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Public Economics

1978

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Full-Text Articles in Macroeconomics

New Evidence On Income And The Velocity Of Money, Philip E. Graves Jan 1978

New Evidence On Income And The Velocity Of Money, Philip E. Graves

PHILIP E GRAVES

Time series and cross-country empirical results suggest that cash holding as a proportion of income rises, or equivalently that velocity falls, as income increases. Numerous cross-sectional findings at many points in time, in several countries, conclude oppositely. It is argued here that the former studies suffer from omitted variable bias by ignoring socio-demographic variables affecting the demand for cash balances. When one incorporates such demand shifters into the analysis the time series and cross-country findings are seen as consistent with the critically reexamined cross-sectional result that velocity increases with income.