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2009

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Articles 1 - 30 of 62

Full-Text Articles in Other Economics

Freakonomics: Steven Levitt, Alfredo Bateman Dec 2009

Freakonomics: Steven Levitt, Alfredo Bateman

Alfredo Bateman

No abstract provided.


Spillover Effects Of The Uninsured, Stacey Mcmorrow Dec 2009

Spillover Effects Of The Uninsured, Stacey Mcmorrow

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This study seeks to determine the effects of the local uninsurance rate on the quality of care delivered to Medicare beneficiaries. While a great deal of research exists on the negative consequences of uninsurance for the uninsured, few studies have attempted to address the spillover effects of this population to the health care system in a local market. Theory suggests that a high local uninsurance rate in a market has the potential to cause a decrease in the shared quality of care provided to Medicare beneficiaries. It also suggests however that a higher uninsurance rate may result in increases in ...


Peer-Induced Fairness In Games, Teck-Hua Ho, Xuanming Su Dec 2009

Peer-Induced Fairness In Games, Teck-Hua Ho, Xuanming Su

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

People exhibit peer-induced fairness concerns when they look to their peers as a reference to evaluate their endowments. We analyze two independent ultimatum games played sequentially by a leader and two followers. With peer-induced fairness, the second follower is averse to receiving less than the first follower. Using laboratory experimental data, we estimate that peer-induced fairness between followers is two times stronger than distributional fairness between leader and follower. Allowing for heterogeneity, we find that 50 percent of subjects are fairness-minded. We discuss how peer-induced fairness might limit price discrimination, account for low variability in CEO compensation, and explain pattern ...


Group Cooperation Under Uncertainty, Min Gong, Joanne Baron, Howard Kunreuther Dec 2009

Group Cooperation Under Uncertainty, Min Gong, Joanne Baron, Howard Kunreuther

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

Previous research has shown an ‘interindividual-intergroup discontinuity effect’: intergroup interactions generally lead to less cooperative outcomes than interindividual interactions. We replicate the discontinuity effect in the deterministic prisoner’s dilemma, but find that groups are more cooperative than individuals in a stochastic version of the game. Three major factors that underlie the usual discontinuity effect are reduced in the stochastic environment: greed, fear, and persuasion power. Two group mechanisms are proposed to explain the reversed discontinuity effect: the motivation to avoid guilt and blame when making decisions that affect others’ welfare, and the social pressure to conform to certain norms ...


Dynamic Pricing Without Knowing The Demand Function: Risk Bounds And Near-Optimal Algorithms, Omar Besbes, Assaf Zeevi Nov 2009

Dynamic Pricing Without Knowing The Demand Function: Risk Bounds And Near-Optimal Algorithms, Omar Besbes, Assaf Zeevi

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

We consider a single-product revenue management problem where, given an initial inventory, the objective is to dynamically adjust prices over a finite sales horizon to maximize expected revenues. Realized demand is observed over time, but the underlying functional relationship between price and mean demand rate that governs these observations (otherwise known as the demand function or demand curve) is not known. We consider two instances of this problem: (i) a setting where the demand function is assumed to belong to a known parametric family with unknown parameter values; and (ii) a setting where the demand function is assumed to belong ...


Future Generations: A Prioritarian View, Matthew D. Adler Sep 2009

Future Generations: A Prioritarian View, Matthew D. Adler

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Should we remain neutral between our interests and those of future generations? Or are we ethically permitted or even required to depart from neutrality and engage in some measure of intergenerational discounting? This Article addresses the problem of intergenerational discounting by drawing on two different intellectual traditions: the social welfare function (“SWF”) tradition in welfare economics, and scholarship on “prioritarianism” in moral philosophy. Unlike utilitarians, prioritarians are sensitive to the distribution of well-being. They give greater weight to well-being changes affecting worse-off individuals. Prioritarianism can be captured, formally, through an SWF which sums a concave transformation of individual utility, rather ...


A Nation In Dilemma, Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed Aug 2009

A Nation In Dilemma, Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

following the Global financial Crisis there were economic collapses in all the world. Sudan officials claimed that the country was immune from that epidemic. Such declaration were truly weird as it has been deeply affected from the first instant. That article presented many questions about the economic and social conditions and the eminent southern Sudan, Darfur crises.


Drogas, Libertad Y Mercado. Una Entrevista Con Gary Becker, Javier Martín Reyes, Gabriel Estrada Escalante Aug 2009

Drogas, Libertad Y Mercado. Una Entrevista Con Gary Becker, Javier Martín Reyes, Gabriel Estrada Escalante

Javier Martín Reyes

Interview with Gary Becker, Nobel-prize winning economist and Professor at the University of Chicago.


Teaching Ecological And Feminist Economics In The Principles Course, Julie A. Nelson, Neva Goodwin Jul 2009

Teaching Ecological And Feminist Economics In The Principles Course, Julie A. Nelson, Neva Goodwin

Economics Faculty Publication Series

It can be difficult to incorporate ecological and feminist concerns into introductory courses, when one is also obliged to teach neoclassical analysis. In this essay we briefly describe how one might extend existing “multi-paradigmatic” approaches to feminist and ecological concerns, and then present an new alternative approach that may be more suitable for some students. This “broader questions and bigger toolbox” approach can be applied in both microeconomics and macroeconomics introductory classrooms.


Teaching Ecological And Feminist Economics In The Principles Course, Julie A. Nelson Jun 2009

Teaching Ecological And Feminist Economics In The Principles Course, Julie A. Nelson

Julie A. Nelson

It can be difficult to incorporate ecological and feminist concerns into introductory courses, when one is also obliged to teach neoclassical analysis. In this essay we briefly describe how one might extend existing “multi-paradigmatic” approaches to feminist and ecological concerns, and then present an new alternative approach that may be more suitable for some students. This “broader questions and bigger toolbox” approach can be applied in both microeconomics and macroeconomics introductory classrooms.


The Janjaweed And The Armed Movements Of Sudan, Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed Jun 2009

The Janjaweed And The Armed Movements Of Sudan, Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

The emergence of the Janjaweed as an armed force working with the government to suppress rebellions in Darfur region outraged the international community. They were marked by brutality, destruction, burning, killings and mass rapes. They were also described as Arabs. However, that was not the whole picture, no one observed the living conditions of the Arabs or how were they victims also as the other inhabitants of Darfur. No one also observed that they were used by the Ingaz government to execute the dirty work and bear the consequences. The Arab tribes however, also had other thoughts as they realized ...


Do Fiscal Responsibility Laws Matter? Evidence From Emerging Markets Suggests Not, John Thornton May 2009

Do Fiscal Responsibility Laws Matter? Evidence From Emerging Markets Suggests Not, John Thornton

John Thornton

This paper asks whether the adoption of fiscal responsibility laws (FRLs) has improved fiscal performance in nine emerging market economies, as measured by developments in their key fiscal balances. Examining these economies alone, their fiscal performance improved on average between the period before FLRs were adopted and the period after they were adopted. However, emerging market economies that did not adopt FLRs also experienced improvements in their fiscal performance around the same time. The finding suggests that the better fiscal performance in the nine emerging market economies resulted from something other than the adoption of FLRs.


Assessing The Viability Of Investment In Sudan (1979-2008), Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed May 2009

Assessing The Viability Of Investment In Sudan (1979-2008), Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

Most developing and underdeveloped countries beside Sudan suffer from low levels of income in addition to the low savings that are result from the lack of public savings channels. Hence, investments depend on the individuals' abilities on savings where they are major motivating vehicle for economic activity due to its direct correlation with capital accumulation process that increases the productive capacity for the national economy and help to create job opportunities and achieving economic development. Subsequently, the importance of the investment comes from the effective role that can be practiced on the national product. Currently, Sudan endures severe economic crisis ...


Nonrivalry And Price Discrimination In Copyright Economics, John P. Conley, Christopher S. Yoo May 2009

Nonrivalry And Price Discrimination In Copyright Economics, John P. Conley, Christopher S. Yoo

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

The literature on the economics of copyright proceeds from the premise that copyrightable works constitute pure public goods, which is generally modeled by assuming that such works are nonexcludable and that the marginal cost of making additional copies is essentially zero. A close examination of the foundational literature on public goods theory reveals that the defining characteristic of public goods is instead the optimality criterion known as the “Samuelson condition,” which implies that the systematic bias toward underproduction is the result of the inability to induce consumers to reveal their preferences rather than the inability to exclude or price at ...


Does Unemployment Decrease Cancer Mortality?, Benjamin Torres Galick May 2009

Does Unemployment Decrease Cancer Mortality?, Benjamin Torres Galick

Economics Honors Projects

Recent research indicates that healthier lifestyles during recessions decrease the most common U.S. mortalities, but not cancer. However, they combine specific cancer mortalities with different progressions into one, possibly obscuring cancer’s link to unemployment. This paper estimates a fixed-effects regression model on unemployment and the nine most prevalent cancers between 1988 and 2002 using state-level panel data. Five cancers and total cancer are procyclical, and suggest that unemployment affects both incidence and gestation for some cancers. Consistent with the medical literature, this paper contradicts previous economic research and suggests that behavioral factors significantly impact cancer mortality.


Measuring The Effect Of Conflict On Oil Production And Prices, Benjamin Skomsky May 2009

Measuring The Effect Of Conflict On Oil Production And Prices, Benjamin Skomsky

Syracuse University Honors Program Capstone Projects

This paper examines the degree to which armed conflict interrupts oil production, and the effects of these supply shocks on the region-specific oil prices. By measuring the effect of conflict on oil output, I aim to quantify one important and underexamined economic cost of conflict. By examining the effect on oil prices, I hope to provide new empirical evidence on the global demand curve for oil and the substitutability of demand across alternative oil types.


Is There Country-Of-Origin Bias In The Video Game Market?, Keaton C. White Apr 2009

Is There Country-Of-Origin Bias In The Video Game Market?, Keaton C. White

Economics Honors Projects

This paper tests for the existence of country-of-origin bias in the video game market. Using aggregate sales data from Japan and the US, I measure the effect of country-of-origin on video game sales in each respective country while controlling for genre, system, quality, and target age group, as well as domestically targeted games and superstar effects. I find that a significant country-of-origin bias exists in both game markets in favor of domestic titles.


Rogue Counrty And Potential Cooperation: The United States And Sudan And Feasible Economic Partnership, Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed Apr 2009

Rogue Counrty And Potential Cooperation: The United States And Sudan And Feasible Economic Partnership, Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

The United States declared Sudan as a rogue country in 1995 due to many political considerations. It has imposed many economic and political sanctions against it since that time which represented hindrance to development and resulted in economic crises. Oil explorations started long time by Total Oil Company and resumed by Chevron that halted her activities in Sudan after the flaring of the civil war between the Northern and Southern parts of the country. That work was resumed in 1996 by Chinese companies and was crowned by success and commercial production in 1999. Although the economic situations of Sudan improved ...


Who Cries For Sudan: من الذي يرثي السودان, Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed Apr 2009

Who Cries For Sudan: من الذي يرثي السودان, Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

The institutional collapse in Sudan started long time ago. However, it has accelerator in the past years since Nivasha Comprehensive Peace Agreement and Darfur war.


Good News For America's Families, Robert G. Parr Apr 2009

Good News For America's Families, Robert G. Parr

History and Government Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Drug Pricing In The United States: A Comparison With Canada And Mexico, Crystal Dorne Apr 2009

Drug Pricing In The United States: A Comparison With Canada And Mexico, Crystal Dorne

Mathematics, Engineering and Computer Science Undergraduate Theses

The purpose of this study was to assess prescription drug pricing in the United States compared with that in Canada and Mexico. The study was designed to focus on ACE inhibitors in order to gather a limited, yet meaningful outcome. Prices of eight ACE inhibitors and their generic equivalents were gathered for the United States, Canada, and Mexico via Walgreens and international online pharmacies, respectively. The differences in price per pill for Canada and Mexico when paired against the United States were analyzed using t statistics. The results indicate there is a significant price difference for brand name and generic ...


Economic Analysis Of Simulation Selection Problems, Stephen. E. Chick, Noah Gans Mar 2009

Economic Analysis Of Simulation Selection Problems, Stephen. E. Chick, Noah Gans

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

Ranking and selection procedures are standard methods for selecting the best of a finite number of simulated design alternatives based on a desired level of statistical evidence for correct selection. But the link between statistical significance and financial significance is indirect, and there has been little or no research into it. This paper presents a new approach to the simulation selection problem, one that maximizes the expected net present value of decisions made when using stochastic simulation. We provide a framework for answering these managerial questions: When does a proposed system design, whose performance is unknown, merit the time and ...


The Sustainability Of South African Fiscal Policy: An Historical Perspective, John Thornton, Lusine Lusinyan Feb 2009

The Sustainability Of South African Fiscal Policy: An Historical Perspective, John Thornton, Lusine Lusinyan

John Thornton

This article examines the issue of long-term fiscal sustainability in South Africa by applying a battery of recently developed unit root and cointegration tests to real revenue and spending data the period 1895 to 2005. The results provide evidence that, allowing for structural breaks, South African revenue and spending during this period were I(1) series and cointegrated, with the estimated long-run equilibrium relation supporting the presence of a weak deficit sustainability condition.


La Enseñanza De La Economía, Alfredo Bateman Feb 2009

La Enseñanza De La Economía, Alfredo Bateman

Alfredo Bateman

No abstract provided.


Reconceptualizing Trespass, Gideon Parchomovsky, Alex Stein Jan 2009

Reconceptualizing Trespass, Gideon Parchomovsky, Alex Stein

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This Essay addresses an anomaly in trespass law. Trespass law is generally understood as the paradigmatic example of property-rule protection: an owner can obtain an injunction against the trespasser and have him removed from her land. The property-rule protection enjoyed by the owner protects her right to exclude others and to set the price for the use of her property. However, the property-rule protection only exists ex ante: it avails only against imminent or ongoing trespasses. Ex post, after a trespass ends, the owner can only recover compensation measured by the market value of the unauthorized use, i.e., the ...


Life Satisfaction Over Time Among Rural Low-Income Mothers, Sheila Mammen, Jean Bauer, Daniel Lass Jan 2009

Life Satisfaction Over Time Among Rural Low-Income Mothers, Sheila Mammen, Jean Bauer, Daniel Lass

Sheila Mammen

The satisfaction with life (SWL) among rural low-income mothers was assessed using a sample of 163 mothers who participated in a multi-state, three-year longitudinal study. Dependent variables included those that represented various forms of capital (health, human, personal and social) as well as the mothers’ levels of life satisfaction from prior years. Nearly two-thirds of the rural mothers were satisfied with their life in all three years. Their level of satisfaction appeared to be constant, however, such persistence had a time frame of only one year. In all three years, their depression score and the adequacy of their income had ...


Joining Longer Queues: Information Externalities In Queue Choice, Senthil K. Veeraraghavan, Laurens Debo Jan 2009

Joining Longer Queues: Information Externalities In Queue Choice, Senthil K. Veeraraghavan, Laurens Debo

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

A classic example that illustrates how observed customer behavior impacts other customers' decisions is the selection of a restaurant whose quality is uncertain. Customers often choose the busier restaurant, inferring that other customers in that restaurant know something that they do not. In an environment with random arrival and service times, customer behavior is reflected in the lengths of the queues that form at the individual servers. Therefore, queue lengths could signal two factors—potentially higher arrivals to the server or potentially slower service at the server. In this paper, we focus on both factors when customers' waiting costs are ...


The Mediterranean Zone In Front Of Air Pollution: An Econometric Investigation, Maamar Sebri Jan 2009

The Mediterranean Zone In Front Of Air Pollution: An Econometric Investigation, Maamar Sebri

Maamar Sebri

La dépollution de la Méditerranée constitue l’un des principaux chapitres portés par la coopération entre les deux rives nord et sud dans le cadre de l’Union Pour la Méditerranée (UPM). L’objectif de ce papier est d’examiner la relation existante entre l’évolution des émissions du dioxyde carbone (CO2) et la croissance économique dans les pays membres de l’UPM. Cette relation est décrite par la Courbe Environnementale de Kuznets (CEK) qui postule une relation en U inversé entre la dégradation de l’environnement et la croissance économique. Le choix de la spécification économétrique et le problème ...


Fishery Regulation And New England's Local Economies: Preliminary Evidence From A Natural Experiment, Spencer Fleury Ph.D. Jan 2009

Fishery Regulation And New England's Local Economies: Preliminary Evidence From A Natural Experiment, Spencer Fleury Ph.D.

Spencer Fleury Ph.D.

This paper examines the economic impacts of Amendment Five and Amendment Seven to the Northeast Multispecies Groundfish Management Plan on the economies of coastal cities and towns in southern New England, using a difference-in-differences OLS regression model and a Probit model. The potential existence of city-level economic impacts on fishing-related employment, average wages paid, median home values, and the unemployment rate was examined, with the object of providing guidance for policymakers involved in developing fisheries regulations. The results do not support the hypothesis that these regulations had a significant adverse effect on southern New England‘s coastal economies.


Conflicting Sovereignties In The World Wide Web Of Contracts - Property Rights And The Globalization Of The Power System, Jean-Philippe Robé Jan 2009

Conflicting Sovereignties In The World Wide Web Of Contracts - Property Rights And The Globalization Of The Power System, Jean-Philippe Robé

Jean-Philippe Robé

No abstract provided.