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Transition Economics

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Employed Unemployed? On Shadow Employment In Transition, Joanna Tyrowicz, Stanisław Cichocki Jan 2011

Employed Unemployed? On Shadow Employment In Transition, Joanna Tyrowicz, Stanisław Cichocki

Joanna Tyrowicz

Unregistered employment poses two types of challenges to the researchers: (i) reliably evaluating the wage dierential between formally and informally employed and (ii) accounting for the push and pull factors in general and the eects of business cycle in particular. We address the former with the use of propensity score matching and analyse the evolution of the estimated average compensations and the dierentials with reference to GDP and unemployment fluctuations. Using 13 years of quarterly labour force survey data from Poland on de iure unemployed but de facto employed individuals we nd, that in-the-shadow compensations tend to be higher and ...


Shadow Employment In Post-Transition - A Matter Of Choice Or No Choice?, Stanislaw Cichocki, Joanna Tyrowicz Jan 2010

Shadow Employment In Post-Transition - A Matter Of Choice Or No Choice?, Stanislaw Cichocki, Joanna Tyrowicz

Joanna Tyrowicz

According to a dualistic view, shadow employment may follow from two main labour market failures: (i) official market labour taxation distortions make it ineffective for some agents to engage in registered employment due to a tax wedge; or (ii) for some workers regular employment may be unattainable do to some high access costs or demand constraints, which results in seeking earning opportunities beyond the boundaries of the official labour market. Whereas in the first case revenues from unofficial employment should be higher than the corresponding official ones (tax evasion hypothesis), in the alternative explanation labour market tightness seems to be ...


Intra-Provincial Inequalities And Economic Growth In China, Joanna Gravier-Rymaszewska, Joanna Tyrowicz, Jacek Kochanowicz Jan 2010

Intra-Provincial Inequalities And Economic Growth In China, Joanna Gravier-Rymaszewska, Joanna Tyrowicz, Jacek Kochanowicz

Joanna Tyrowicz

This paper approaches the problem of inequalities in China. It is specifically focused on analyzing the effects of intra-provincial disparities on the development of the 28 mainland provinces in China. Intra-provincial inequalities, as measured by Theil index, seem positively related to growth, albeit the results are only convincing for the coastal provinces. A case by case analysis, however, suggests highly diversified patterns, including linear or an inverted u-shape for fastest growing coastal provinces and virtually no relationship for the majority of regions. The results corroborate some earlier raised questions about actual policy-making standards in China.


What Happened To The Middle Class In The New Market Economies? The Case Of Croatia And Poland, Joanna Tyrowicz, Iva Tomić Jan 2010

What Happened To The Middle Class In The New Market Economies? The Case Of Croatia And Poland, Joanna Tyrowicz, Iva Tomić

Joanna Tyrowicz

Transition countries are believed to have undergone signifi cant social and economic structural changes. Indeed, the early transition resulted in the modifi cation of ownership structure and recognized processes of labor reallocation as well as in rapid educational booms in many Central and Eastern European countries. In this paper we shed some light on the changes regarding the size and composition of the middle class in two transition countries, Croatia and Poland, in the period 1995-2008. In general, the size of the middle class – as defi ned by individuals with wages around the median – decreased in Poland roughly between 2000 ...


Riding On The Wave? Middle Class In Transition, Joanna Tyrowicz, Joanna Nestorowicz Jan 2010

Riding On The Wave? Middle Class In Transition, Joanna Tyrowicz, Joanna Nestorowicz

Joanna Tyrowicz

In this paper we inquire into how structural social changes associated with economic transition affected the relative position of the so called ‘traditional’ and ‘new’ middle classes. We use Polish quarterly labor force surveys over the period 1995-2007 and analyze the distribution of self-reported wages and educational attainment across social groups. In the analysis we account for differences observed in the metropolies (usually benefiting immensely from the economic changes) and non-metropolitan areas (where most of the negative consequences are felt).

We find that although transition has contributed to greater inequalities both in terms of earned income and education, traditional middle ...


Some Remarks On The Effects Of Active Labour Market Policies In Post-Transition, Joanna Tyrowicz, Piotr Wojcik Jul 2009

Some Remarks On The Effects Of Active Labour Market Policies In Post-Transition, Joanna Tyrowicz, Piotr Wojcik

Joanna Tyrowicz

Social cohesion is the principal goal behind active labour market policies (ALMPs), including those financed at supra-national level, like the European Social Fund. In this paper we use NUTS4 level data on the local labour market dynamics in an attempt to verify direct and indirect effects of ALMPs. We use data for 2000-2007 for Poland, while this period comprised both stark increases and reductions in the unemployment rates. Over this time also the financing of ALMPs has been increased considerably, transforming both to higher intensity of ALMPs (wider coverage) and higher extensiveness of these activities (increase in per treatment cost ...


Is The Impact Really That High? The Effect Of Fdi In Transition, Jan Hagemejer, Joanna Tyrowicz Jan 2009

Is The Impact Really That High? The Effect Of Fdi In Transition, Jan Hagemejer, Joanna Tyrowicz

Joanna Tyrowicz

Literature is not clear on the effect of FDI on the economic performance in hosting countries. The analysed eects include productivity, propensity to export, access to financial markets, etc. Although foreign subsidiaries usually perform better than the average of the hosting economies, sometimes the selection eect is found to be considerable. The analysed eects In this paper we use a unique dataset based on accounting annual reports to the statistical authorities by all medium and large Polish enterprises over a period 1997-2006. We apply a propensity score matching technique to disentangle the effect of self-selection and FDI entry (treatment). We ...


Blame No One? Investment Decisions Of The Polish Stock-Listed Companies, Joanna Tyrowicz Jan 2009

Blame No One? Investment Decisions Of The Polish Stock-Listed Companies, Joanna Tyrowicz

Joanna Tyrowicz

It is often raised that enterprises in transition countries are cursed with credit constraints and insufficient capital. Regardless of whether this belief holds for the whole of the economy, the Agency Theory provides a useful both theoretical and empirical framework helping to verify the efficiency of investment decisions in case of companies for which 'objective' future cash-flow valuation is available. The assertion of managerial discretion has been verified empirically for many different countries with the analytical background provided by user cost of capital and Tobin's Q theories. This paper’s contribution is the analysis of the Polish stock-listed companies ...


(In)Efficiency Of Matching - The Case Of A Post-Transition Economy, Joanna Tyrowicz, Tomasz Jeruzalski Jan 2009

(In)Efficiency Of Matching - The Case Of A Post-Transition Economy, Joanna Tyrowicz, Tomasz Jeruzalski

Joanna Tyrowicz

This paper approaches the question of efficiency in job placement using regional data for Polish regions (policy relevant NUTS 4 level) over the time span of 2000-2008. Using a unique data set we estimate the matching function using stochastic frontier as well as difference-in-difference estimators. We use also managed to combine this unique data set with another unique source of data on the ALMPs

coverage, unemployment structure across time and regions as well as the individual capacity of local labour offices. We use these data to explain the exceptional variation in estimated efficiency scores.

Our findings suggest that matching abilities ...


Investment Credit Availability - Bank Enterprise Relations In Poland, Joanna Tyrowicz Jan 2008

Investment Credit Availability - Bank Enterprise Relations In Poland, Joanna Tyrowicz

Joanna Tyrowicz

The complaints about insufficient private investment are frequent in Poland. Equally often do we hear the criticism of the monetary policy pointing to excessively high interest rates. This paper estimates the speed of upward adjustment of loan rates relative to downward adjustment, accounting for dierent market segments and products. The empirical results show that for the investment credit upward adjustment is fast, but downward adjustment essentially does not occur. Consumer credit products demonstrate positive values for the speed of both adjustments although still upward changes occur faster than downwards ones. These ndings suggest that banks may tend to discriminate entrepreneurs ...


Optimality And Synchronicity - Where Do We Stand? Oca Theory And Its Empirical Application For Emu, Joanna Tyrowicz Jan 2007

Optimality And Synchronicity - Where Do We Stand? Oca Theory And Its Empirical Application For Emu, Joanna Tyrowicz

Joanna Tyrowicz

Should Poland join EMU? The answer to this question has already been determined by both economists and politicians - by joining EU Poland has agreed to eventually join EMU, which barely any serious economists find to be harmful to our economy. However, the moment of joining the currency union has not been determined and its choice is largely left to the decision of Polish policy makers. Obviously, there are some costs to entering the currency union, as well as some benefits. However, since both the process of accessing and the very participation in the EMU are dynamic in nature, the path ...


Podmioty Ekonomii Społecznej A Perspektywy Rozwojowe Polski 2007-2013, Joanna Tyrowicz Jan 2007

Podmioty Ekonomii Społecznej A Perspektywy Rozwojowe Polski 2007-2013, Joanna Tyrowicz

Joanna Tyrowicz

No abstract provided.