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2016

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Full-Text Articles in Other Economics

All-Pay Auctions With Ties, Alan Gelder, Dan Kovenock, Brian Roberson Dec 2016

All-Pay Auctions With Ties, Alan Gelder, Dan Kovenock, Brian Roberson

ESI Working Papers

We study the two-player, complete information all-pay auction in which a tie ensues if neither player outbids the other by more than a given amount. In the event of a tie, each player receives an identical fraction of the winning prize. Thus players engage in two margins of competition: losing versus tying, and tying versus winning. Two pertinent parameters are the margin required for victory and the value of tying relative to winning. We fully characterize the set of Nash equilibria for the entire parameter space. For much of the parameter space, there is a unique Nash equilibrium which is ...


A Perspective On Electronic Alternatives To Traditional Currencies, Gabriele Camera Dec 2016

A Perspective On Electronic Alternatives To Traditional Currencies, Gabriele Camera

ESI Working Papers

The institution of money is rapidly evolving thanks to developments in computer-based cryptography. Technological advances have made possible the creation of cost-effective electronic alternatives to banknotes and coins, which are the traditional physical currencies. This document aims to describe — based on scientific literature — the use and characteristics of money, some of the problems associated with issuing a new currency or a new payment instrument, and the possible comparative advantages of a central bank in leading the way relative to private issuers.


An 8-Zone Test System Based On Iso New England Data: Development And Application, Dheepak Krishnamurthy, Wanning Li, Leigh Tesfatsion Dec 2016

An 8-Zone Test System Based On Iso New England Data: Development And Application, Dheepak Krishnamurthy, Wanning Li, Leigh Tesfatsion

Leigh Tesfatsion

This study develops an open-source 8-zone test system for teaching, training, and research purposes that is based on ISO New England structural attributes and data. The test system models an ISO-managed wholesale power market populated by a mix of generating companies and load-serving entities that operates through time over an 8-zone AC transmission grid. The modular extensible architecture of the test system permits a wide range of sensitivity studies to be conducted. To illustrate the capabilities of the test system, we report energy cost-savings outcomes for a comparative study of stochastic versus deterministic DAM security constrained unit commitment (SCUC) formulations ...


Active Intermediation In Overlapping Generations Economies With Production And Unsecured Debt, Mark Pingle, Leigh Tesfatsion Dec 2016

Active Intermediation In Overlapping Generations Economies With Production And Unsecured Debt, Mark Pingle, Leigh Tesfatsion

Leigh Tesfatsion

It is well known that the first welfare theorem can fail for overlapping generations economies with private production and unsecured debt. This paper demonstrates that the reason for this failure is that intermediation is modeled as a purely passive coordination activity implemented by a Walrasian Auctioneer. When intermediation is modeled instead as a contestable activity carried out by a corporate intermediary owned by consumer-shareholders and operated in their interest, every equilibrium is Pareto efficient. In broader terms, these findings caution that the inefficiency observed in standard modelings of overlapping generations economies may not be the reflection of an intrinsic market ...


Asymmetric Social Norms, Gabriele Camera, Alessandro Gioffré Dec 2016

Asymmetric Social Norms, Gabriele Camera, Alessandro Gioffré

ESI Working Papers

Studies of cooperation in infinitely repeated matching games focus on homogeneous economies, where full cooperation is efficient and any defection is collectively sanctioned. Here we study heterogeneous economies where occasional defections are part of efficient play, and show how to support those outcomes through contagious punishments.


Factors Influencing Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Land Use, Land-Use Change, And Forest Activities, Pattarawan Watcharaanantapong Dec 2016

Factors Influencing Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Land Use, Land-Use Change, And Forest Activities, Pattarawan Watcharaanantapong

Doctoral Dissertations

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are a major global issue because of their effects on climate and the resulting environmental and human impacts. The primary greenhouse gases (GHGs), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O), are emitted into the atmosphere from a myriad of human activities such as energy supply, manufacturing, transportation, commercial and residential buildings, and waste. Additionally, management activities on agricultural and forest lands can influence GHG emissions substantially. Even though GHGs can be released into the air via the sectors mentioned, GHGs, especially CO2, can be removed from ecosystems through certain ...


A Trillion-Dollar Question: What Predicts Student Loan Delinquencies?, Alvaro Mezza, Kamila Sommer Dec 2016

A Trillion-Dollar Question: What Predicts Student Loan Delinquencies?, Alvaro Mezza, Kamila Sommer

Journal of Student Financial Aid

The recent significant increase in student loan delinquencies has generated interest in understanding the key factors predicting the non-performance of these loans. However, despite the large size of the student loan market, existing analyses have been limited by lack of data. This paper studies predictors of student loan delinquencies using a nationally representative panel data set that anonymously combines individual credit bureau records with Federal Pell Grant and federal student loan recipient information, records on college enrollment, graduation and major, and school characteristics. We show that borrower-level credit characteristics are important predictors of student loan delinquencies. In particular, credit scores ...


The Economic Impacts Of Undocumented Immigrants In The United States, Abdulaziz Alangari Dec 2016

The Economic Impacts Of Undocumented Immigrants In The United States, Abdulaziz Alangari

Honors Papers and Posters

There are about 11 million undocumented immigrants in the U.S., of which all are not granted a work permit. Thus, in order to survive, these immigrants seek jobs that do not require legal status but have wages significantly lower than minimum. In short, by having these immigrants work in low-wage jobs, the U.S. economy benefits by providing a diverse market to U.S. residents and thus creates a vast economy. My research paper will be talking about how the presence of undocumented immigrants is a significant factor in creating and shaping the diverse U.S. economy.


Using Experiments To Compare The Predictive Power Of Models Of Multilateral Negotiations, Cary Deck, Charles J. Thomas Nov 2016

Using Experiments To Compare The Predictive Power Of Models Of Multilateral Negotiations, Cary Deck, Charles J. Thomas

ESI Working Papers

We conduct unstructured negotiations in a laboratory experiment designed to empirically assess the predictive power of three approaches to modeling the multilateral negotiations observed in diverse strategic settings. For concreteness we consider two sellers negotiating with a buyer who wants to make only one trade, with the modeling approaches distinguished by whether the buyer negotiates with the sellers sequentially, simultaneously, or in a “take-it-or-leave-it” fashion. Our experiment features two scenarios within which the three approaches have observationally distinct predictions: a differentiated scenario with one high-surplus and one low-surplus seller, and a homogeneous scenario with identical high-surplus sellers. In both scenarios ...


Editor's Introduction To The Special Edition: The Economics Of Climate Change In Coastal Areas, Charles S. Colgan Nov 2016

Editor's Introduction To The Special Edition: The Economics Of Climate Change In Coastal Areas, Charles S. Colgan

Journal of Ocean and Coastal Economics

Editor's introduction to the Special Edition on the Economics of Climate Change Adaptation in Coastal Areas


Economic Analysis With Systematically Biased Agents, Mark Schneider Nov 2016

Economic Analysis With Systematically Biased Agents, Mark Schneider

ESI Working Papers

A tenet of behavioral economics is that biases are systematic and should have visible effects in economic applications. Expected utility maximization has been widely applied in economic analysis, but progress has been slower incorporating 'systematically biased' agents into applications involving risk. This contrasts with the widespread application of present-biased preferences in intertemporal settings. To address this gap, we advocate a model of quasi-rank dependent probability weighting as a natural analog to quasi-hyperbolic discounting for decisions under risk. The model satisfies stochastic dominance and transitivity and transforms individual rather than cumulative probabilities. We illustrate the model’s tractability in several economic ...


The Pros And Cons Of Workplace Tournaments, Roman M. Sheremeta Nov 2016

The Pros And Cons Of Workplace Tournaments, Roman M. Sheremeta

ESI Working Papers

Tournaments are commonly used in the workplace to determine promotion, assign bonuses, and motivate personal development. Tournament-based contracts can be very effective in eliciting high effort, often outperforming other compensation contracts, but they can also have negative consequences for both managers and workers. The benefits and disadvantages of workplace tournaments have been identified in theoretical, empirical, and experimental research over the past several decades. Based on these findings, I provide suggestions and guidelines for when it might be beneficial to use tournaments in the workplace.


The Economic Costs And Benefits Of Implementing The Clean Power Plan, Jose Miguel Abito, Christopher R. Knittel, Konstantinos Metaxoglou, Andre Trindade Nov 2016

The Economic Costs And Benefits Of Implementing The Clean Power Plan, Jose Miguel Abito, Christopher R. Knittel, Konstantinos Metaxoglou, Andre Trindade

Wharton Public Policy Initiative Issue Briefs

This brief looks at the costs of implementing the EPA’s Clean Power Plan. Specifically, it examines whether implementing the CPP on a state-by-state basis—that is, with each state meeting its own individual target for emissions reduction by 2030, rather than establishing regional targets—is economically efficient. The economic analysis uses data from electricity-generating firms participating in the Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland (PJM) Interconnection to examine the relative economic efficiency of regional versus state-by-state implementation of the CPP. The research indicates that state-by-state implementation would yield the lowest electricity prices in 2030.


Angels And Demons: Using Behavioral Types In A Real-Effort Moral Dilemma To Identify Expert Traits, Hernan Bejerano, Ellen P. Green, Stephen Rassenti Oct 2016

Angels And Demons: Using Behavioral Types In A Real-Effort Moral Dilemma To Identify Expert Traits, Hernan Bejerano, Ellen P. Green, Stephen Rassenti

ESI Publications

In this article, we explore how independently reported measures of subjects' cognitive capabilities, preferences, and sociodemographic characteristics relate to their behavior in a real-effort moral dilemma experiment. To do this, we use a unique dataset, the Chapman Preferences and Characteristics Instrument Set (CPCIS), which contains over 30 standardized measures of preferences and characteristics. We find that simple correlation analysis provides an incomplete picture of how individual measures relate to behavior. In contrast, clustering subjects into groups based on observed behavior in the real-effort task reveals important systematic differences in individual characteristics across groups. However, while we find more differences, these ...


Improving Spatio-Temporal Benefit Transfers For Pest Control By Generalist Predators In Cotton In The Southwestern Us, Ruscena Wiederholt, Kenneth J. Bagstad, Gary F. Mccracken, Jay E. Diffendorfer, John B. Loomis, Darius J. Semmens, Amy L. Russell, Chris Sansone, Kelsie Lasharr, Paul Cryan, Claudia Reynoso, Rodrigo A. Medellin, Laura Lopez-Hoffman Oct 2016

Improving Spatio-Temporal Benefit Transfers For Pest Control By Generalist Predators In Cotton In The Southwestern Us, Ruscena Wiederholt, Kenneth J. Bagstad, Gary F. Mccracken, Jay E. Diffendorfer, John B. Loomis, Darius J. Semmens, Amy L. Russell, Chris Sansone, Kelsie Lasharr, Paul Cryan, Claudia Reynoso, Rodrigo A. Medellin, Laura Lopez-Hoffman

Amy L. Russell

Given rapid changes in agricultural practice, it is critical to understand how alterations in ecological, technological, and economic conditions over time and space impact ecosystem services in agroecosystems. Here, we present a benefit transfer approach to quantify cotton pest-control services provided by a generalist predator, the Mexican free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana), in the southwestern United States. We show that pest-control estimates derived using (1) a compound spatial-temporal model - which incorporates spatial and temporal variability in crop pest-control service values - are likely to exhibit less error than those derived using (2) a simple-spatial model (i.e., a model that extrapolates ...


A Discourse On Diversity: The Impact Of Management Team Heterogeneity On Firm Performance., Robert J. Brown Oct 2016

A Discourse On Diversity: The Impact Of Management Team Heterogeneity On Firm Performance., Robert J. Brown

Undergraduate Economic Review

Quantile models are used to test the association between management team gender, ethnic and educational diversity and firm performance, employing an IV technique developed by Chernozhukov and Hansen (2008) to address the potential endogeneity issues. Estimated associations between measures of diversity and firm EBITDA margins are close to zero across much of the dependent variable distribution, but increase in magnitude for higher margin firms. No evidence of a statistically significant causal relationship between gender and ethnic diversity and firm EBITDA margins is found. Marginal evidence of a statistically significant association between margins and educational diversity is found for high margin ...


The Role Of Fringe Benefits In Operator Off-Farm Labor Supply, Helen H. Jensen, Priscilla Salant Oct 2016

The Role Of Fringe Benefits In Operator Off-Farm Labor Supply, Helen H. Jensen, Priscilla Salant

Helen Jensen

The last thirty years have seen a major shift in the share of total compensation paid to workers in the form of nonwage fringe benefits, that is, payments in a form other than currently spendable cash (Chen). Fringe benefits have become increasingly important because they are a source of income that receives preferential tax treatment, and can often be offered at group savings, as in the case of purchase oflife and health insurance.


Does Price Efficiency Increase With Trading Volume? Evidence Of Nonlinearity And Power Laws In Etfs, Gunduz Caginalp, Mark Desantis Oct 2016

Does Price Efficiency Increase With Trading Volume? Evidence Of Nonlinearity And Power Laws In Etfs, Gunduz Caginalp, Mark Desantis

Economics Faculty Articles and Research

Whether efficiency increases with increasing volume is an important issue that may illuminate trader strategies and distinguish between market theories. This relationship is tested using 124,236 daily observations comprising 68 large and liquid U.S. equity exchange traded funds (ETFs). ETFs have the advantage that efficiency can be measured in terms of the deviation between the trading price and the underlying net asset value that is reported each day. Our findings support the hypothesis that the relationship between volume and efficiency is nonlinear. Indeed, efficiency increases as volume increases from low to moderately high levels, but then decreases as ...


Consumer Choices And Welfare Gains From New, Healthy Products: A Virtual Prices Approach, Sonya K. Huffman, Ariun Ishdorj, Helen H. Jensen Oct 2016

Consumer Choices And Welfare Gains From New, Healthy Products: A Virtual Prices Approach, Sonya K. Huffman, Ariun Ishdorj, Helen H. Jensen

Sonya Huffman

This paper models consumer food choices with respect to different margarine and spread brands that include a new healthy brand. The results show that the older and smaller size households with higher income and higher education are more likely to purchase the healthy brand. An Almost Ideal Demand System for six brands was estimated and the coefficients were used to calculate price and brand expenditure elasticities in order to examine the responsiveness of the consumers to economic variables.


On The Robustness Of Higher Order Risk Preferences, Cary Deck, Harris Schlesinger Oct 2016

On The Robustness Of Higher Order Risk Preferences, Cary Deck, Harris Schlesinger

ESI Working Papers

Economists have begun to recognize the role that higher order risk preferences play in a variety of settings. As such, several experiments have documented the degree of prudence, temperance, and to a lesser extent, edginess and bentness that laboratory subjects exhibit. More recently, researchers have argued that higher order risk preferences generally conform to mixed risk averse and mixed risk loving patterns that arise from a preference for disaggregating or aggregating harms, respectively. This paper examines the robustness of this pattern in three ways. First, it attempts to directly replicate previous results with compound lotteries over monetary outcomes. Second, it ...


Dual Process Utility Theory: A Model Of Decisions Under Risk And Over Time, Mark Schneider Sep 2016

Dual Process Utility Theory: A Model Of Decisions Under Risk And Over Time, Mark Schneider

ESI Working Papers

The Discounted Expected Utility model has been a major workhorse for analyzing individual behavior for over half a century. However, it cannot account for evidence that risk interacts with time preference, that time interacts with risk preference, that many people are averse to timing risk and do not discount the future exponentially, that discounting depends on the magnitude of outcomes, that risk preferences are not time preferences, and that risk and time preferences are correlated with cognitive ability. Here we address these issues in a decision model based on the interaction of an affective and a reflective valuation process. The ...


Multi-Battle Contests: An Experimental Study, Shakun D. Mago, Roman M. Sheremeta Sep 2016

Multi-Battle Contests: An Experimental Study, Shakun D. Mago, Roman M. Sheremeta

ESI Working Papers

We examine behavior of subjects in simultaneous and sequential multi-battle contests, where each individual battle is modeled as an all-pay auction with complete information. In simultaneous best-of-three contests, subjects are predicted to make positive bids in all three battles, but we find that subjects often make positive bids in only two battles. In sequential contests, theory predicts sizable bids in the first battle and no bids in the subsequent battles. Contrary to this prediction, subjects significantly underbid in the first battle and overbid in subsequent battles. Consequently, instead of always ending in the second battle, contests often proceeds to the ...


Impulsive Behavior In Competition: Testing Theories Of Overbidding In Rent-Seeking Contests, Roman M. Sheremeta Sep 2016

Impulsive Behavior In Competition: Testing Theories Of Overbidding In Rent-Seeking Contests, Roman M. Sheremeta

ESI Working Papers

Researchers have proposed various theories to explain overbidding in rent-seeking contents, including mistakes, systematic biases, the utility of winning, and relative payoff maximization. Through an eight-part experiment, we test and find significant support for the existing theories. Also, we discover some new explanations based on cognitive ability and impulsive behavior. Out of all explanations examined, we find that impulsivity is the most important factor explaining overbidding in contests.


Endogenous Market Formation And Monetary Trade: An Experiment, Gabriele Camera, Dror Goldberg, Avi Weiss Aug 2016

Endogenous Market Formation And Monetary Trade: An Experiment, Gabriele Camera, Dror Goldberg, Avi Weiss

ESI Working Papers

The theory of money assumes decentralized bilateral exchange and excludes centralized multilateral exchange. However, endogenizing the exchange process is critical for understanding the conditions that support the use of money. We develop a “travelling game” to study the spontaneous emergence of decentralized and centralized exchange, theoretically and experimentally. Players located on separate “islands” can either trade locally, or pay a cost to trade elsewhere, so decentralized and centralized markets can both emerge in equilibrium. The latter maximize trade meetings and are socially efficient; the former minimize trade costs through the use of money. In the laboratory, centralized exchange more frequently ...


Do Economic Inequalities Affect Long-Run Cooperation?, Gabriele Camera, Cary Deck, David Porter Aug 2016

Do Economic Inequalities Affect Long-Run Cooperation?, Gabriele Camera, Cary Deck, David Porter

ESI Working Papers

Does inequality affect a group’s cohesion and ability to prosper? Participants in laboratory economies played an indefinite sequence of helping games in random, anonymous pairs. A coin flip determined donor and recipient roles in each pair. This random shock ensured equality of opportunity but not of results, because earnings depended on realized shocks. We manipulated the ability to condition choices on this uncontrollable inequality source. In all treatments, uncertain ending supports multiple Pareto-ranked equilibria, including full cooperation. Theoretically, inequalities do not alter the incentives’ structure. Empirically, inequality disclosures altered conduct, weakened norms of mutual support and reduced efficiency.


Focality And Asymmetry In Multi-Battle Contests, Subhashish M. Chowdhury, Dan Kovenock, David Rojo Arjona, Nathaniel Wilcox Aug 2016

Focality And Asymmetry In Multi-Battle Contests, Subhashish M. Chowdhury, Dan Kovenock, David Rojo Arjona, Nathaniel Wilcox

ESI Working Papers

This article examines behavior in two-person constant-sum Colonel Blotto games in which each player maximizes the expected total value of the battlefields won. A lottery contest success function is employed in each battlefield. Recent experimental research on such games provides only partial support for Nash equilibrium behavior. We hypothesize that the salience of battlefields affects strategic behavior (the salient target hypothesis). We present a controlled test of this hypothesis – against Nash predictions – when the sources of salience come from certain asymmetries in either battlefield values or labels (as in Schelling (1960)). In both cases, subjects over-allocate the resource to the ...


Essays In Applied Economics: Applications Of Transformed Ordinal Quantile Regression, Okila R. Elboeva Aug 2016

Essays In Applied Economics: Applications Of Transformed Ordinal Quantile Regression, Okila R. Elboeva

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation consists of three essays on the application of Transformed Ordinal Quantile Regression (TORQUE) developed by Hong and He (2010). TORQUE is based on jittered response, a nonparametric link function, a semiparametric quantile estimation. When the response variable is categorical an application of the standard quantile regression is not optimal. TORQUE technique generalizes ordinary quantile regression, and as a semiparametric method it is more robust than Maximum Likelihood Estimators.

In the first essay I estimate conditional quantiles of happiness using the data from British Household Panel Survey (BHPS) for 2006. I find the continuity assumption of happiness ranking does ...


The Influence Of The Electric Supply Industry On Economic Growth In Less Developed Countries, Edward Richard Bee Aug 2016

The Influence Of The Electric Supply Industry On Economic Growth In Less Developed Countries, Edward Richard Bee

Dissertations

This study measures the impact that electrical outages have on manufacturing production in 135 less developed countries using stochastic frontier analysis and data from World Bank’s Investment Climate surveys. Outages of electricity, for firms with and without backup power sources, are the most frequently cited constraint on manufacturing growth in these surveys.

Outages are shown to reduce output below the production frontier by almost five percent in Africa and by a lower percentage in South Asia, Southeast Asia and the Middle East and North Africa. Production response to outages is quadratic in form. Outages also increase labor cost, reduce ...


Indirect Reciprocity, Resource Sharing, And Environmental Risk: Evidence From Field Experiments In Siberia, E. Lance Howe, James J. Murphy, Drew Gerkey, Colin Thor West Jul 2016

Indirect Reciprocity, Resource Sharing, And Environmental Risk: Evidence From Field Experiments In Siberia, E. Lance Howe, James J. Murphy, Drew Gerkey, Colin Thor West

ESI Publications

Integrating information from existing research, qualitative ethnographic interviews, and participant observation, we designed a field experiment that introduces idiosyncratic environmental risk and a voluntary sharing decision into a standard public goods game. Conducted with subsistence resource users in rural villages on the Kamchatka Peninsula in Northeast Siberia, we find evidence consistent with a model of indirect reciprocity and local social norms of helping the needy. When participants are allowed to develop reputations in the experiments, as is the case in most small-scale societies, we find that sharing is increasingly directed toward individuals experiencing hardship, good reputations increase aid, and the ...


Multiple Openings And Competitiveness Of Forward Markets: Experimental Evidence, José Luis Ferreira, Praveen Kujal, Stephen Rassenti Jul 2016

Multiple Openings And Competitiveness Of Forward Markets: Experimental Evidence, José Luis Ferreira, Praveen Kujal, Stephen Rassenti

Economics Faculty Articles and Research

We test the competition enhancing effect of selling forward in experimental Cournot duopoly and quadropoly with multiple forward markets. We find that two forward periods yields competitive outcomes and that the results are very close to the predicted theoretical results for quantity setting duopolies and quadropolies. Our experiments lend strong support to the hypothesis that forward markets are competition enhancing. We then test a new market that allows for endogenously determined indefinitely many forward periods that only close when sellers coordinate on selling a zero amount in a forward market. We find that the outcomes under an endogenous close rule ...