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2008

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Full-Text Articles in Other Economics

Energy Efficiency In An Educational Setting, Soma Ghosh Dec 2008

Energy Efficiency In An Educational Setting, Soma Ghosh

Bridgewater Review

No abstract provided.


Aristotle's Difficult Relationship With Modern Economic Theory, Spencer J. Pack Nov 2008

Aristotle's Difficult Relationship With Modern Economic Theory, Spencer J. Pack

Economics Faculty Publications

This paper reviews Aristotle's problematic relationship with modern economic theory. It argues that in terms of value and income distribution theory, Aristotle should probably be seen as a precursor to neither classical nor neoclassical economic thought. Indeed, there are strong arguments to be made that Aristotle's views are completely at odds with all modern economic theory, since, among other things, he was not necessarily concerned with flexible market prices, opposed the use of money to acquire more money, and did not think that the unintended consequences of human activity were generally beneficial. The paper argues however, that this ...


Alleviating Global Poverty Through Profitable Partnerships: Moral Imagination & Economic Well-Being, Laura Hartman, P. Werhane, D. Moberg, S. Kelley Oct 2008

Alleviating Global Poverty Through Profitable Partnerships: Moral Imagination & Economic Well-Being, Laura Hartman, P. Werhane, D. Moberg, S. Kelley

Laura Hartman

While at least one out of six in the global human population cannot meet the basic demands of survival and they have little ability to buy goods and services, this situation also presents potential new markets for multinational enterprises seeking long-term sustainability. If economic growth is a continuing and positive goal for the planet and for global companies, then, as markets in developed economies become saturated, these new markets provide fresh opportunities to satisfy this objective.


Water Borne Diseases And Rural Development In Sudan Study Of Malaria In Gezira Irrigated Agricultural Scheme, Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed Oct 2008

Water Borne Diseases And Rural Development In Sudan Study Of Malaria In Gezira Irrigated Agricultural Scheme, Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

Gezira irrigated scheme is globally one of the biggest agricultural productive units administratively managed. It has seen deteriorating productivity for the past two decades. There cries that it should be privatized. That was seriously taken by the government in an economic liquidation of its assets. However, in this study we discuss analyze other aspects than the previously mentioned aspects of production parameters. We focus of health economics and how gradual negligence led to the prevalence of waterborne diseases. That degenerated farmers' abilities to produce. The present study was carried out in the Gezira scheme to measure the impact of water ...


Paul Krugman: La Conciencia De Un Liberal, Alfredo Bateman Oct 2008

Paul Krugman: La Conciencia De Un Liberal, Alfredo Bateman

Alfredo Bateman

No abstract provided.


La Caída De Las Pirámides Y Los Mercados, Alfredo Bateman Sep 2008

La Caída De Las Pirámides Y Los Mercados, Alfredo Bateman

Alfredo Bateman

No abstract provided.


Network Neutrality, Consumers, And Innovation, Christopher S. Yoo Aug 2008

Network Neutrality, Consumers, And Innovation, Christopher S. Yoo

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

In this Article, Professor Christopher Yoo directly engages claims that mandating network neutrality is essential to protect consumers and to promote innovation on the Internet. It begins by analyzing the forces that are placing pressure on the basic network architecture to evolve, such as the emergence of Internet video and peer-to-peer architectures and the increasing heterogeneity in business relationships and transmission technologies. It then draws on the insights of demand-side price discrimination (such as Ramsey pricing) and the two-sided markets, as well as the economics of product differentiation and congestion, to show how deviating from network neutrality can benefit consumers ...


Optimal Choice Of Voluntary Traceability As A Food Risk Management Tool, Dm Souza Monteiro,, Julie Caswell Aug 2008

Optimal Choice Of Voluntary Traceability As A Food Risk Management Tool, Dm Souza Monteiro,, Julie Caswell

Julie Caswell

Traceability systems are information tools implemented within and between firms in food chains to improve logistics and transparency or to reduce total food safety damage costs. Information about location and condition of products is critical when food safety incidents arise. This paper uses a principal-agent model to investigate the optimal choice of voluntary traceability in terms of precision of information on a given attribute at each link of a food chain. The results suggest that four scenarios may emerge for the supply chain depending on the costs of a system and whether or not the industry can internalize total food ...


Geographical Indications And The Competitive Provision Of Quality In Agricultural Markets, Giancarlo Moschini, Luisa Menapace, Daniel Pick Aug 2008

Geographical Indications And The Competitive Provision Of Quality In Agricultural Markets, Giancarlo Moschini, Luisa Menapace, Daniel Pick

Economics Publications

The economics of geographical indications (GIs) is assessed within a vertical product differentiation framework that is consistent with the competitive structure of agriculture. It is assumed that certification costs are needed for GIs to serve as (collective) credible quality certification devices, and production of high-quality product is endogenously determined. We find that GIs can support a competitive provision of quality and lead to clear welfare gains, although they fall short of delivering the (constrained) first best. The main beneficiaries are consumers. Producers may also accrue some benefit if production of the high-quality products draws on scarce factors that they own.


An Empirical Investigation Of The Fairtax As An Alternative To The Federal Personal Income, Corporate Income, Estate And Gift, And Payroll Taxes, Yingxu Kuang Jul 2008

An Empirical Investigation Of The Fairtax As An Alternative To The Federal Personal Income, Corporate Income, Estate And Gift, And Payroll Taxes, Yingxu Kuang

Doctoral Dissertations

Dissatisfaction with the current federal tax system is fostering serious interest in a national retail sales tax. Specifically, the FairTax Plan intends to replace most of the federal taxes with a national retail sales tax and is gaining momentum in Congress because of its purported progressive features. The FairTax is promoted as being progressive but there is considerable opposition to this claim.

Using the most recent 2005 Consumer Expenditure Survey (CES) data and estimating lifetime income from a Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) panel tracked over 1968-2005, the distribution impacts of the FairTax Plan are examined, as well as ...


The Exchange Rate And Fiscal Consolidation Episodes In Emerging Market Economies, John Thornton, Amine Mati Jun 2008

The Exchange Rate And Fiscal Consolidation Episodes In Emerging Market Economies, John Thornton, Amine Mati

John Thornton

An analysis of fiscal consolidations in emerging market economies during 1970–2004 suggests that exchange rate depreciation raises the probability of a fiscal consolidation being successful, including when controlling for debt, growth, the composition of the consolidation, and degree of democracy.


El Efecto Teflón Y La Exuberancia Irracional, Alfredo Bateman Jun 2008

El Efecto Teflón Y La Exuberancia Irracional, Alfredo Bateman

Alfredo Bateman

No abstract provided.


Rehab Or Relocation? Estimating The Demand For Cocaine Through An American Port City Analysis, Gustave A. Bartuska May 2008

Rehab Or Relocation? Estimating The Demand For Cocaine Through An American Port City Analysis, Gustave A. Bartuska

Syracuse University Honors Program Capstone Projects

Over the past five decades American drug policy can succinctly be classified by two words: expensive and punitive. American drug policy makers have conducted the “war on drugs” largely through supply side intervention. As the theory goes, by attacking drug producers, drug prices will rise due to the increased risk faced by suppliers, this risk will in turn be passed along to consumers in the form of higher prices. In order to critically asses the merits of such an expensive antidrug policy it is essential to estimate the price elasticity of demand for drugs.

The main finding of this paper ...


International Capital Mobility: Evidence From Panel Cointegration Tests, John Thornton, Olumuyiwa S. Adedeji Apr 2008

International Capital Mobility: Evidence From Panel Cointegration Tests, John Thornton, Olumuyiwa S. Adedeji

John Thornton

Panel cointegration techniques applied to pooled data for 50 developed and developing economies for the period 1970–2000 indicate that savings and investment are non-stationary and cointegrated, that there are marked differences in saving–retention ratios between different country groups, and that retention ratios have fallen.


Self-Protection And Insurance With Interdependencies, Alexander Muermann, Howard Kunreuther Apr 2008

Self-Protection And Insurance With Interdependencies, Alexander Muermann, Howard Kunreuther

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

We study optimal investment in self-protection of insured individuals when they face interdependencies in the form of potential contamination from others. If individuals cannot coordinate their actions, then the positive externality of investing in self-protection implies that, in equilibrium, individuals underinvest in self-protection. Limiting insurance coverage through deductibles or selling “at-fault” insurance can partially internalize this externality and thereby improve individual and social welfare.


Customized Bundle Pricing For Information Goods: A Nonlinear Mixed-Integer Programming Approach, Shin-Yi Wu, Lorin. M. Hitt, Pei-Yu Chen, G. Anand Anandalingan Mar 2008

Customized Bundle Pricing For Information Goods: A Nonlinear Mixed-Integer Programming Approach, Shin-Yi Wu, Lorin. M. Hitt, Pei-Yu Chen, G. Anand Anandalingan

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

This paper proposes using nonlinear mixed-integer programming to solve the customized bundle-pricing problem in which consumers are allowed to choose up to N goods out of a larger pool of J goods. Prior work has suggested that this mechanism has attractive features for the pricing of information and other low-marginal cost goods. Although closed-form solutions exist for this problem for certain cases of consumer preferences, many interesting scenarios cannot be easily handled without a numerical solution procedure. In this paper, we investigate the efficiency gains created by customized bundling over the alternatives of pure bundling or individual sale under different ...


Statistical Moments Analysis Of Production And Welfare In Multi-Product Cournot Oligopoly, Harvey E. Lapan, David A. Hennessy Mar 2008

Statistical Moments Analysis Of Production And Welfare In Multi-Product Cournot Oligopoly, Harvey E. Lapan, David A. Hennessy

Economics Publications

Our context involves N Cournot oligopolists producing M products at constant marginal costs when preferences are quasilinear. We identify relationships between second moments of unit costs and second moments of firm-level production. For example, a larger variance in unit costs of a product increases own output variance and the variance of any other output. We also investigate how second moments of unit costs affect industry cost efficiency. Industry costs can rise if the wrong firm secures a cost reduction. For quadratic preferences, it is shown that Zhao's (Zhao, J., 2001. A characterization for the negative welfare effects of cost ...


The Consequences Of Information Revealed In Auctions, Brett E. Katzman, Matthew Rhodes-Kropf Mar 2008

The Consequences Of Information Revealed In Auctions, Brett E. Katzman, Matthew Rhodes-Kropf

Faculty Publications

This paper considers the ramifications of post-auction competition on bidding behavior under different bid announcement policies. In equilibrium, the auctioneer’s announcement policy has two distinct effects. First, announcement entices players to signal information to their post-auction competitors through their bids. Second, announcement can lead to greater bidder participation in certain instances while limiting participation in others. Specifically, the participation effect works against the signalling effect, thus reducing the impact of signalling found in other papers. Revenue, efficiency, and surplus implications of various announcement policies are examined.


Fiscal Institutions And The Relation Between Central And Sub-National Government Fiscal Balances, John Thornton Feb 2008

Fiscal Institutions And The Relation Between Central And Sub-National Government Fiscal Balances, John Thornton

John Thornton

Skeptics of fiscal decentralization argue that it can complicate fiscal stabilization policies at the level of the central government because of uncoordinated fiscal actions by the national and sub-national tiers of government. However, panel data estimates for OECD economies suggest that this danger has been overstated in that changes in the fiscal balances of central and sub-national governments are highly positively correlated. This result partly reflects the success of institutional arrangements that govern intergovernmental fiscal relations and appears unrelated to the extent of fiscal decentralization.


Inflation And Inflation Uncertainty In Argentina, 1810–2005, John Thornton Feb 2008

Inflation And Inflation Uncertainty In Argentina, 1810–2005, John Thornton

John Thornton

Unit root tests results suggest that inflation in Argentina for the period 1810–2005 is a stationary series when account is taken of structural breaks that coincide with bouts of hyperinflation. A GARCH (1,1) model of annual inflation suggests a positive short-run relation between the mean and variance of inflation, supporting Friedman's hypothesis that high inflation is associated with more variable inflation.


The Benefits And Costs Of Proliferation Of Geographical Labeling For Developing Countries, Julie Caswell Jan 2008

The Benefits And Costs Of Proliferation Of Geographical Labeling For Developing Countries, Julie Caswell

Julie Caswell

Food product attributes related to geographical origins are a topical issue in global food trade. The provision of geographical labelling may occur through geographical indications under the mandated trade rules of the TRIPS Agreement, trademarks, or country-of-origin labelling. The overall effect of the expansion of geographical labelling on developing countries depends on a complex mix of market opportunities that may yield substantial benefits as well as implementation costs. Increasingly, the analysis of this overall effect will need to evaluate the joint impacts of different forms of geographical labelling on the market position of developing countries.


De Evoluerende Marktpositie Van Beschutte Werkplaatsen In Vlaanderen: Uitdagingen En Knelpunten, Wim Van Opstal, Jozef Pacolet Jan 2008

De Evoluerende Marktpositie Van Beschutte Werkplaatsen In Vlaanderen: Uitdagingen En Knelpunten, Wim Van Opstal, Jozef Pacolet

Wim Van Opstal

Beschutte werkplaatsen hebben als grootste speler in de sociale inschakelingseconomie goed weten door te dringen in onze economie. Dit brengt echter ook de confrontatie met alle uitdagingen van een competitieve economische omgeving met zich mee. Het HIVA voerde een onderzoek uit naar de uitdagingen waarmee de beschutte werkplaatsen in Vlaanderen geconfronteerd worden vanuit hun evoluerende marktpositie. Daarnaast belicht deze studie de knelpunten vanuit de interne organisatie van beschutte werkplaatsen om het hoofd te kunnen bieden aan deze uitdagingen. De vitaliteit van de beschutte werkplaatsen aan de ene kant en de kwetsbaarheid ervan aan de andere kant, is het genuanceerde beeld ...


Coöperaties In De Social Profit? Een Verkenning., Wim Van Opstal Jan 2008

Coöperaties In De Social Profit? Een Verkenning., Wim Van Opstal

Wim Van Opstal

Het is ondertussen meer dan 150 jaar geleden dat de eerste coöperaties werden opgericht om de levensstandaard van arbeiders en boeren te verbeteren. De jongste jaren begint men de coöperatie echter opnieuw te ontdekken als instrument om economische activiteiten te combineren met sociale doelstellingen. In deze bijdrage belichten we de rol die coöperaties spelen binnen het activiteitenspectrum van de social profit in een internationaal kader en staan we stil bij de vraag of dit ook voor Vlaanderen een interessant alternatief kan bieden.


Municipal Waste Generation And Socio Economic Drivers, Massimiliano Mazzanti Jan 2008

Municipal Waste Generation And Socio Economic Drivers, Massimiliano Mazzanti

Massimiliano Mazzanti

No abstract provided.


Another Example Of A Credit System That Coexists With Money, Gabriele Camera, Yiting Li Jan 2008

Another Example Of A Credit System That Coexists With Money, Gabriele Camera, Yiting Li

Economics Faculty Articles and Research

We study an economy in which exchange occurs pairwise, there is no commitment, and anonymous agents choose between random monetary trade or deterministic credit trade. To accomplish the latter, agents can exploit a costly technology that allows limited recordkeeping and enforcement. An equilibrium with money and credit is shown to exist if the cost of using the technology is sufficiently small. Anonymity, record-keeping and enforcement limitations also permit some incidence of default, in equilibrium.


A Revelation Principle For Dominant Strategy Implementation, Jesse Schwartz, Quan Wen Jan 2008

A Revelation Principle For Dominant Strategy Implementation, Jesse Schwartz, Quan Wen

Faculty Publications

We introduce a perfect price discriminating (PPD) mechanism for allocation problems with private information. A PPD mechanism treats a seller, for example, as a perfect price discriminating monopolist who faces a price schedule that does not depend on her report. In any PPD mechanism, every player has a dominant strategy to truthfully report her private information. We establish a revelation principle for dominant strategy implementation: any outcome that can be dominant strategy implemented can also be dominant strategy implemented using a PPD mechanism. We apply this principle to derive the optimal, budget-balanced, dominant strategy mechanisms for public good provision and ...


Factor Growth And Equalized Factor Prices, E. Kwan Choi Jan 2008

Factor Growth And Equalized Factor Prices, E. Kwan Choi

Economics Publications

This paper considers two simple questions relating to the Heckscher–Ohlin model: (i) How does factor growth affect the terms of trade between the North and the South? (ii) If factor prices are equalized by trade, at what levels are they equalized? Regardless of where it occurs, labor growth improves the terms of trade of the capital-abundant region, whereas capital growth has the opposite effect. Equalized factor prices are “less” than a convex combination of autarky factor prices. A numerical example using Cobb-Douglas production and utility functions illustrates the propositions.


High Stakes Behavior With Low Payoffs: Inducing Preferences With Holt-Laury Gambles, John Dickhaut, Daniel Houser, Jason A. Aimone, Dorina Tila, Cathleen Johnson Jan 2008

High Stakes Behavior With Low Payoffs: Inducing Preferences With Holt-Laury Gambles, John Dickhaut, Daniel Houser, Jason A. Aimone, Dorina Tila, Cathleen Johnson

ESI Working Papers

A continuing goal of experiments is to understand risky decisions when the decisions are important. Often a decision’s importance is related to the magnitude of the associated monetary stake. Khaneman and Tversky (1979) argue that risky decisions in high stakes environments can be informed using questionnaires with hypothetical choices (since subjects have no incentive to answer questions falsely.) However, results reported by Holt and Laury (2002, henceforth HL), as well as replications by Harrison (2005) suggest that decisions in “high” monetary payoff environments are not well-predicted by questionnaire responses. Thus, a potential implication of the HL results is that ...


Generating Ambiguity In The Laboratory, Jack Douglas Stecher, Timothy W. Shields, John Dickhaut Jan 2008

Generating Ambiguity In The Laboratory, Jack Douglas Stecher, Timothy W. Shields, John Dickhaut

ESI Working Papers

This article develops a method for drawing samples from which it is impossible to infer any quantile or moment of the underlying distribution. The method provides researchers with a way to give subjects the experience of ambiguity. In any experiment, learning the distribution from experience is impossible for the subjects, essentially because it is impossible for the experimenter. We describe our method mathematically, illustrate it in simulations, and then test it in a laboratory experiment. Our technique does not withhold sampling information, does not assume that the subject is incapable of making statistical inferences, is replicable across experiments, and requires ...


Can Manipulators Mislead Prediction Market Observers?, Ryan Oprea, David Porter, Chris Hibbert, Robin Hanson, Dorina Tila Jan 2008

Can Manipulators Mislead Prediction Market Observers?, Ryan Oprea, David Porter, Chris Hibbert, Robin Hanson, Dorina Tila

ESI Working Papers

We study experimental markets where privately informed traders exchange simple assets, and where uninformed third parties are asked to forecast the values of these assets, guided only by market prices. Although prices only partially aggregate information, they signicantly improve the forecasts of third parties. In a second treatment, a portion of traders are given preferences over the forecasts made by observers. Although we find evidence that these traders attempt to manipulate prices in order to influence the beliefs of observers, we find no evidence that observers make less accurate forecasts as a result.