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Full-Text Articles in Other Economics

Optimal Investment To Control “Red Air Day” Episodes: Lessons From Northern Utah, Usa, Arthur Caplan, Ramjee Acharya Jan 2020

Optimal Investment To Control “Red Air Day” Episodes: Lessons From Northern Utah, Usa, Arthur Caplan, Ramjee Acharya

Arthur J. Caplan

We address the issue of optimal investment in “preventative capital” to mitigate episodic, mobile-source air pollution events by calibrating an endogenous-risk model with parameter estimates obtained from a unique dataset related to "red air day" episodes occurring during the winter months in Northern Utah. Our analysis demonstrates that, under a wide range of circumstances, the optimal steady-state level of preventative capital stock – raised through the issuance of a municipal “clean air bond” that provides foundational funding for more aggressive mitigation efforts – can meet the standard for PM2.5 concentrations with positive social net benefits. We estimate benefit-cost ratios ranging between ...


Control Of Episodic Air Pollution In Utah’S Wasatch Front Region Through Investment In Preventative Capital, Arthur Caplan, Ramjee Acharya Dec 2019

Control Of Episodic Air Pollution In Utah’S Wasatch Front Region Through Investment In Preventative Capital, Arthur Caplan, Ramjee Acharya

Arthur J. Caplan

We address the issue of optimal investment in “preventative capital” to mitigate episodic, mobile-source air pollution events in Utah’s Wasatch Front region. We calibrate Berry et al.'s (2015) endogenous-risk model using a unique dataset related to the region’s "red air day" episodes occurring over the past decade. Our analysis demonstrates that, under a wide range of circumstances, the optimal steady-state level of preventative capital stock – raised through the issuance of a municipal “clean air bond” that can be used to fund more aggressive mitigation efforts – meets the standard for PM2.5 concentrations with positive social net benefits ...


Optimal Vehicle Use In The Presence Of Episodic Mobile-Source Air Pollution, Arthur Caplan, Ramjee Acharya May 2019

Optimal Vehicle Use In The Presence Of Episodic Mobile-Source Air Pollution, Arthur Caplan, Ramjee Acharya

Arthur J. Caplan

This paper develops a conceptual model of vehicle trips in a region plagued by weather-dependent, mobilesource
air pollution, and numerically estimates optimal trips for one of the nation’s perennially worst air quality
regions in terms of short-term particulate matter. Based upon data-driven parameters and damage estimates,
our numerical model generates optimal values for region-wide vehicle trips and associated PM2:5 concentrations
along with their corresponding time paths. Our dataset includes a host of pertinent weather variables that determine PM2:5 concentrations both independently as well as interacted with vehicle trips. As a result, our empirical model enables us to ...


Local Food Policy & Consumer Food Cooperatives: Evolutionary Case Studies, Afton Hupper May 2019

Local Food Policy & Consumer Food Cooperatives: Evolutionary Case Studies, Afton Hupper

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Darwin’s theory of natural selection has played a central role in the development of the biological sciences, but evolution can also explain change in human culture. Institutions, mechanisms that govern behavior and social order, are important subjects of cultural evolution. Institutions can help stabilize cooperation, defined as behavior that benefits others, often at a personal cost. Cooperation is important for solving social dilemmas, scenarios in which the interests of the individual conflict with those of the group. A number of mechanisms by which institutions evolve to support cooperation have been identified, yet theoretical models of institutional change have rarely ...


Toxic Effects Of Lead Disposal In Water: An Analysis Of Tri Facility Releases, Patrick Koval Aug 2018

Toxic Effects Of Lead Disposal In Water: An Analysis Of Tri Facility Releases, Patrick Koval

Economics Department Working Papers

Using county-level TRI data from 2003 to 2016, I find evidence that lead emissions in water adversely affect birth weights within the emitting county, especially with respect to the percentage of births considered low birth weight within that county (less than 2,500 grams). I find that a one percent increase in lead emissions per square mile increases the proportion of low birth weights by 0.27 percentage points. For a county with an average number of births in a particular year, this one percent increase in lead per square mile translates to an additional $475,000 in hospitalization costs ...


Romania -- Systematic Country Diagnostic: Background Note-Agriculture (English), Edinaldo Tebaldi, Anatol Gobjila Jun 2018

Romania -- Systematic Country Diagnostic: Background Note-Agriculture (English), Edinaldo Tebaldi, Anatol Gobjila

Economics Faculty Journal Articles

Agriculture plays a significant socio-economic role in Romania and its transformation to a modern, vibrant, and market-oriented sector is central to fighting poverty, promoting social inclusion, and reducing the urban/rural development divide. Most of Romania's poor live in rural areas and earn their living from agriculture or agriculture-related activities. In 2016, eight out of ten people who were at risk of poverty or social exclusion lived either in rural areas or in towns and suburbs that were predominately rural. Using microdata from the 2013 Household Budget Survey (HBS), this report finds that individuals living in rural areas are ...


An Application Of Economics & Environmental Planning: The Impacts Of Variable Rate Irrigation Technology On Net Farm Income, Hannah Jones, Zhenghong Tang, Karina Schoengold, Yunwoo Nam, Dana Varner Apr 2018

An Application Of Economics & Environmental Planning: The Impacts Of Variable Rate Irrigation Technology On Net Farm Income, Hannah Jones, Zhenghong Tang, Karina Schoengold, Yunwoo Nam, Dana Varner

Community and Regional Planning Program: Professional Projects

Restoring playa wetlands back into predominantly agricultural landscapes has been a pressing issue for decades. The Nebraska Rainwater Basin Joint Venture (RWBJV) and its partners represent a wide variety of private and public groups who are offering solutions to this problem, while helping farmers maximize net farm income. The University of Nebraska-Lincoln partnered with the RWBJV on a project to determine how Variable Rate Irrigation (VRI) technology would impact the profitability of farm management operations, while allowing the preservation of adjacent wetland areas. This study conducted an economic analysis that compared net farm income for producers that had participated in ...


Do Farm Subsidies Affect Crop Diversification?, Chadwick O'Neal Apr 2017

Do Farm Subsidies Affect Crop Diversification?, Chadwick O'Neal

Georgia College Student Research Events

The United States spends $20 billion each year on farm subsidies. Farmers face increased risk and income variation when their crop portfolio is less diversified. It’s possible for farm subsidies to decrease diversification if they are focused on specific crops. Utilizing state level subsidy and agricultural data from the Environmental Working Group, I used econometric analysis to estimate the effect of farm subsidies on crop diversification. I used the number of acres planted from the 15 top most subsidized and grown crops in the United States to derive my dependent variable, the Herfindahl-Hirschman index (HHI). The HHI is a ...


Consumer Choices And Welfare Gains From New, Healthy Products: A Virtual Prices Approach, Sonya K. Huffman, Ariun Ishdorj, Helen H. Jensen Oct 2016

Consumer Choices And Welfare Gains From New, Healthy Products: A Virtual Prices Approach, Sonya K. Huffman, Ariun Ishdorj, Helen H. Jensen

Sonya Huffman

This paper models consumer food choices with respect to different margarine and spread brands that include a new healthy brand. The results show that the older and smaller size households with higher income and higher education are more likely to purchase the healthy brand. An Almost Ideal Demand System for six brands was estimated and the coefficients were used to calculate price and brand expenditure elasticities in order to examine the responsiveness of the consumers to economic variables.


Combine Harvester Econometric Model With Forward Speed Optimization, Nathan E. Isaac, Graeme R. Quick, Stuart J. Birrell, William M. Edwards, Bruce A. Coers Jul 2016

Combine Harvester Econometric Model With Forward Speed Optimization, Nathan E. Isaac, Graeme R. Quick, Stuart J. Birrell, William M. Edwards, Bruce A. Coers

William Edwards

A combine harvester econometric simulation model was developed with the goal of matching the combine forward speed to the maximum harvested net income per acre. The model considers the machinery management costs of owning a combine and platform header for harvesting wheat. A statistical Design of Experiment (DOE) was used to evaluate the model using tri-level variables; the medium values constituted the model base case. Of the 27 input variables, the optimum speed was significantly influenced by the crop area, G/MOG ratio, grain unit price, field yield, field efficiency, grain moisture content, probability of a working day in the ...


Combine Harvester Econometric Model With Forward Speed Optimization, Nathan E. Isaac, Graeme R. Quick, Stuart J. Birrell, William M. Edwards, Bruce A. Coers Jul 2016

Combine Harvester Econometric Model With Forward Speed Optimization, Nathan E. Isaac, Graeme R. Quick, Stuart J. Birrell, William M. Edwards, Bruce A. Coers

William Edwards

A combine harvester econometric simulation model was developed with the goal of matching the combine forward speed to the maximum harvested net income per acre. The model considers the machinery management costs of owning a combine and platform header for harvesting wheat. A statistical Design of Experiment (DOE) was used to evaluate the model using tri-level variables; the medium values constituted the model base case. Of the 27 input variables, the optimum speed was significantly influenced by the crop area, G/MOG ratio, grain unit price, field yield, field efficiency, grain moisture content, probability of a working day in the ...


Combine Harvester Econometric Model With Forward Speed Optimization, Nathan E. Isaac, Graeme R. Quick, Stuart J. Birrell, William M. Edwards, Bruce A. Coers Jul 2016

Combine Harvester Econometric Model With Forward Speed Optimization, Nathan E. Isaac, Graeme R. Quick, Stuart J. Birrell, William M. Edwards, Bruce A. Coers

William Edwards

A combine harvester econometric simulation model was developed with the goal of matching the combine forward speed to the maximum harvested net income per acre. The model considers the machinery management costs of owning a combine and platform header for harvesting wheat. A statistical Design of Experiment (DOE) was used to evaluate the model using tri-level variables; the medium values constituted the model base case. Of the 27 input variables, the optimum speed was significantly influenced by the crop area, G/MOG ratio, grain unit price, field yield, field efficiency, grain moisture content, probability of a working day in the ...


Pricing Discrepancies In The Washington State Cherry Market, Foster L. Peebles Jan 2016

Pricing Discrepancies In The Washington State Cherry Market, Foster L. Peebles

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This research is focused on finding a pricing model for Washington State cherries. Each year a significant number of cherries are not sold, or are sold at a price close to or under cost, due to issues with program cherry purchases and pricing models. This research looks at two specific markets: the program fruit business and the wholesale markets. The program fruit business is comprised of companies such as Kroger, Wal-Mart, Costco, and others that “pre-purchase” their fruit at a specific price for delivery at a later date, much like a futures market for other commodities. The wholesale market, also ...


A Note On First-Price Sealed-Bid Cattle Auctions In The Presence Of Captive Supplies, John M. Crespi, Tian Xia Dec 2015

A Note On First-Price Sealed-Bid Cattle Auctions In The Presence Of Captive Supplies, John M. Crespi, Tian Xia

Economics Publications

The authors present an analytical model of a ϐirst-price sealed-bid cattle auction in which a spot and coordinated markets are interconnected. The model reveals that the conventional wisdom that market coordination negatively affects the bid price in the spot market is an oversimpliϐication. The relationships between key market variables impact bids and bid shading in complex ways. While captive supplies can lead to lower spot prices, the price reductions do not necessarily stem from an increase in market power due to contracting. The model emphasizes the importance of several variables for future empirical studies.


Hog Inventory Breaks A Record, Lee L. Schulz Nov 2015

Hog Inventory Breaks A Record, Lee L. Schulz

Economics Publications

From 2011 through 2014, the lean hog price needed to cover production costs averaged $83 per cwt, as calculated by Iowa State University’s Estimated Livestock Returns. Lower feed costs trimmed the 2015 breakeven price for farrow-to-finish operations to about $66 per cwt. It goes without saying that the market wants to buy more hogs at $66 per cwt than it did at $83. Lower costs let producers increase the herd to get quantity supplied closer to demand.


Watch Cattle Weight Variability, Lee L. Schulz Sep 2015

Watch Cattle Weight Variability, Lee L. Schulz

Economics Publications

Analysts routinely use USDA estimates of feedlot placements by weight groups to project timing of fed cattle marketings. Expected slaughter numbers can help improve fed cattle price forecasts and marketing strategies. However, recent variability in placement weights amplifi es the uncertainty about the current and coming fed cattle market


Perspective Makes A Difference, Lee L. Schulz Jul 2015

Perspective Makes A Difference, Lee L. Schulz

Economics Publications

USDA’S June Hogs and Pigs Report told us where the industry is and where it may be headed. The report showed a big surge in inventories compared to the PEDV-depressed levels a year ago. But inventories aren’t that far out of line with June 2013 levels prior to PEDV.


Assessing The Economic Costs Of Water Pollution In The Yangtze River, China, Xiaoli Zhang Feb 2015

Assessing The Economic Costs Of Water Pollution In The Yangtze River, China, Xiaoli Zhang

Journal of Ocean and Coastal Economics

Water pollution of the Yangtze River basin is very serious. Studies have shown that from the upper to the lower river, the water volume decreases and development and pollution increase, especially in trans-boundary areas. The Yangtze Estuary is located at the intersection of Jiangsu Province and Shanghai where the waters flow directly into the East China Sea. The estuary provides drinking water to many people and serves multiple other functions, including agricultural irrigation, tourism, and aquaculture. It plays a pivotal role in the local social and economic development and in people’s general wellbeing. Directly or indirectly, the pollution of ...


The Economics Of Organic Dairying, Larry F. Tranel Jan 2015

The Economics Of Organic Dairying, Larry F. Tranel

Animal Industry Report

Organic dairy producers (and others who aspire to this profession) need sound economic data and analyses to make decisions. This study analyzed and evaluated the profitability of 10 organic dairies using Dairy TRANS Financial Analysis software. On average, these 10 dairies showed “good” profitability for 2013 but there was a wide range of results. It is hoped this study will assist current and aspiring organic dairy producers to both budget and benchmark their dairy operations to better plan for future profitability. Producers are also urged to consider using the Dairy TRANS Financial Analysis to analyze and further improve dairy profits ...


Clean Cooking: The Value Of Clean Cookstoves In Ethiopia, Shannon H. Kooser Aug 2014

Clean Cooking: The Value Of Clean Cookstoves In Ethiopia, Shannon H. Kooser

Journal of Environmental and Resource Economics at Colby

This project investigates how demographic differences affect the way people value clean cookstoves in Ethiopia. Previous research indicates that traditional cooking methods are harmful to human health as well as the environment, as people need to cut down trees or collect other biomass sources for fuel. However, clean stoves can solve both these environmental and health problems, as well as provide a sustainable method for cooking and heating in developing countries. Using choice survey data, this study examines Ethiopian households’ valuations of different characteristics of stoves, including durability, fuel reduction, smoke reduction and the amount of time they may save ...


Matrilineal Asset Inheritance, Female Bargaining Power, And Household Welfare In Malawi, Nicholas T. Garcia May 2014

Matrilineal Asset Inheritance, Female Bargaining Power, And Household Welfare In Malawi, Nicholas T. Garcia

Master's Theses

Matrilineal inheritance practices in Malawi exogenously determine female land holdings at the time of marriage, allowing for the identification of the effect of increased female bargaining power on household consumption decisions. I use the matrilineal ethnicity of the head of household as an instrument for the share of total household land inherited by the female head or male head’s wife. I find that child’s height-for-age decreases with female assets, and evidence suggesting increased consumption from households’ own production. Since the food basket from own consumption is high in carbs but not nutritious, long-term child health suffers despite receiving ...


Producing Energy While Sequestering Carbon? The Relationship Between Biochar And Agricultural Productivity, Nathan Kauffman, Jerome Dumortier, Dermot J. Hayes, Robert C. Brown, David Laird Apr 2014

Producing Energy While Sequestering Carbon? The Relationship Between Biochar And Agricultural Productivity, Nathan Kauffman, Jerome Dumortier, Dermot J. Hayes, Robert C. Brown, David Laird

Economics Publications

A partial solution to problems associated with anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions could be the development and deployment of carbon-negative technologies, i.e., producing energy while reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. Biofuels have been considered a possibility but have faced limitations due to competition with food production and GHG emissions through indirect land-use change (ILUC). In this article, we show how emissions from ILUC can potentially be reduced by producing food and bioenergy from biochar amended soils. The possibility of yield improvements from biochar would reduce the land requirement for crop production and thus, lead to a reduction in emissions ...


Essays On The Value Of A Firm’S Eco-Friendliness In The Financial Asset Market, Muhammad S. Ahmadin Jan 2014

Essays On The Value Of A Firm’S Eco-Friendliness In The Financial Asset Market, Muhammad S. Ahmadin

Theses and Dissertations--Agricultural Economics

This dissertation presents three different closely related topics on the value of eco-friendliness in the financial market. The first essay attempts to estimate hedonic stock price model to find a contemporaneous relationship between stock return and firms’ environmental performance and recover the value of investor’s willingness to pay of eco-friendliness. This study follows stock and environmental performances of the 500 largest US firms from 2009 to 2012. The firms’ environmental data come from the Newsweek Green Ranking, both aggregate measures: green ranking (GR) and green score (GS), and disaggregate measures: environmental impact score (EIS), green policy and performance score ...


The Economic Contribution Potential Of Local Foods Production In Kane County, Illinois, David Swenson May 2013

The Economic Contribution Potential Of Local Foods Production In Kane County, Illinois, David Swenson

Economics Technical Reports and White Papers

This project was a partnership with the American Farmland Trust, the Kane County, Il, planning department, and the author to demonstrate the regional economic gains that could be anticipated were the county able to expand local fresh fruits and vegetable production for both local and regional sales. The report is important in that it takes into consideration the density of regional demand for local foods in light of regional production and establishes realistic thresholds of production gains for area producers.


The Digital Divide: Broadband Accessibility In Northern New Hampshire, Nicole M. D'Alessio Apr 2013

The Digital Divide: Broadband Accessibility In Northern New Hampshire, Nicole M. D'Alessio

Honors Theses and Capstones

No abstract provided.


Genetic Contamination Of Traditional Products, E. Kwan Choi Jan 2013

Genetic Contamination Of Traditional Products, E. Kwan Choi

Economics Publications

Cross-pollination can be caused by birds, insects and wind. Genetically modified (GM) seeds are produced each year in a controlled environment to maintain their purity. However, pollen from the GM crop can be transferred to traditional crops. When the GM crop producers are in long-run equilibrium and buy seeds from a monopolistic seed producer, the resulting market equilibrium is identical to that when a seed monopolist produces the GM crop directly. When involuntary genetic contamination occurs, the monopolist eventually loses its advantage and stops its protection of GM seeds. A terminator gene can stop genetic contamination but imposes spillover costs ...


An Empirical Exploration Of The Effects Of Medical Marijuana Laws, Ben Ehrens Dec 2012

An Empirical Exploration Of The Effects Of Medical Marijuana Laws, Ben Ehrens

Economics Theses

This exploration into the multiple effects of medical marijuana laws on regional marketplaces uses a novel data set and contributes three unique and important findings. First, in states with medical marijuana legislation the price of marijuana is significantly lower than states without similar legislation, this is likely due to measures that allow for legalized avenues of production and distribution. Secondly, because of price breaks for bulk purchases, retail level distributers operate on a downward sloping supply curve that is less steep in medical marijuana states; this is likely due to decreased risk of distribution which may reduce preference for lower ...


Human Capital Formation And Economic Development In Pakistan: An Empirical Analysis, Muhammad Irfan Chani, Mahboob Ul Hassan, Muhammad Shahid May 2012

Human Capital Formation And Economic Development In Pakistan: An Empirical Analysis, Muhammad Irfan Chani, Mahboob Ul Hassan, Muhammad Shahid

Muhammad Irfan Chani

This study investigates the casual relationship between economic development and formation of human capital in Pakistan. Based on endogenous growth theory, this study empirically tests the standard growth model consisting of gross domestic product (GDP) per capita as a dependent variable and human capital formation, investment in physical capital and labor force as independent variables. Autoregressive distributive lag (ARDL) bound testing approach to cointegration is used to check the long-run equilibrium relationship between the variables included in the model. For checking the causal relationship between economic development and human capital formation, pair-wise Granger causality test is used for time series ...


Examining Impacts On Water Demand Resulting From Population And Employment Growth Using A Regional Adjustment Model, Steven Blake Thomas May 2012

Examining Impacts On Water Demand Resulting From Population And Employment Growth Using A Regional Adjustment Model, Steven Blake Thomas

Masters Theses

This thesis examines the currently available water use data and its limitation for use in scientific research. The first chapter offers a description of the current nationwide water data including descriptions of collection methods and trends found within the data. The varying collection methods used result in inconsistencies within the datasets and between the years. These inconsistencies have resulted in the data being used more as a point of reference than in nationwide empirical analysis of water use. There has been a calling for systematic improvements to the data, which could contribute to greater empirical analysis taking place at the ...


Economic And Environmental Effects Of Switchgrass Production On A Representative Cow-Calf Farm In Middle Tennessee, Hanna Leah Watts May 2012

Economic And Environmental Effects Of Switchgrass Production On A Representative Cow-Calf Farm In Middle Tennessee, Hanna Leah Watts

Masters Theses

The purpose of this research was to evaluate the economic tradeoffs and land use dynamics of incorporating switchgrass into the farm plan of a representative middle Tennessee cow-calf operation. A net revenue simulation and multi-year mathematical programming model was used to find the optimum mix of switchgrass and cow-calf enterprises that will maximize whole farm net revenues over 30 years on a representative middle Tennessee beef farm under both average and above average management. Land use changes predicted by the mathematical programming model were used to assess the carbon change associated with incorporating, or transitioning to, switchgrass production.

For a ...