. Census Bureau American Community Survey, reorganized for public use by the Minnesota Population Center, University of Minnesota, IPUMSusa. Cases in the dataset were weighted and analyzed to produce population estimates.

Results: Trends from 1990 continued in 2000, with numbers of Puerto Ricans in production dropping to only 14% of that group. More than a fifth of Puerto Ricans worked in management ...