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2014

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Articles 1 - 30 of 87

Full-Text Articles in Other Economics

Group-Average Observables As Controls For Sorting On Unobservables When Estimating Group Treatment Effects: The Case Of School And Neighborhood Effects, Joseph G. Altonji, Richard K. Mansfield Dec 2014

Group-Average Observables As Controls For Sorting On Unobservables When Estimating Group Treatment Effects: The Case Of School And Neighborhood Effects, Joseph G. Altonji, Richard K. Mansfield

Rick Mansfield

We consider the classic problem of estimating group treatment effects when individuals sort based on observed and unobserved characteristics. Using a standard choice model, we show that controlling for group averages of observed individual characteristics potentially absorbs all the across-group variation in unobservable individual characteristics. We use this insight to bound the treatment effect variance of school systems and associated neighborhoods for various outcomes. Across four datasets, our conservative estimates indicate that a 90th versus 10th percentile school system increases high school graduation and college enrollment probabilities by at least 0.047 and 0.11. Other applications include measurement of ...


Group-Average Observables As Controls For Sorting On Unobservables When Estimating Group Treatment Effects: The Case Of School And Neighborhood Effects, Joseph G. Altonji, Richard K. Mansfield Dec 2014

Group-Average Observables As Controls For Sorting On Unobservables When Estimating Group Treatment Effects: The Case Of School And Neighborhood Effects, Joseph G. Altonji, Richard K. Mansfield

Working Papers

We consider the classic problem of estimating group treatment effects when individuals sort based on observed and unobserved characteristics. Using a standard choice model, we show that controlling for group averages of observed individual characteristics potentially absorbs all the across-group variation in unobservable individual characteristics. We use this insight to bound the treatment effect variance of school systems and associated neighborhoods for various outcomes. Across four datasets, our conservative estimates indicate that a 90th versus 10th percentile school system increases high school graduation and college enrollment probabilities by at least 0.047 and 0.11. Other applications include measurement of ...


A Review On Literatures Of Zakat Between 2003-2013, Fuadah Johari, Muhammad Ridhwan Ab. Aziz, Ahmad Fahme Mohd Ali Dec 2014

A Review On Literatures Of Zakat Between 2003-2013, Fuadah Johari, Muhammad Ridhwan Ab. Aziz, Ahmad Fahme Mohd Ali

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

The objective of this article is to analysis the related literatures on zakat between 2003 until 2013. The methodology of this article is through descriptive research based on document-analysis on previous articles and literatures on zakat between 2003 until 2013. Data from each articles related in this field were collected and statistically analyzed using the Statistical Product & Service Solution (SPSS) software. This study looked at several variables which include authorship patterns, number of articles published, research approach, subject and gender of the author. The general finding of this article shows that the zakat issues are among the most discussed issues ...


The Natural Resource Curse In Sub-Saharan Africa: Transparency And International Initiatives, Meaza Zerihun Demissie Dec 2014

The Natural Resource Curse In Sub-Saharan Africa: Transparency And International Initiatives, Meaza Zerihun Demissie

Dissertations

The Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) region has become a classic case of the resource-curse phenomenon characterized by the abundance of natural resources, low economic development, and misuse of natural resources. Economic-development experts debate ways to overcome or avoid the resource curse to advance SSA countries into developed countries. Only one natural resource-rich country in the region, Botswana, has succeeded in becoming an upper middle-income country using its natural resources, making the possibility of replication of this achievement difficult. The literature aligns in the belief that the economic and political well-being of resource-rich nations depends highly on the actors involved. National and ...


Financial Literacy And Financial Inclusion Of Women In Rural Rajasthan, Emily Levi-D'Ancona Dec 2014

Financial Literacy And Financial Inclusion Of Women In Rural Rajasthan, Emily Levi-D'Ancona

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Financial inclusion is an important step in development, as access to finances can help the poor build money and lift themselves out of poverty. In many parts of the developing world, and especially in India, microfinance is seen as a new approach to fighting poverty by bringing financial services, including low-interest loans, to the poor so that they can afford to start a business or invest and eventually gain self-sufficiency – in other words, a method of financial inclusion for the poor. However, microfinance in India cannot sufficiently reach the poor populations, especially those in rural India, and many of India ...


Top Of The Order: Modeling The Optimal Locations Of Minor League Baseball Teams, W. Coleman Conley Nov 2014

Top Of The Order: Modeling The Optimal Locations Of Minor League Baseball Teams, W. Coleman Conley

Undergraduate Economic Review

Over the last twenty-five years, minor league baseball franchises have defined firm mobility. Revisiting the work of Michael C. Davis (2006), I construct a logistic regression model to predict which cities house minor league baseball teams. Six variables are tested for inclusion in the model, including population, income level, the number of major-league professional sports teams in a city, five-year population change, and distance from the closest professional team. Based on the model's predicted probabilities, cities are ranked in order of highest probability of having a team at each of the different levels from Class A to Class AAA.


Valuation Of Ecosystem Services For Environmental Decision Making In South Florida, Nadia A. Seeteram Nov 2014

Valuation Of Ecosystem Services For Environmental Decision Making In South Florida, Nadia A. Seeteram

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Greater Everglades system imparts vital ecosystem services (ES) to South Florida residents including high quality drinking water supplies and a habitat for threatened and endangered species. As a result of the altered Everglades system and regional dynamics, restoration may either improve the provision of these services or impose a tradeoff between enhanced environmental goods and services and competing societal demands. The current study aims at understanding public preferences for restoration and generating willingness to pay (WTP) values for restored ES through the implementation of a discrete choice experiment. A previous study (Milon et al., 1999) generated WTP values amongst ...


Should You Do A Doctorate? The Changing Returns To Postgraduate Qualifications, Sven Hoeling, Lewis Gudgeon, Felix Hagemeister Oct 2014

Should You Do A Doctorate? The Changing Returns To Postgraduate Qualifications, Sven Hoeling, Lewis Gudgeon, Felix Hagemeister

Undergraduate Economic Review

Higher education in the UK has experienced radical change over the last two decades. The change has been driven by a number of factors, not least New Labour’s policy to send 50% of school leavers to university. The increased supply of graduates has weakened a first degree’s ability to function as a signal to employers, resulting in many individuals pursuing postgraduate study to make themselves more competitive. This paper aims to show the changing returns to Bachelor, Master and Doctoral degrees for the period 1997 to 2013 and recognises the increasing importance of Ph.D. graduates in the ...


The Economic Value Of Iowa’S Public Universities, David Swenson Oct 2014

The Economic Value Of Iowa’S Public Universities, David Swenson

Economics Technical Reports and White Papers

This analysis measures the economic value of Iowa’s public universities – The University of Iowa, Iowa State University, and the University of Northern Iowa. There are two dimensions evaluated: the overall worth of operating the universities as educational and service institutions and the value of student spending in their respective area economies. This analysis incorporates a number of best practices for measuring the worth of universities to regional economies.


Promoting Renewable Energy Generation In The United States: The Debate Over Renewable Portfolio Standards, Joe Cerne Sep 2014

Promoting Renewable Energy Generation In The United States: The Debate Over Renewable Portfolio Standards, Joe Cerne

Economics Theses

Incentivizing renewable energy growth in the 21st century is, and will continue to be, a highly debated topic. As of late, legislative initiatives have prompted the enactment of various renewable portfolio standards aimed at stimulating renewable energy growth. Using data regarding each state’s energy production, this paper finds that there is no significant change in renewable energy output following the initiation of a renewable portfolio standard. We conclude that renewable energy growth is virtually unaffected by renewable portfolio standards and as such, we agree with much of the literature implying other means are necessary in order to adequately ...


Cost Share Adjustment Processes For Cooperative Group Decisions About Shared Goods: A Design Approach, Edna T. Loehman, Richard Kiser, Stephen Rassenti Sep 2014

Cost Share Adjustment Processes For Cooperative Group Decisions About Shared Goods: A Design Approach, Edna T. Loehman, Richard Kiser, Stephen Rassenti

Economics Faculty Articles and Research

For group decision about shared goods, the nature of the shared good and how its cost is to be shared among group members must be determined. Complexity arises from heterogeneity in preferences and endowments and nonlinear cost. To facilitate group decision, this paper proposes special type of group decision support system, a cost share adjustment process (CSAP), in which cost shares are adjusted iteratively via algorithmic rules until unanimity is reached, ideally producing a socially optimal, cost feasible, and fair outcome. In contrast to public good literature, our designs apply for situations of nonlinear cost, with economies of scale and ...


Common Pool Resources And Rural Livelihoods In Stung Treng Province Of Cambodia, Pitchaya Boonsrirat Sep 2014

Common Pool Resources And Rural Livelihoods In Stung Treng Province Of Cambodia, Pitchaya Boonsrirat

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation assesses the contribution of fish and forest products in the livelihoods of villagers in Strung Treng province of Cambodia, as these two common pool resources are threatened by the construction of the Lower Sesan 2 hydropower project. Household survey data collected under the Challenge Program on Water and Food (CPWF) are used in the analysis. It is found that, in general, fish accounts for a higher overall contribution in household’s livelihoods compared to forest products. Fishery products are most important for direct consumption, while forest products are more important for cash income. Across the study area, the ...


Clean Cooking: The Value Of Clean Cookstoves In Ethiopia, Shannon H. Kooser Aug 2014

Clean Cooking: The Value Of Clean Cookstoves In Ethiopia, Shannon H. Kooser

Journal of Environmental and Resource Economics at Colby

This project investigates how demographic differences affect the way people value clean cookstoves in Ethiopia. Previous research indicates that traditional cooking methods are harmful to human health as well as the environment, as people need to cut down trees or collect other biomass sources for fuel. However, clean stoves can solve both these environmental and health problems, as well as provide a sustainable method for cooking and heating in developing countries. Using choice survey data, this study examines Ethiopian households’ valuations of different characteristics of stoves, including durability, fuel reduction, smoke reduction and the amount of time they may save ...


How Do Cultural Activities Influence Happiness? The Relation Between Self-Reported Well-Being And Leisure, Maximo Rossi, Victoria Ateca, Mariana Gerstenbluth, Irene Mussio Aug 2014

How Do Cultural Activities Influence Happiness? The Relation Between Self-Reported Well-Being And Leisure, Maximo Rossi, Victoria Ateca, Mariana Gerstenbluth, Irene Mussio

Maximo Rossi

Well-being, measured as self-reported happiness has many determinants, which range from gender to income and political affiliation. When it comes to more or less active ways of participating in cultural activities, leisure has a significant impact in the levels of reported happiness, which is in line with the proposed ideas of Stiglitz et al (2009). We also quantify the likelihood of being more or less happy in relation to different types of leisure activities. Our approach has the advantage that all these cultural activities can be considered at the same time, accounting for the individual impact of each on individual ...


Public Good Economics And Standard Essential Patents, Christopher S. Yoo Aug 2014

Public Good Economics And Standard Essential Patents, Christopher S. Yoo

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Standard essential patents have emerged as a major focus in both the public policy and academic arenas. The primary concern is that once a patented technology has been incorporated into a standard, the standard can effectively insulate it from competition from substitute technologies. To guard against the appropriation of quasi-rents that are the product of the standard setting process rather than the innovation itself, standard setting organizations (SSOs) require patentholders to disclose their relevant intellectual property before the standard has been adopted and to commit to license those rights on terms that are fair, reasonable, and non-discriminatory (FRAND).

To date ...


Measuring Gender Difference In Information Sharing Using Network Analysis: The Case Of The Austrian Interlocking Directorship Network In 2009, Carlo Drago, Livia Amidani Aliberti, Davide Carbonai Jul 2014

Measuring Gender Difference In Information Sharing Using Network Analysis: The Case Of The Austrian Interlocking Directorship Network In 2009, Carlo Drago, Livia Amidani Aliberti, Davide Carbonai

Carlo Drago

In recent literature a relevant problem has been the relationship between career/personal contact networks and different career paths. In addition the recent advances in social capital theory have shown the way in which networks impact on personal careers. In particular women’s careers appear to be negatively affected by the informational network structure. The main contribution of this work is to propose empirical evidence of this phenomenon by considering the gendered directorship network with relation to Austria and to show the structural differences by gender in the network. By using community detection techniques we have found various communities in ...


Strength Of Protection For Geographical Indications: Promotion Incentives And Welfare Effects, Luisa Menapace, Giancarlo Moschini Jul 2014

Strength Of Protection For Geographical Indications: Promotion Incentives And Welfare Effects, Luisa Menapace, Giancarlo Moschini

Economics Publications

We address the question of how the strength of protection for geographical indications (GIs) affects the GI industry's promotion incentives, equilibrium market outcomes, and the distribution of welfare. Geographical indication producers engage in informative advertising by associating their true quality premium (relative to a substitute product) with a specific label emphasizing the GI's geographic origin. The extent to which the names/words of the GI label can be used and/or imitated by competing products—which depends on the strength of GI protection—determines how informative the GI promotion messages can be. Consumers’ heterogeneous preferences (vis-à-vis the GI ...


Productividad Investigadora En Las Universidades Públicas Mexicanas: Área De Administración, 2000-2013, Isaac L. Sánchez-Juárez, Norma Martínez Jun 2014

Productividad Investigadora En Las Universidades Públicas Mexicanas: Área De Administración, 2000-2013, Isaac L. Sánchez-Juárez, Norma Martínez

Isaac Sánchez-Juárez

El objetivo principal de este trabajo es determinar la cantidad de artículos en revistas científicas publicados por los investigadores de treinta y dos Instituciones Públicas de Educación Superior (IES) en México para el periodo 2000-2013 del área de administración. Adicional a esto, se evalúa la calidad de las revistas en las cuales publican a través del Factor de Impacto (FI) de las mismas. Se supone que la calidad y competitividad de las IES puede ser medida a través de la productividad investigadora, asumiendo que es por medio de la investigación y su difusión que se cumple con el objetivo de ...


Luminate: Linking Agricultural Land Use, Local Water Quality And Gulf Of Mexico Hypoxia, Catherine L. Kling, Yiannis Panagopoulos, Sergey S. Rabotyagov, Adriana Valcu-Lisman, Philip W. Gassman, Todd D. Campbell, Michael J. White, Jeffrey G. Arnold, Raghavan Srinivasan, Manoj K. Jha, Jeffrey J. Richardson, L. Monika Moskal, R. Eugene Turner, Nancy N. Rabalais Jun 2014

Luminate: Linking Agricultural Land Use, Local Water Quality And Gulf Of Mexico Hypoxia, Catherine L. Kling, Yiannis Panagopoulos, Sergey S. Rabotyagov, Adriana Valcu-Lisman, Philip W. Gassman, Todd D. Campbell, Michael J. White, Jeffrey G. Arnold, Raghavan Srinivasan, Manoj K. Jha, Jeffrey J. Richardson, L. Monika Moskal, R. Eugene Turner, Nancy N. Rabalais

Economics Publications

In this paper, we discuss the importance of developing integrated assessment models to support the design and implementation of policies to address water quality problems associated with agricultural pollution. We describe a new modelling system, LUMINATE, which links land use decisions made at the field scale in the Upper Mississippi, Ohio and Tennessee Basins through both environmental and hydrological components to downstream water quality effects and hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. This modelling system can be used to analyse detailed policy scenarios identifying the costs of the policies and their resulting benefits for improved local and regional water quality ...


How Portable Is Level-0 Behavior? A Test Of Level-K Theory In Games With Non-Neutral Frames, Shaun Hargreaves Heap, David Rojo Arjona, Robert Sugden Jun 2014

How Portable Is Level-0 Behavior? A Test Of Level-K Theory In Games With Non-Neutral Frames, Shaun Hargreaves Heap, David Rojo Arjona, Robert Sugden

Economics Faculty Articles and Research

We test the portability of level‐0 assumptions in level‐k theory in an experimental investigation of behavior in Coordination, Discoordination, and Hide and Seek games with common, non‐neutral frames. Assuming that level‐0 behavior depends only on the frame, we derive hypotheses that are independent of prior assumptions about salience. Those hypotheses are not confirmed. Our findings contrast with previous research which has fitted parameterized level‐k models to Hide and Seek data. We show that, as a criterion of successful explanation, the existence of a plausible model that replicates the main patterns in these data has a ...


Typhoons And Lower Birth Weight In The Philippines, Sarah Morrow May 2014

Typhoons And Lower Birth Weight In The Philippines, Sarah Morrow

Master's Theses

Do typhoons impact birth weights of infants exposed to a typhoon while in utero? This research exploits the exogeneity and randomness of typhoons in the Philippines to estimate the impact of typhoon exposure as determined by wind speed on birth weights. Using four waves of the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data from the Philippines combined with temperature, precipitation, and rainfall data from the Philippines, I can empirically estimate the impact of a 1 m/s increase in wind speed on birth weights. I find that for certain subgroups of the population, specifically children born to mothers with primary education ...


Impact Of Mobile Money Usage On Microenterprise Evidence From Zambia, Laura I. Frederick May 2014

Impact Of Mobile Money Usage On Microenterprise Evidence From Zambia, Laura I. Frederick

Master's Theses

Mobile money payment systems have spread rapidly around the world in the last decade. Given developing countries are powered by informal economies that traditionally have had limited access to information technologies, mobile payment system infrastructure has the potential to transform the way microenterprises conduct business. Through a pilot study in Livingstone, Zambia, I examine the effect of mobile money usage on microenterprise profits. I employ an instrumental variable strategy using the type of mobile operator as the instrument to address the selection bias in adoption, as mobile money services are available to everyone. In this urban context, I find initial ...


Matrilineal Asset Inheritance, Female Bargaining Power, And Household Welfare In Malawi, Nicholas T. Garcia May 2014

Matrilineal Asset Inheritance, Female Bargaining Power, And Household Welfare In Malawi, Nicholas T. Garcia

Master's Theses

Matrilineal inheritance practices in Malawi exogenously determine female land holdings at the time of marriage, allowing for the identification of the effect of increased female bargaining power on household consumption decisions. I use the matrilineal ethnicity of the head of household as an instrument for the share of total household land inherited by the female head or male head’s wife. I find that child’s height-for-age decreases with female assets, and evidence suggesting increased consumption from households’ own production. Since the food basket from own consumption is high in carbs but not nutritious, long-term child health suffers despite receiving ...


Wage Negotiation Under Good Faith Bargaining, Jesse Schwartz, Quan Wen May 2014

Wage Negotiation Under Good Faith Bargaining, Jesse Schwartz, Quan Wen

Jesse A. Schwartz

We study the wage negotiation model of Haller and Holden (1990) and Fernandez and Glazer (1991) under the "Good Faith Bargaining" (GFB) rule, where a party may not demand more than it has previously demanded. The GFB rule significantly restricts feasible strategies, but at the same time, makes the game non-stationary and the analysis complicated. We introduce a state-dependent backward induction that generalizes Shaked and Sutton (1984) to characterize the equilibrium payoffs. We find that the GFB rule eliminates the union's credibility to strike. Without the strikes, the union's strategic opportunities during disagreement disappear, so that there is ...


The Determinants Of Urban Land And Property Values: The Case Of Rwanda, Pierre Kolowe May 2014

The Determinants Of Urban Land And Property Values: The Case Of Rwanda, Pierre Kolowe

Master's Theses

Abstract: The paper seeks to determine the factor of urban housing values and their effects on the well-being of urban residents in terms of access to potable water, quality sanitation and other housing amenities. The study uses a total of 36 variables on structural, environmental and neighborhood attributes from the 2010-2011 survey data on income, expenditures and living conditions for the Rwandan urban households. With the use of the semi-log form of the hedonic price model and the survey data, factors of urban properties are determined and quantitative estimates of the Willingness-to-pay for environmental amenities are determined. The analysis of ...


Impact Of Natural Disaster Exposure On Prosocial Preferences And Public Goods Provision: Evidence From The Solomon Islands, Heather Belfor May 2014

Impact Of Natural Disaster Exposure On Prosocial Preferences And Public Goods Provision: Evidence From The Solomon Islands, Heather Belfor

Master's Theses

Natural disaster exposure can impact prosocial preferences, which indicate the level of social capital, as well as create a shift in investments from public to private goods. Both are important mechanisms to study in order to create optimal climate change adaptation policies. This study evaluates the impact of natural disaster exposure on prosocial preferences and public goods provision in the evaluated communities. The data used in this research comes from a process evaluation that was carried out in the Solomon Islands on the Rural Development Program (RDP) and a Structured Community Activity (SCA) experiment, which took place in 80 villages ...


The Business Of Beds: An Exploration Of Hotel And Hostel Business Strategy, Robert B. Bunda May 2014

The Business Of Beds: An Exploration Of Hotel And Hostel Business Strategy, Robert B. Bunda

Honors Scholar Theses

At their cores, hotels and hostels are similar in that they provide a place for travelers to stay. Despite this core similarity, the structures of the two industries are radically different. The hotel industry began in the Middle Ages and has given rise to massive multinational companies, many managing more than four thousand hotels. In stark contrast, the hostel industry began in 1909 and is mostly comprised of independently owned and operated guesthouses, with the largest global chain comprising of less than twenty properties. This study first defines the hotel and hostel industries and examines the different experiences they offer ...


Land As Power, An Analysis Of Female Land Inheritance And Intrahousehold Bargaining In Rwanda, Eric Adebayo May 2014

Land As Power, An Analysis Of Female Land Inheritance And Intrahousehold Bargaining In Rwanda, Eric Adebayo

Master's Theses

Do increased levels of female land inheritance lead to increases in female intrahousehold bargaining power? Analysis of an expansive Rwandan household survey dataset from 2010-2011 suggests that female land inheritances are positively associated with female intrahousehold bargaining power. The results support the relative efficacy of intrahousehold bargaining models over that of unitary household models. The findings have implications for Rwandan lawmakers debating changes to the country's “Succession law” which makes gender discrimination in land inheritance illegal. This is the first paper of its kind to estimate female land inheritance's effect on bargaining power in Rwanda.


Cooperation In A Repeated Public Goods Game With A Probabilistic Endpoint, Daniel M. Carlen May 2014

Cooperation In A Repeated Public Goods Game With A Probabilistic Endpoint, Daniel M. Carlen

Undergraduate Honors Theses

In our experiment, we have a multiple-round public goods game but with a probabilistic endpoint. This changes the Nash equilibrium, such that cooperation is the new equilibrium strategy. The experiment consists of two treatments, one with a single round per session (called the intertemporal treatment), and the second with multiple rounds per session. Experimental results suggest that contribution was indeed positive and consistent provided a high enough probability of the game’s continuation, but declined when probability fell.


Too Hot To Handle: Managing America’S Ecosystems In A Changing Climate, Riley Morin May 2014

Too Hot To Handle: Managing America’S Ecosystems In A Changing Climate, Riley Morin

Syracuse University Honors Program Capstone Projects

For over 140 years, Americans and have enjoyed their national parks. In the national parks, nature and history come together to form uniquely public as well as enormously valuable landscapes. Today, America’s national parks are in danger of undergoing serious changes. Climate change is going to alter the physical characteristics of the national parks. Many of the parks have changed before, but this change will be the most dramatic. In this report I examine the historical and current mission of the National Park Service. I also examine the past and current valuation of the national parks by the American ...