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Full-Text Articles in Other Economics

One Step At A Time: Does Gradualism Build Coordination?, Maoliang Ye, Jie Zheng, Plamen Nikolov, Sam Asher Jan 2019

One Step At A Time: Does Gradualism Build Coordination?, Maoliang Ye, Jie Zheng, Plamen Nikolov, Sam Asher

Economics Faculty Scholarship

This study investigates a potential mechanism to promote coordination. With theoretical guidance using a belief-based learning model, we conduct a multi-period, binary-choice, and weakest-link laboratory coordination experiment to study the effect of gradualism – increasing the required levels (stakes) of contributions slowly over time rather than requiring a high level of contribution immediately – on group coordination performance. We randomly assign subjects to three treatments: starting and continuing at a high stake, starting at a low stake but jumping to a high stake after a few periods, and starting at a low stake while gradually increasing the stakes over time (the Gradualism ...


Why Trust Out-Groups? The Role Of Punishment Under Uncertainty, Xiaofei Pan, Daniel Houser Dec 2018

Why Trust Out-Groups? The Role Of Punishment Under Uncertainty, Xiaofei Pan, Daniel Houser

Economics Faculty Journal Articles

We conducted a hidden-effort trust game, in which we assigned subjects to one of two groups. The groups, which were formed through two different group formation processes, included a “social” group that required sharing and exchange among its members, and a “non-social” group that did not. Once assigned, subjects participated in the game with members from both groups, either with or without the opportunity to punish a trustee who may have defected on them. We found that for investors in the non-social group, the opportunity to punish a trustee worked to promote trust, but only when the trustee was a ...


The Fintech Opportunity, Thomas Philippon Dec 2018

The Fintech Opportunity, Thomas Philippon

Wharton Pension Research Council Working Papers

This chapter assesses potential impacts of FinTech on the finance industry. First we show that financial services remain surprisingly expensive in the U.S., which helps explain the emergence of new entrants. We then argue that the current regulatory approach is subject to significant political economy and coordination costs, and therefore it is unlikely to deliver much structural change. FinTech can improve both financial stability and access to services, but this will require important changes in the focus of regulations.


Centrality And Cooperation In Networks, Boris Van Leeuwen, Abhijit Ramalingam, David Rojo Arjona, Arthur Schram Sep 2018

Centrality And Cooperation In Networks, Boris Van Leeuwen, Abhijit Ramalingam, David Rojo Arjona, Arthur Schram

Economics Faculty Articles and Research

We investigate the effects of centrality on cooperation in groups. Players with centrality keep a group together by having a pivotal position in a network. In some of our experimental treatments, players can vote to exclude others and prevent them from further participation in the group. We find that, in the presence of exclusion, central players contribute significantly less than others, and that this is tolerated by those others. Because of this tolerance, teams with centrality manage to maintain high levels of cooperation.


Preference Conformism: An Experiment, Enrique Fatas, Shaun P. Hargreaves Heap, David Rojo Arjona Mar 2018

Preference Conformism: An Experiment, Enrique Fatas, Shaun P. Hargreaves Heap, David Rojo Arjona

Economics Faculty Articles and Research

This paper reports on an experiment designed to test whether people’s preferences change to become more alike. Such preference conformism would be worrying for an economics that takes individual preferences as given (‘de gustibus es non disputandum’). So the test is important. But it is also difficult. People can behave alike for many reasons and the key to the design of our test, therefore, is the control of the other possible reasons for observing apparent peer effects. We find evidence of preference conformism in the aggregate and at the individual level (where there is heterogeneity). It appears also to ...


Time Delay And Investment Decisions: Evidence From An Experiment In Tanzania, Plamen Nikolov Jan 2018

Time Delay And Investment Decisions: Evidence From An Experiment In Tanzania, Plamen Nikolov

Economics Faculty Scholarship

Attitudes toward risk underlie virtually every important economic decision an individual makes. In this experimental study, I examine how introducing a time delay into the execution of an investment plan influences individuals’ risk preferences. The field experiment proceeded in three stages: a decision stage, an execution stage and a payout stage. At the outset, in the Decision Stage (Stage 1), each subject was asked to make an investment plan by splitting a monetary investment amount between a risky asset and a safe asset. Subjects were informed that the investment plans they made in the Decision Stage are binding and will ...


Modeling Economic Systems As Locally-Constructive Sequential Games, Leigh Tesfatsion Jul 2017

Modeling Economic Systems As Locally-Constructive Sequential Games, Leigh Tesfatsion

Economics Working Papers

Real-world economies are open-ended dynamic systems consisting of heterogeneous interacting participants. Human participants are decision-makers who strategically take into account the past actions and potential future actions of other participants. All participants are forced to be locally constructive, meaning their actions at any given time must be based on their local states; and participant actions at any given time affect future local states. Taken together, these properties imply real-world economies are locally-constructive sequential games. This study discusses a modeling approach, agent-based computational economics (ACE), that permits researchers to study economic systems from this point of view. ACE modeling principles and ...


Does A Better Running Back Mean More Rushing? Game Theory And The Nfl, Eric Lofquist May 2017

Does A Better Running Back Mean More Rushing? Game Theory And The Nfl, Eric Lofquist

Honors Scholar Theses

In this paper I attempt to answer the question of whether or not teams in the National Football League (NFL) rush less with a better running back. This seems counterintuitive, but game theory supposes that this is true. Defenses facing a better running back will generally expect the offense to rush more and therefore defend the run more often. The offense, foreseeing the defense’s actions, will choose to pass more to counteract the run defense. This is the basis of the difference between the strategic effect and the direct effect in mixed strategies. The direct effect is when a ...


A Process For Field Studies In Behavioral Economics, Victoria Ferraro May 2017

A Process For Field Studies In Behavioral Economics, Victoria Ferraro

Senior Honors Projects

Field experiments enable economists to test whether theory adequately captures behavior in natural settings, or whether evidence supports reevaluating the reasoned abstractions comprising the theory. Economics, and social science more generally, has increasingly valued the evidence provided by field studies. These studies typically require a relationship with an external partner site providing the environment for the study, but existent research offers little guidance for developing these relationships and designing procedures for effective collaboration. The purpose of this paper is to provide greater insight into what is necessary to conduct field experiments in economics, particularly behavioral economics in private market settings ...


Coordination When There Are Restricted And Unrestricted Options, Shaun P. Hargreaves Heap, David Rojo Arjona, Robert Sugden Feb 2017

Coordination When There Are Restricted And Unrestricted Options, Shaun P. Hargreaves Heap, David Rojo Arjona, Robert Sugden

Economics Faculty Articles and Research

One might expect that, in pure coordination games, coordination would become less frequent as the number of options increases. Contrary to this expectation, we report an experiment which found more frequent coordination when the option set was unrestricted than when it was restricted. To try to explain this result, we develop a method for eliciting the general rules that subjects use to identify salient options in restricted and unrestricted sets. We find that each such rule, if used by all subjects, would generate greater coordination in restricted sets. However, subjects tend to apply different rules to restricted and unrestricted sets.


Are Fair Weather Fans Affected By Weather? Rainfall, Habit Formation And Live Game Attendance, Qi Ge, Brad Humphreys, Kun Zhou Jan 2017

Are Fair Weather Fans Affected By Weather? Rainfall, Habit Formation And Live Game Attendance, Qi Ge, Brad Humphreys, Kun Zhou

Economics Faculty Working Papers Series

We analyze habit formation in sports attendance utilizing rainfall as an unexpected, transitory shock to attendance costs. Using attendance data from Major League Baseball (MLB) and NOAA weather data, we analyze the impact of variation in game day weather conditions on current and future MLB attendance. The empirical strategy permits identification of both the formation and persistence of habit from exogenous weather shocks. Past adverse weather shocks increase future attendance by about 200 fans per game. Our study contributes to the literature developing empirical evidence of habit formation in the field and provides policy implications for optimal ticket pricing strategies.


Can Nba Teams Benefit From Losing?, Ryan P. Hallisey Apr 2016

Can Nba Teams Benefit From Losing?, Ryan P. Hallisey

Honors Scholar Theses

It has been speculated that franchises in the NBA (national basketball association) lose on purpose because of the benefits that coincide with a team having a poor overall record. Teams that perform the worst are given the highest draft selections in the following season's rookie player draft, thus theoretically improving their chances of becoming a more winning team. Previous economists have used various methodology to prove that NBA teams do in fact lose on purpose; or tank. This paper builds upon this previous methodology to examine the direct impact, negative or positive, that losing on purpose has had on ...


The Economic Costs Of Natural Disasters, Terrorist Attacks, And Other Calamities: An Analysis Of Economic Models That Quantify The Losses Caused By Disruptions, Amro Al Kazimi, Cameron A. Mackenzie Jan 2016

The Economic Costs Of Natural Disasters, Terrorist Attacks, And Other Calamities: An Analysis Of Economic Models That Quantify The Losses Caused By Disruptions, Amro Al Kazimi, Cameron A. Mackenzie

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Posters

Over the past decade, numerous studies have estimated the economic impacts of a variety of disruptions. Most of these studies are based on macroeconomic models that quantify the direct and indirect economic losses from a disruption. Direct economic losses occur due to damaged facilities or when consumers change their purchasing behavior because of the disruption. Indirect economic losses occur when directly impacted businesses consequently reduce their orders to their suppliers. Indirect economic losses are often larger than direct economic losses. This paper compiles the results from these economic models in order to compare the costs of different disruptions and help ...


An Analysis Of The Effects Of Financial Education On Financial Literacy And Financial Behaviors, Jamie Wagner May 2015

An Analysis Of The Effects Of Financial Education On Financial Literacy And Financial Behaviors, Jamie Wagner

Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research from the College of Business

This study estimates how financial education affects a person’s financial literacy score, short-term financial behaviors, and long-term financial behaviors using data from the 2012 National Financial Capability Study (NFCS). There are seven categories of financial education—high school, college, employer, high school and college, high school and employer, college and employer, and combinations of all three courses—to estimate the effectiveness of financial education. This course detail has not been studied in previous literature about financial education.

Financial education has a positive relationship with a person’s financial literacy score. Splitting the sample into groups based on education and ...


Econometric Analysis Of Motorists’ Preference For Ethanol In Motor Fuel, Kenneth Liao, Sebastien Pouliot Jan 2015

Econometric Analysis Of Motorists’ Preference For Ethanol In Motor Fuel, Kenneth Liao, Sebastien Pouliot

Economics Presentations, Posters and Proceedings

The second installment of the Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS2) requires minimum blending of ethanol and other biofuels into the motor fuel consumed in the United States. The vast majority of gasoline consumed in the United States contains no more than 10 percent ethanol. This gasoline-ethanol blend is conventionally known as E10. The maximum quantity of ethanol that can be blended into the total motor fuel pool through E10 is commonly referred to as the E10 blend wall. The quantity of ethanol mandated by the RFS2 is now reaching the point where it is set to surpass the E10 blend wall ...


Financial Literacy And Financial Inclusion Of Women In Rural Rajasthan, Emily Levi-D'Ancona Dec 2014

Financial Literacy And Financial Inclusion Of Women In Rural Rajasthan, Emily Levi-D'Ancona

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Financial inclusion is an important step in development, as access to finances can help the poor build money and lift themselves out of poverty. In many parts of the developing world, and especially in India, microfinance is seen as a new approach to fighting poverty by bringing financial services, including low-interest loans, to the poor so that they can afford to start a business or invest and eventually gain self-sufficiency – in other words, a method of financial inclusion for the poor. However, microfinance in India cannot sufficiently reach the poor populations, especially those in rural India, and many of India ...


How Portable Is Level-0 Behavior? A Test Of Level-K Theory In Games With Non-Neutral Frames, Shaun Hargreaves Heap, David Rojo Arjona, Robert Sugden Jun 2014

How Portable Is Level-0 Behavior? A Test Of Level-K Theory In Games With Non-Neutral Frames, Shaun Hargreaves Heap, David Rojo Arjona, Robert Sugden

Economics Faculty Articles and Research

We test the portability of level‐0 assumptions in level‐k theory in an experimental investigation of behavior in Coordination, Discoordination, and Hide and Seek games with common, non‐neutral frames. Assuming that level‐0 behavior depends only on the frame, we derive hypotheses that are independent of prior assumptions about salience. Those hypotheses are not confirmed. Our findings contrast with previous research which has fitted parameterized level‐k models to Hide and Seek data. We show that, as a criterion of successful explanation, the existence of a plausible model that replicates the main patterns in these data has a ...


A Psychological Account Of Consent To Fine Print, Tess Wilkinson-Ryan May 2014

A Psychological Account Of Consent To Fine Print, Tess Wilkinson-Ryan

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

The moral and social norms that bear on contracts of adhesion suggest a deep ambivalence. Contracts are perceived as serious moral obligations, and yet they must be taken lightly or everyday commerce would be impossible. Most people see consent to boilerplate as less meaningful than consent to negotiated terms, but they nonetheless would hold consumers strictly liable for both. This Essay aims to unpack the beliefs, preferences, assumptions, and biases that constitute our assessments of assent to boilerplate. Research suggests that misgivings about procedural defects in consumer contracting weigh heavily on judgments of contract formation, but play almost no role ...


Four Essays Of Environmental Risk-Mitigation, Chiradip Chatterjee May 2013

Four Essays Of Environmental Risk-Mitigation, Chiradip Chatterjee

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Expected damages of environmental risks depend both on their intensities and probabilities. There is very little control over probabilities of climate related disasters such as hurricanes. Therefore, researchers of social science are interested identifying preparation and mitigation measures that build human resilience to disasters and avoid serious loss. Conversely, environmental degradation, which is a process through which the natural environment is compromised in some way, has been accelerated by human activities. As scientists are finding effective ways on how to prevent and reduce pollution, the society often fails to adopt these effective preventive methods. Researchers of psychological and contextual characterization ...


Predicting Securities Fraud Settlements And Amounts: A Hierarchical Bayesian Model Of Federal Securities Class Action Lawsuits, Blakeley B. Mcshane, Oliver P. Watson, Tom Baker, Sean J. Griffith Sep 2012

Predicting Securities Fraud Settlements And Amounts: A Hierarchical Bayesian Model Of Federal Securities Class Action Lawsuits, Blakeley B. Mcshane, Oliver P. Watson, Tom Baker, Sean J. Griffith

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This paper develops models that predict the incidence and amount of settlements for federal class action securities fraud litigation in the post-PLSRA period. We build hierarchical Bayesian models using data which comes principally from Risk metrics and identify several important predictors of settlement incidence (e.g., the number of different types of securities associated with a case, the company return during the class period) and settlement amount (e.g., market capitalization, measures of newsworthiness). Our models allow us to estimate how the circuit court a case is filed in as well as the industry of the plaintiff firm associate with ...


Does Information Lead To Household Electricity Conservation?, Devon M. Kristiansen Apr 2012

Does Information Lead To Household Electricity Conservation?, Devon M. Kristiansen

Economics Honors Projects

This paper estimates the effect of information on residential electricity consumption. Household reading expenditure, education level of the household head, and state “green” electricity pricing program participation rate represent the probability that a household has encountered information relating the carbon emission externalities of energy consumption and human-driven climate change. Reading expenditure has a significant negative effect on household electricity consumption. Initial increases in educational attainment increase electricity consumption, but education beyond high school reduces it. The predicted social norm effect of green pricing participation is insignificant.


Product Performance Based Business Models: A Service Based Perspective, Morris. A. Cohen Jan 2012

Product Performance Based Business Models: A Service Based Perspective, Morris. A. Cohen

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

The migration to a service based economy has led many firms to emphasize the service component of their product offerings. This shift has led to the emergence of a business model based on value creation through product utilization, where products are sold as a service, (often referred to as "Servicization" or product-service systems) The Servicization business model can be applied to both tangible and intangible, information intensive, products and is based on aligning customer and supplier incentives.A shift to a service based model leads to a variety of managerial questions that concern performance metrics, customer supplier relationships and contracting ...


Value Of Beef Steak Branding: Hedonic Analysis Of Retail Scanner Data, Lee L. Schulz, Ted C. Schroeder, Katharine L. White Jan 2012

Value Of Beef Steak Branding: Hedonic Analysis Of Retail Scanner Data, Lee L. Schulz, Ted C. Schroeder, Katharine L. White

Economics Publications

Consumers rely on experience and credence attributes when purchasing beef from retailers. It is essential for all beef industry sectors to recognize the complexity of consumer buying behavior. A hedonic model is estimated to determine if there are incentives to brand beef steaks, the types of brands that entertain price premiums, and the level of existing premiums. Most branded steaks garnered premiums along with organic claims, religious processing claims, and premium cuts. Factors influencing brand value were new brands targeting emerging consumer trends, brands with regional prominence, and brands positioned as special label, program/breed specific production, and store labels.


Testing For Cointegration In The Presence Of Moving Average Errors, Mindy Mallory, Sergio H. Lence Jan 2012

Testing For Cointegration In The Presence Of Moving Average Errors, Mindy Mallory, Sergio H. Lence

Economics Publications

This study explores performance of the Johansen cointegration statistics on data containing negative moving average (NMA) errors. Monte Carlo experiments demonstrate that the asymptotic distributions of the statistics are sensitive to NMA parameters, and that using the standard 5% asymptotic critical values results in severe underestimation of the actual test sizes. We demonstrate that problems associated with NMA errors do not decrease as sample size increases; instead, they become more severe. Further we examine evidence that many U.S. commodity prices are characterized by NMA errors. Pretesting data is recommended before using standard asymptotic critical values for Johansen’s cointegration ...


The Green Revolution Of The 1960'S And Its Impact On Small Farmers In India, Kathryn Sebby Apr 2010

The Green Revolution Of The 1960'S And Its Impact On Small Farmers In India, Kathryn Sebby

Environmental Studies Undergraduate Student Theses

The Green Revolution was initiated in the 1960’s to address the issue of malnutrition in the developing world. The technology of the Green Revolution involved bio-engineered seeds that worked in conjunction with chemical fertilizers and heavy irrigation to increase crop yields. The technology was readily adopted in many stated in India and for some was a great success. However, there were many farmers who could not afford the inputs necessary to participate in the Green Revolution and gaps between social classes widened as wealthy farmers got wealthier and poor farmers lagged behind. This paper discusses how small farmers were ...


Readdressing The Fertilizer Problem, Nicholas D. Paulson, Bruce A. Babcock Jan 2010

Readdressing The Fertilizer Problem, Nicholas D. Paulson, Bruce A. Babcock

Economics Publications

The production literature has shown that inputs such as fertilizer can be defined as riskincreasing. However, farmers also consistently overapply nitrogen. A model of optimal input use under uncertainty is used to address this paradox. Using experimental data, a stochastic production relationship between yield and soil nitrate is estimated. Numerical results show that input uncertainty may cause farmers to overapply nitrogen. Survey data suggest that farmers are risk averse, but prefer small chances of high yields compared to small chances of crop failures when expected yields are equivalent. Furthermore, yield risk and yield variability are not equivalent.


Peer-Induced Fairness In Games, Teck-Hua Ho, Xuanming Su Dec 2009

Peer-Induced Fairness In Games, Teck-Hua Ho, Xuanming Su

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

People exhibit peer-induced fairness concerns when they look to their peers as a reference to evaluate their endowments. We analyze two independent ultimatum games played sequentially by a leader and two followers. With peer-induced fairness, the second follower is averse to receiving less than the first follower. Using laboratory experimental data, we estimate that peer-induced fairness between followers is two times stronger than distributional fairness between leader and follower. Allowing for heterogeneity, we find that 50 percent of subjects are fairness-minded. We discuss how peer-induced fairness might limit price discrimination, account for low variability in CEO compensation, and explain pattern ...


Teaching Ecological And Feminist Economics In The Principles Course, Julie A. Nelson, Neva Goodwin Jul 2009

Teaching Ecological And Feminist Economics In The Principles Course, Julie A. Nelson, Neva Goodwin

Economics Faculty Publication Series

It can be difficult to incorporate ecological and feminist concerns into introductory courses, when one is also obliged to teach neoclassical analysis. In this essay we briefly describe how one might extend existing “multi-paradigmatic” approaches to feminist and ecological concerns, and then present an new alternative approach that may be more suitable for some students. This “broader questions and bigger toolbox” approach can be applied in both microeconomics and macroeconomics introductory classrooms.


Is There Country-Of-Origin Bias In The Video Game Market?, Keaton C. White Apr 2009

Is There Country-Of-Origin Bias In The Video Game Market?, Keaton C. White

Economics Honors Projects

This paper tests for the existence of country-of-origin bias in the video game market. Using aggregate sales data from Japan and the US, I measure the effect of country-of-origin on video game sales in each respective country while controlling for genre, system, quality, and target age group, as well as domestically targeted games and superstar effects. I find that a significant country-of-origin bias exists in both game markets in favor of domestic titles.


The Consequences Of Information Revealed In Auctions, Brett E. Katzman, Matthew Rhodes-Kropf Mar 2008

The Consequences Of Information Revealed In Auctions, Brett E. Katzman, Matthew Rhodes-Kropf

Faculty Publications

This paper considers the ramifications of post-auction competition on bidding behavior under different bid announcement policies. In equilibrium, the auctioneer’s announcement policy has two distinct effects. First, announcement entices players to signal information to their post-auction competitors through their bids. Second, announcement can lead to greater bidder participation in certain instances while limiting participation in others. Specifically, the participation effect works against the signalling effect, thus reducing the impact of signalling found in other papers. Revenue, efficiency, and surplus implications of various announcement policies are examined.