Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Other Economics Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 27 of 27

Full-Text Articles in Other Economics

The Benefits And Costs Of Proliferation Of Geographical Labeling For Developing Countries, Julie Caswell Dec 2008

The Benefits And Costs Of Proliferation Of Geographical Labeling For Developing Countries, Julie Caswell

Julie Caswell

Food product attributes related to geographical origins are a topical issue in global food trade. The provision of geographical labeling may occur through geographical indications under the mandated trade rules of the TRIPS Agreement, through trademarks, or through country-of-origin labeling. The overall effect of the expansion of geographical labeling on developing countries depends on a complex mix of market opportunities that may yield substantial benefits as well as implementation costs. Increasingly, the analysis of this overall effect will need to evaluate the joint impacts of different forms of geographical labeling on the market position of developing countries.


Optimal Choice Of Voluntary Traceability As A Food Risk Management Tool, Dm Souza Monteiro,, Julie Caswell Aug 2008

Optimal Choice Of Voluntary Traceability As A Food Risk Management Tool, Dm Souza Monteiro,, Julie Caswell

Julie Caswell

Traceability systems are information tools implemented within and between firms in food chains to improve logistics and transparency or to reduce total food safety damage costs. Information about location and condition of products is critical when food safety incidents arise. This paper uses a principal-agent model to investigate the optimal choice of voluntary traceability in terms of precision of information on a given attribute at each link of a food chain. The results suggest that four scenarios may emerge for the supply chain depending on the costs of a system and whether or not the industry can internalize total food ...


The Benefits And Costs Of Proliferation Of Geographical Labeling For Developing Countries, Julie Caswell Jan 2008

The Benefits And Costs Of Proliferation Of Geographical Labeling For Developing Countries, Julie Caswell

Julie Caswell

Food product attributes related to geographical origins are a topical issue in global food trade. The provision of geographical labelling may occur through geographical indications under the mandated trade rules of the TRIPS Agreement, trademarks, or country-of-origin labelling. The overall effect of the expansion of geographical labelling on developing countries depends on a complex mix of market opportunities that may yield substantial benefits as well as implementation costs. Increasingly, the analysis of this overall effect will need to evaluate the joint impacts of different forms of geographical labelling on the market position of developing countries.


Expanding The Focus Of Cost-Benefit Analysis For Food Safety: A Multi-Factorial Risk Prioritization Approach, Julie Caswell Dec 2007

Expanding The Focus Of Cost-Benefit Analysis For Food Safety: A Multi-Factorial Risk Prioritization Approach, Julie Caswell

Julie Caswell

A pressing need in the area of food safety is a tool for making overall, macro judgments about which risks should be given priority for management. Governments often seek to base this prioritization on public health impacts only to find that other considerations also influence the prioritization process. A multi-factorial approach formally recognizes that public health, market-level impacts, consumer risk preferences and acceptance, and the social sensitivity of particular risks all play a role in prioritization. It also provides decision makers with a variety of information outputs that allow risk prioritization to be considered along different dimensions. Macro-level prioritization of ...


Consumer Demand For Quality: Major Determinant For Agricultural And Food Trade In The Future?, Julie Caswell Dec 2007

Consumer Demand For Quality: Major Determinant For Agricultural And Food Trade In The Future?, Julie Caswell

Julie Caswell

The impact of consumer demand for quality on the agricultural and food system is an increased emphasis on quality differentiation but not all in the direction of upgrading quality. The more elite market segments are thriving and reaching growing numbers of consumers but the basic price/quality markets remain strong. Most recent economic studies find that consumers are willing to pay for food safety and other quality attributes, and for information about them. The magnitude of the valuations varies by food product, attribute, country, and study design. This literature and a case study of genetically modified foods suggest that consumer ...


Expanding The Focus Of Cost-Benefit Analysis For Food Safety: A Multi-Factorial Risk Prioritization Approach, Julie Caswell Dec 2007

Expanding The Focus Of Cost-Benefit Analysis For Food Safety: A Multi-Factorial Risk Prioritization Approach, Julie Caswell

Julie Caswell

A pressing need in the area of food safety is a tool for making overall, macro judgments about which risks should be given priority for management. Governments often seek to base this prioritization on public health impacts only to find that other considerations also influence the prioritization process. A multi-factorial approach formally recognizes that public health, market-level impacts, consumer risk preferences and acceptance, and the social sensitivity of particular risks all play a role in prioritization. It also provides decision makers with a variety of information outputs that allow risk prioritization to be considered along different dimensions. Macro-level prioritization of ...


Standards-As-Barriers Versus Standards-As-Catalysts: Assessing The Impact Of Haccp Implementation On U.S. Seafood Imports, Julie Caswell Jan 2007

Standards-As-Barriers Versus Standards-As-Catalysts: Assessing The Impact Of Haccp Implementation On U.S. Seafood Imports, Julie Caswell

Julie Caswell

The United States mandated a Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) food safety standard for seafood in 1997. Panel model results for the period 1990 to 2004 suggest that HACCP introduction had a negative and significant impact on overall seafood imports from the top 33 suppliers. While the effect for developed countries was positive, the negative HACCP effect for developing countries supports the view of “standards-as-barriers” versus ”standards-as-catalysts.” When the effect is analyzed at an individual country level a different perspective emerges. Regardless of development status, leading seafood exporters generally gained sales volume with the U.S., while most other ...


Interaction Between Food Attributes In Markets: The Case Of Environmental Labeling, Gillies Grolleau, Julie Caswell Jan 2007

Interaction Between Food Attributes In Markets: The Case Of Environmental Labeling, Gillies Grolleau, Julie Caswell

Julie Caswell

Some consumers derive utility from using products produced with specific processes, such as environmentally friendly practices. Means of verifying these credence attributes, such as certification, are necessary for the market to function effectively. A substitute or complementary solution may exist when consumers perceive a relationship between a process attribute and other verifiable product attributes. We present a model where the level of search and experience attributes influences the likelihood of production of eco-friendly products. Our results suggest that the market success of eco-friendly food products requires a mix of environmental and other verifiable attributes that together signal credibility.


Introduction: Economic Measures Of Food Safety Interventions, Julie Caswell Jan 2007

Introduction: Economic Measures Of Food Safety Interventions, Julie Caswell

Julie Caswell

EconLit Citations: Q18, I18, L51 © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Agribusiness 23: 153–156, 2007.


A Multi-Factorial Risk Prioritization Framework For Food-Borne Pathogens, Julie Caswell Dec 2006

A Multi-Factorial Risk Prioritization Framework For Food-Borne Pathogens, Julie Caswell

Julie Caswell

To lower the incidence of human food-borne disease, experts and stakeholders have urged the development of a science- and risk-based management system in which food-borne hazards are analyzed and prioritized. A literature review shows that most approaches to risk prioritization developed to date are based on measures of health outcomes and do not systematically account for other factors that may be important to decision making. The Multi-Factorial Risk Prioritization Framework developed here considers four factors that may be important to risk managers: public health, consumer risk perceptions and acceptance, market-level impacts, and social sensitivity. The framework is based on the ...


Consumer Demand For Quality: Major Determinant For Agricultural And Food Trade In The Future?, Julie Caswell Dec 2006

Consumer Demand For Quality: Major Determinant For Agricultural And Food Trade In The Future?, Julie Caswell

Julie Caswell

The impact of consumer demand for quality on the agricultural and food system is an increased emphasis on quality differentiation but not all in the direction of upgrading quality. The more elite market segments are thriving and reaching growing numbers of consumers but the basic price/quality markets remain strong. Most recent economic studies find that consumers are willing to pay for food safety and other quality attributes, and for information about them. The magnitude of the valuations varies by food product, attribute, country, and study design. This literature and a case study of genetically modified foods suggest that consumer ...


Assessing The Impact Of Stricter Food Safety Standards On Trade:Haccp In U.S. Seafood Trade With The Developing World, Julie Caswell Jun 2006

Assessing The Impact Of Stricter Food Safety Standards On Trade:Haccp In U.S. Seafood Trade With The Developing World, Julie Caswell

Julie Caswell

Health risks associated with seafood products prompted the introduction of mandatory HACCP in the seafood industry in the United States in 1997. This paper quantifies the trade impact of this introduction by analyzing patterns of seafood imports to the U.S. over the period 1990 to 2004. The results of a gravity model using panel data suggest that HACCP had a negative and significant impact on overall seafood imports from the top 33 developing and developed countries selling into the U.S. For developing countries, the results support the view of “standards-as-barriers” versus ”standards-as-catalysts” as the negative HACCP effect was ...


Traceability Adoption At The Farm Level: Analysis Of The Portuguese Pear Industry, Julie Caswell Jun 2006

Traceability Adoption At The Farm Level: Analysis Of The Portuguese Pear Industry, Julie Caswell

Julie Caswell

Traceability is becoming a condition for doing business in European food markets. Retailers are adopting standards that are more stringent than what is mandatory. An example is EurepGAP, a quality standard for good agricultural practices that includes traceability as a main requirement. We analyze EurepGAP implementation in the Portuguese pear industry and find that implementation cannot be distinguished from sales to British supermarkets. Discrete choice models show the odds of traceability adoption increase with farm size and previous compliance with quality assurance schemes, while farm productivity has a negative impact on the probability of adoption.


Risk Management In The Integrated Nafta Market: Lessons From The Case Of Bse, Julie Caswell, David Sparling Jan 2005

Risk Management In The Integrated Nafta Market: Lessons From The Case Of Bse, Julie Caswell, David Sparling

Julie Caswell

No abstract provided.


Food Safety Innovation In The United States Evidence From The Meat Industry, Elise Golan, Tanya Roberts, Elisabete Salay, Julie Caswell, Michael Ollinger, Danna Moore Dec 2003

Food Safety Innovation In The United States Evidence From The Meat Industry, Elise Golan, Tanya Roberts, Elisabete Salay, Julie Caswell, Michael Ollinger, Danna Moore

Julie Caswell

Recent industry innovations improving the safety of the Nation’s meat supply range from new pathogen tests, high-tech equipment, and supply chain management systems, to new surveillance networks. Despite these and other improvements, the market incentives that motivate private firms to invest in innovation seem to be fairly weak. Results from an ERS survey of U.S. meat and poultry slaughter and processing plants and two case studies of innovation in the U.S. beef industry reveal that the industry has developed a number of mechanisms to overcome that weakness and to stimulate investment in food safety innovation. Industry experience ...


Food Safety: What Is Economists’ Value Added?, Julie Caswell Jun 2003

Food Safety: What Is Economists’ Value Added?, Julie Caswell

Julie Caswell

Economists are contributing to the food safety arena by analyzing demand for food safety, the consumer level benefits of improved food safety, the costs and benefits to companies from quality assurance for food safety, and the benefits and costs of government regulations aimed at improving food safety. In the food safety area, too much attention has been paid to risk assessment and not enough to risk management. Economists have a very important role to play in improving private and public risk management in areas such as pathogen reduction, use of traceability, and biotechnology.


Variation In Organic Standards Prior To The National Organic Program, Julie Caswell Dec 2001

Variation In Organic Standards Prior To The National Organic Program, Julie Caswell

Julie Caswell

Interest in establishing nationally uniform certification, labeling, and management standards for organic products grew out of concern that the existence of multiple standards led to consumer and supply chain confusion about, and lack of confidence in, these products. The National Organic Program Final Rule, issued in December 2000, is the result of this interest. We analyze the certification system that was in place prior to the new national rule to evaluate the extent of differences between certification standards and how the national rule is likely to impact the market for organic products. Our analysis suggests that most differences among US ...


The Role Of Product Attributes In The Agricultural Negotiations, Julie Caswell Apr 2001

The Role Of Product Attributes In The Agricultural Negotiations, Julie Caswell

Julie Caswell

No abstract provided.


Quantifying Regulatory Barriers To Asian–U.S. Food Trade, Julie Caswell Jan 2001

Quantifying Regulatory Barriers To Asian–U.S. Food Trade, Julie Caswell

Julie Caswell

Data on U.S. Food and Drug Administration import detentions and alerts are used to quantify regulatory barriers experienced by Asian food products entering the United States. These data offer the only comprehensive means of assessing regulatory barriers without relying on expert opinion, although they fall short of placing a dollar value on the volume of trade affected. The data show that meeting food regulations is a significant barrier to Asian food products entering the United States, especially for products originating in developing and newly industrialized countries.


Consumer Choice Of Food Products And The Implications For Price Competition And For An Analysis Of Government Policy, Julie Caswell May 2000

Consumer Choice Of Food Products And The Implications For Price Competition And For An Analysis Of Government Policy, Julie Caswell

Julie Caswell

In this paper we develop a random coefficients discrete choice model to investigate what affected consumer demand for prepared frozen meals from 1993 to 1998, when government regulation of nutrition labeling changed from voluntary to mandatory. The model links individual consumer characteristics (e.g., income, knowledge about nutrition, nutrition label use) to underlying product characteristics (e.g., price, nutritional attributes) and allows us to obtain preference parameters for each consumer as well as demand elasticities with regard to product characteristics for each product considered. We find that prices, advertising, price reductions, and consumer preferences for taste have a significant effect ...


Survey Instruments For A Cost Study Of Haccp In The Seafood Industry, Julie Caswell Apr 1998

Survey Instruments For A Cost Study Of Haccp In The Seafood Industry, Julie Caswell

Julie Caswell

The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points approach to assuring food safety was first mandated in the United States in 1995 for the seafood industry, with full implementation to take place by December, 1997. The Survey Instruments included in this Working Paper were developed as part of a cost analysis of the adoption of HACCP in the Seafood Industry. The purpose of the Survey was to quantify the change in costs that average seafood companies experienced during the first year of HACCP adoption.


How Labeling Of Safety And Process Attributes Affects Markets For Food, Julie Caswell Dec 1997

How Labeling Of Safety And Process Attributes Affects Markets For Food, Julie Caswell

Julie Caswell

Consumers are increasingly considering information on the safety and process (how foods are produced) attributes of food in making their buying decisions, Producers, processors, and retailers may choose voluntary labeling of these attributes, may be required to label by government regulations, or may use a combination of these approaches, The market effects depend on consumer perceptions of the attributes, the benefits and costs of labeling for companies, and the goals of government policy, These effects are illustrated through a discussion of labeling of foods that are produced with the use of biotechnology (genetically modified organisms) or that are organically grown.


Comparative Levels Of Food Safety Regulations In Three U.S.-Asian Trading Groups, Yuan Wang, Julie Caswell Dec 1997

Comparative Levels Of Food Safety Regulations In Three U.S.-Asian Trading Groups, Yuan Wang, Julie Caswell

Julie Caswell

U.S.-Asian trade currently represents about 35% of the total value of U.S. agricultural and food trade. Country-by-country comparisons show significant differences in level of food safety regulations in the U.S., Japan, newly industrialized countries in Asia, and Asian developing countries. These disparities result in significantly different import requirements that may impede trade in agricultural and food products.


Trends In Food Quality Regulation: Implications For Processed Food Trade And Foreign Direct Investment, Julie Caswell Dec 1995

Trends In Food Quality Regulation: Implications For Processed Food Trade And Foreign Direct Investment, Julie Caswell

Julie Caswell

Foreign direct investment (FDI) has been increasing at a faster rate than direct exports of processed foods over the past decades. To what extent does national-level food quality regulation influence these trends? Although unquantified as to its impact, such national-level regulation is frequently cited as a potential source of nontariff barriers to trade for food products. FDI may allow food processors to avoid rules intended to disadvantage imported products by siting production within particular markets. It may also allow more precise and rapid adaptation to domestic quality regulations. We discuss what is known about the effect of national-level regulation on ...


Food Quality: Safety, Nutrition, And Labeling, Julie Caswell Jan 1994

Food Quality: Safety, Nutrition, And Labeling, Julie Caswell

Julie Caswell

This paper discussed food quality issues associated with both food safety and food nutritional content. Policy approaches to satisfying consumer demands for safe, nutritious food are described from administrative as well as economic perspectives. Current priority issues include instituting better ways of reducing risks from microbial pathogens, from agricultural chemical residues, and on the nutritional front enhancing the nutritional profile of consumers' diets. Nutrition labeling changes have been achieved. Thus, dietary change must be attained primarily through effective means of enhancing nutritional knowledge, changing attitudes and, ultimately, behavior. The paper concludes by considering the development of the next agricultural/food ...


Relatedness And Performance: A Reexamination Of The Diversification-Performance Link, John Y. Ding, Julie Caswell, Furen Zhou Nov 1993

Relatedness And Performance: A Reexamination Of The Diversification-Performance Link, John Y. Ding, Julie Caswell, Furen Zhou

Julie Caswell

Empirical studies of firm diversification suggest the existence of a positive relationship between the relatedness of diversification and firm performance. Using evidence from the food manufacturing sector, we find that this relationship is weak at best and that market share appears to be a more powerful predictor of firm performance.


Food Safety Policy Fights: A U.S. Perspective, Julie Caswell Dec 1989

Food Safety Policy Fights: A U.S. Perspective, Julie Caswell

Julie Caswell

Perspective is very important in understanding the area of food safety. This importance is illustrated by a favorite cartoon of mine that features an older, experienced mouse giving advice to a young mouse. The older mouse, in wrapping up, says to the younger, "... and stay away from scientists— they cause cancer." Facing an avalanche of infor-mation on links between diet and health, consumers may, in frustration, sympathize with the mouse's view, and are having some difficulty sorting out which are the important cause-and-effect relation-ships. Government and industry also are struggling to develop a coherent approach to food safety and ...