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Full-Text Articles in International Economics

An Analysis Of The Impact Of The Section 232 Steel And Aluminum Tariffs: Primary Metal Manufacturing Employment In 2016 Trump And Clinton Majority Counties, Sarah Malott Jan 2019

An Analysis Of The Impact Of The Section 232 Steel And Aluminum Tariffs: Primary Metal Manufacturing Employment In 2016 Trump And Clinton Majority Counties, Sarah Malott

CMC Senior Theses

This paper examines the potential impact of the Section 232 Tariffs on Steel and Aluminum on employment using county-level data. This study finds that although employment has increased in steel and aluminum related manufacturing industries, it has decreased in a significant downstream industry of manufacturers of steel products. Furthermore, I analyzed the difference in employment trends between counties that voted majority Trump in the 2016 presidential election and counties that voted majority Clinton, and between counties that experienced marginal victories and counties that voted solidly Democrat or Republican. I find that Trump counties have experienced the impact of the tariffs ...


Three Essays On International Trade And Migration, Yun Wang Jun 2018

Three Essays On International Trade And Migration, Yun Wang

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

My dissertation encompasses three different topics on empirical international trade and migration. The first chapter investigates the short run effects of regional trade agreements on trade costs. It is widely accepted that the reinforcement of Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) aiming at trade costs reduction among trade partners requires time. This paper investigates the effects of RTAs on trade costs over time by using unique micro-price data. We confirm that having an RTA on average lowers trade costs significantly. Furthermore, data shows significant and negative effects of RTAs on trade costs over time. Specifically, besides the initial impact on trade costs ...


Distance-Varying Assortativity And Clustering Of The International Trade Network, Angela Abbate, Luca De Benedictis, Giorgio Fagiolo, Lucia Tajoli May 2018

Distance-Varying Assortativity And Clustering Of The International Trade Network, Angela Abbate, Luca De Benedictis, Giorgio Fagiolo, Lucia Tajoli

Luca De Benedictis

In this paper we study how the topology of the International Trade Network (ITN) changes in geographical space, and along time. We employ geographical distance between countries in the World to filter the links in the ITN, building a sequence of sub-networks, each one featuring trade links occurring at similar distance. We then test if the assortativity
and clustering of ITN subnetworks changes as distance increases, and we nd that this is indeed the case: distance strongly impacts, in a non-linear way, the topology of the ITN.We show that the ITN is disassortative at long distances while it is ...


Cultural Preferences In International Trade: Evidence From The Globalization Of Korean Pop Culture, Pao-Li Chang, Iona Hyojung Lee Dec 2017

Cultural Preferences In International Trade: Evidence From The Globalization Of Korean Pop Culture, Pao-Li Chang, Iona Hyojung Lee

Research Collection School Of Economics

The Korean pop culture (TVdramas and K-pop music) has grown immensely popular across the globe over thepast two decades. This paper analyzes its impacts on international trade. We compilea cross-country panel dataset of South Korea's TV show exports to over 150countries for the period of 1998{2014. These variations in exposure to Koreanpop cultures are used to identify changes in consumer preferences for Koreanmerchandise across time, countries, and products (at the HS 4-digit level).First, we find that more Korean TV show exports significantly increase Koreanexports of goods for women, while the effects are much smaller on men'smerchandise ...


Essays In International Economics: Decomposing Episodes Of Large Growth In International Trade, Brandon K. Malloy Sep 2017

Essays In International Economics: Decomposing Episodes Of Large Growth In International Trade, Brandon K. Malloy

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

My thesis consists of three chapters relating to topics in International Economics. In the first essay, I use bilateral trade data from Canada, Germany, Japan, Mexico, the U.S. and the U.K. to decompose the patterns of trade growth across various goods classifications during episodes of rapid growth in bilateral trade. I find that bilateral trade growth during these episodes is granular- less than 5\% of goods classifications account for over 65\% of overall bilateral trade growth. I quantitatively assess whether ``Melitz-style" trade models, with heterogeneous productivity firms, CES demand and fixed and variable costs of exporting, can match ...


The Shochu Conundrum: Economics And Gatt Article Iii, Alex Davis May 2016

The Shochu Conundrum: Economics And Gatt Article Iii, Alex Davis

Undergraduate Economic Review

This paper will discuss the National Treatment (NT) obligation contained in Article III of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) 1994 as applied in precedential tax discrimination cases. Case law has not taken a firm stance on the economic versus legal interpretation of the likeness/directly competitive or substitutable (DCS) criterion or the principle of “so as to afford protection” (SATAP) captured in Article III.2. After examining the case law on discriminatory taxation, I conclude that the NT obligation in trade agreements is imperfect. Nonetheless, NT is a critical component of these agreements, and the international trade ...


Financial Crisis, Internationalization Choices And Italian Firm Survival, Claudio Vicarelli, Stefano Costa, Carmine Pappalardo Mar 2014

Financial Crisis, Internationalization Choices And Italian Firm Survival, Claudio Vicarelli, Stefano Costa, Carmine Pappalardo

Claudio Vicarelli

In this paper we focus on the relationship between internationalization choices and survival of Italian firms during the financial crisis. Making use of a new database matching four firm-level datasets provided by the Italian National Statistical Institute (ISTAT), we build a detailed taxonomy of internationalization activities of Italian firms in 2007 and 2010, before and after the financial crisis. Descriptive analyses confirm that firms adopting more complex forms of internationalization (e.g. offshoring, or exporting worldwide) are more efficient and export a wider range of goods than traditional exporters. Indeed, over the period 2007-2010, Italian firms moved (on average) towards ...


Food Imports Under Foreign Exchange Constraints In The Cfa’S Franc Zone Of Sub-Saharan Africa (Ssa), Seydina Ousmane Sene Jan 2014

Food Imports Under Foreign Exchange Constraints In The Cfa’S Franc Zone Of Sub-Saharan Africa (Ssa), Seydina Ousmane Sene

Theses and Dissertations--Agricultural Economics

To respond to the high imported food prices in their domestic markets, net food importing countries in the Communauté Financière Africaine (CFA) zone[1] are adjusting their import tariffs and homologate domestic prices of imported commodities such as rice, wheat, maize, and sugar. This research uses a multivariate specification of error correction model (VECM) of estimation to investigate the link between food imports, world price index of rice, wheat, maize and sugar, real effective exchange rates, domestic food production, GDP, and trade openness in the short and long run. The data are on each homogenous commodity from 1969 to 2012 ...


Modelling Import Demand Function For A Developing Country: An Empirical Approach, Nusrate Aziz Jun 2013

Modelling Import Demand Function For A Developing Country: An Empirical Approach, Nusrate Aziz

Dr. Nusrate Aziz

The study focuses on the empirical modelling of aggregate import demand function for developing countries. Both traditionally suggested in existing literature as well as some additional but empirically plausible determinants of import demand are examined in the paper. Various cointegration techniques and the error correction mechanism are employed. In addition to the real income and the relative prices of imports, foreign exchange reserves are also found to be a significant determinant of import demand for developing countries. Export demand, which is overlooked by the existing literature, is found to be significant determinant in both the short-run and long-run for developing ...


Import Decisions And Firm Performance - An Empirical Analysis For The Netherlands, Henk Lm Kox Sep 2012

Import Decisions And Firm Performance - An Empirical Analysis For The Netherlands, Henk Lm Kox

Henk LM Kox

This paper investigates the relation between import decisions and productivity performance for Dutch firms. Importer productivity premiums appear to be larger than those for exporting firms. In the perspective of recent trade theory this indicates that trade costs for importers are at least as important as they are for exporting firms. For import starters I find evidence that ex ante productivity-based self selection is important. This also points in the direction of considerable sunk trade costs for firms that engage in direct imports.


Comparison Of China And Japan’S Economic Development In The Semiconductor Industry, Rundong Ke Jan 2012

Comparison Of China And Japan’S Economic Development In The Semiconductor Industry, Rundong Ke

Senior Projects Spring 2012

While Japan marked its success in surpassing the U.S. to dominate the semiconductor industry in 1986, the Chinese semiconductor industry transformed from a small sector into a global competitor. This thesis tracks and compares the developmental histories of this industry between China and Japan and analyzes the differences in government policy, economic systems, comparative advantage and trade policy in both countries, in order to ascertain the two countries’ industrial development strategies and governments’ impacts on the semiconductor industry. This analysis finds that Japan’s development strategy targeted a knowledge- and capitalintensive industry (semiconductor industry, in this case) by providing ...


Compliance Costs And Dissimilarity Of Vat Regimes In The Eu, In: A Retrospective Evaluation Of Elements Of The Eu Vat System, Henk Lm Kox Nov 2011

Compliance Costs And Dissimilarity Of Vat Regimes In The Eu, In: A Retrospective Evaluation Of Elements Of The Eu Vat System, Henk Lm Kox

Henk LM Kox

This chapter of the VAT evaluation study presents new indicators that (elsewhere in this study) are used to asses the impacts of current heterogeneous VAT systems in the European Union on intra-EU trade in goods and services. These indicators quantify the extent of differences in VAT regimes across the European Union.
• The current VAT system in the European Union leaves considerable operational and administrative freedom to national governments. This means that, despite European co-ordination on the basic structure of the VAT system, the situation is still such that firms operating in the internal market have to deal with a complex ...


Wto-Doha Multilateral Trade Negotiations And Agriculture, Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed Jul 2011

Wto-Doha Multilateral Trade Negotiations And Agriculture, Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

The Doha Development Round or Doha Development Agenda (DDA) is the current trade-negotiation round of the World Trade Organization (WTO), which launched in November 2001. With the start of this round, non-trade concerns (NTCs) were explicitly renowned and integrated into the negotiation process. Generally, multi-functionality proponents attempt to resist agricultural trade liberalization by giving high support to protect their domestic producers. These are net food importing countries, some small countries with highly protected agricultural sector and large trade deficits in some main outputs and unfavourable agro-climatic conditions. The opponents of the multi-functionality argument all claim to recognize the legitimacy of ...


An Overview Of Economic Patterns Of Partnerships Between Developing And Rich Countries With Special Reference To Usa And Sudan, Issam A.W. Mohamed Professor Apr 2011

An Overview Of Economic Patterns Of Partnerships Between Developing And Rich Countries With Special Reference To Usa And Sudan, Issam A.W. Mohamed Professor

Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

The current paper presents unique approach to economic analysis where the theoretical framework applied here postulates that relationships between rogue countries, such as Korea, Syria, Iran and Sudan necessarily are potential parts for an economically mutual and viably profitable partnership. The paper reviews such relationships, especially between African and European countries like Lume and kotono. I first present a review of existing trade and economic partnerships. Next, I discuss economic relationships between developed and developing countries. It is revealed that in some instances, the predatory nature of those agreements and partnerships are manifested which atrophy the basic potentials of the ...


Economic Crisis And External Trade In Sudan, Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed Sep 2010

Economic Crisis And External Trade In Sudan, Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

Nowadays, Sudan suffers severe financial crisis with the eminent demise of 75% of its oil revenues that represented over 90% of its foreign currency after the secession of its Southern part after a constitutional referendum. The compensatory revenues generating economic sectors are not able in the short, medium or runs to function due to the lack/diminished infrastructures. Hard currency exchange rates have soured against the domestic one and inflation sky-rocketed with severe recession grasping the economic cycle in the country which assess logic assumptions of stagflation. Reforming Sudan's foreign trade sector is essential though it will not replace ...


Export Margins And Export Barriers: Uncovering Market Entry Costs Of Exporters In The Netherlands, Roger Smeets, Harold Creusen, Arjan Lejour, Henk Kox Feb 2010

Export Margins And Export Barriers: Uncovering Market Entry Costs Of Exporters In The Netherlands, Roger Smeets, Harold Creusen, Arjan Lejour, Henk Kox

Henk LM Kox

Even though the Netherlands was the world’s sixth largest exporter in 2009, the majority of Dutch firms does not engage in international trade at all, possibly because they are unable to cover the costs to enter specific foreign markets. What are these costs that limited the internationalisation of Dutch firms? Using detailed and unique transaction-level data on export patterns of about 1,200 large Dutch firms in the years 2006-2007, this research opens the black box of market entry costs. First, we find that more productive firms are both more likely to engage in exports (extensive margin) and to ...


The Impact Of Monetary Regimes On International Trade Are Eu Experiences Relevant For Asia?, Apanard P. Angkinand, Clas Wihlborg Jan 2010

The Impact Of Monetary Regimes On International Trade Are Eu Experiences Relevant For Asia?, Apanard P. Angkinand, Clas Wihlborg

Business Faculty Articles and Research

We extend much research that has been devoted to the effects of the European Monetary Union (EMU) on international trade by introducing monetary regime variables in bilateral export equations with the objective of capturing the effects on trade of changes in monetary regimes relative to the pure EMU effects. To make the analysis relevant from an Asian perspective trade effects of the EU’s internal markets are also separated from EMU effects. To identify these different effects we include three groups of countries in our sample: EMU countries which are also members of the EU, EU countries outside the EMU ...


Exports And Productivity Selection Effects For Dutch Firms, Henk Lm Kox, Hugo Rojas Romogosa Dec 2009

Exports And Productivity Selection Effects For Dutch Firms, Henk Lm Kox, Hugo Rojas Romogosa

Henk LM Kox

The paper tests whether recent theories of international trade with heterogeneous firms can explain the export patterns in Dutch firm- and plant- level data in manufacturing and services. Recent trade models with heterogeneous firms predict that the export decision of firms is affected by sunk entry costs in foreign markets, with only the most productive firms self-selecting into exports. We test a latent variable model of the export decision by probit regressions and standard OLS panel regressions. Our results support the self-selection prediction. The process further appears to be conditioned by scale effects, market structure and multinational affiliation. Regarding alternative ...


What Is Special In Services Internationalisation?, Henk Lm Kox May 2009

What Is Special In Services Internationalisation?, Henk Lm Kox

Henk LM Kox

+ Complex services definition and services trade data + What is special in services internationalisation? + Complementarity versus substitution between supply modes + The puzzle of falling export costs and increasing preference for mode-3 supply + impact of market structure on extensive and intensive export margin + impact of bilateral policy differences on mode choice


Rogue Counrty And Potential Cooperation: The United States And Sudan And Feasible Economic Partnership, Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed Apr 2009

Rogue Counrty And Potential Cooperation: The United States And Sudan And Feasible Economic Partnership, Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

The United States declared Sudan as a rogue country in 1995 due to many political considerations. It has imposed many economic and political sanctions against it since that time which represented hindrance to development and resulted in economic crises. Oil explorations started long time by Total Oil Company and resumed by Chevron that halted her activities in Sudan after the flaring of the civil war between the Northern and Southern parts of the country. That work was resumed in 1996 by Chinese companies and was crowned by success and commercial production in 1999. Although the economic situations of Sudan improved ...


Domestic Regulation And Trade In Professional Services, Henk Lm Kox, Hildegunn Kyvik Nordås Dec 2006

Domestic Regulation And Trade In Professional Services, Henk Lm Kox, Hildegunn Kyvik Nordås

Henk LM Kox

This paper argues that regulatory measures affect the fixed costs of entering a market as well as the variable costs of servicing that market. The study has explained that market entry barriers limit the number of firms that can break even in a particular market. The higher the entry barrier relative to the size of the market, the smaller the number of firms that can break even after having incurred the entry cost. In the face of such entry costs, trade liberalisation, defined as a reduction in variable trade costs, would under realistic assumptions lead to an increase in trade ...


The Trade-Induced Effects Of The Services Directive And The Country-Of-Origin Principle, Roland De Bruijn, Henk Lm Kox, Arjan Lejour Dec 2005

The Trade-Induced Effects Of The Services Directive And The Country-Of-Origin Principle, Roland De Bruijn, Henk Lm Kox, Arjan Lejour

Henk LM Kox

The proposed Services Directive by the European Commission could increase intra European trade in commercial services by 30 to 60 percent. This paper analyses the welfare effects of the trade growth using an applied general equilibrium model WorldScan. It shows that GDP could be raised by 0.3 to 0.7 percent and consumption by 0.5 to 1.2 percent in the European Union as a whole. These results could only be realised if the Services Directive is implemented including the country of origin principle. If this principle is excluded from the directive, trade increases only by 20 to ...


Liberalisation Of The European Services Market And Its Impact On Switzerland: Assessing The Potential Impacts Of Following The Eu's 2004 Services Directive, Henk Lm Kox, Arjan Lejour Sep 2005

Liberalisation Of The European Services Market And Its Impact On Switzerland: Assessing The Potential Impacts Of Following The Eu's 2004 Services Directive, Henk Lm Kox, Arjan Lejour

Henk LM Kox

This report is prepared on request of the Swiss State Secretariat for Economic Affairs (SECO), Division Growth and Competition Policy. SECO asked CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis to estimate the quantitative economic implications of a possible decision by the Swiss government to fully adopt the European Commission proposals for a services directive. This report estimates the quantitative economic implications of a possible decision by the Swiss government to fully adopt the European Commission proposals for a services directive. The European Commission's 2004 proposals for a Services Directive consists of measures to reduce or eliminate the obstacles of ...


Environmental Trade Measures, The Shrimp-Turtle Rulings, And The Ordinary Meaning Of The Text Of The Gatt, Howard F. Chang Jan 2005

Environmental Trade Measures, The Shrimp-Turtle Rulings, And The Ordinary Meaning Of The Text Of The Gatt, Howard F. Chang

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

No abstract provided.


Trends. Altruism As Egoism In International Trade Policy: Some Strange Bedfellows, Editor Apr 2000

Trends. Altruism As Egoism In International Trade Policy: Some Strange Bedfellows, Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

This article discusses the tenuous nature of political cooperation between advocates of trade unionism and environmentalism.


Toward A Greener Gatt: Environmental Trade Measures And The Shrimp-Turtle Case, Howard F. Chang Jan 2000

Toward A Greener Gatt: Environmental Trade Measures And The Shrimp-Turtle Case, Howard F. Chang

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

No abstract provided.


The Midwest Feeds Consortium: Final Report, Anthony C. Ostrowski, Paul Brown, Rolando A. Flores, Robert C. Summerfelt, Keith Heffernan, Philip Kaus Jan 1999

The Midwest Feeds Consortium: Final Report, Anthony C. Ostrowski, Paul Brown, Rolando A. Flores, Robert C. Summerfelt, Keith Heffernan, Philip Kaus

CARD Staff Reports

The strategic intent of the Midwest Feeds Consortium (MFC) was to decrease the dependence of the U.S. agriculture and aquaculture feed industries on imported marine protein meals and to increase the utilization and export of plant and animal coproduct protein meals to the international aquaculture industry. Replacement of marine meals in feeds traditionally dependent on these protein sources with grains, oilseed, and animal coproduct protein meals common to the U.S. Midwest would be accomplished through innovative, value-added ingredient processing technology. Through systematic, integrated, industry-directed research to develop ingredient composition, quality, digestibility, and economic values, the U.S. and ...


A Dynamic Comparative Advantage Analysis Of Fresh Fruit And Vegetable Trade Between Latin America And The United States, Laurance Prescott, Gordon C. Rausser, Mary Beth Sigler, Jeremy Arnone May 1997

A Dynamic Comparative Advantage Analysis Of Fresh Fruit And Vegetable Trade Between Latin America And The United States, Laurance Prescott, Gordon C. Rausser, Mary Beth Sigler, Jeremy Arnone

GATT Research Papers

In the first of three related papers, the authors analyze the dynamic pattern of comparative advantage in fruit and vegetable trade flows between the United States and Latin America. Their examination of several factors--including market demand, improving investment climates, technological advances, and trade liberalization--indicates a significant potential for the development and expansion of trade flows to meet open windows of opportunity in the United States.


Exchange Rate Regimes And International Trade, Reuven Glick, Clas Wihlborg Jan 1997

Exchange Rate Regimes And International Trade, Reuven Glick, Clas Wihlborg

Business Faculty Books and Book Chapters

The existing evidence on the volume effects of exchange rate risk and exchange rate regime choice is examined. The analysis involves estimating the effects of cross-country differences in exchange rate regime on export and import elasticities using a continuous measure of the degree of exchange rate flexibility. It is argued that risk for firms involved in international trade tends to decrease with greater exchange rate flexibility. In formulating our hypotheses we argued that the cross-country variation in U.S. export elasticities with respect to the real exchange rate and foreign GDPs is primarily attributable to the cross- country variation in ...


Gatt, Dispute Settlement And Cooperation: A Reply, Dan Kovenock, Marie Thursby Jan 1997

Gatt, Dispute Settlement And Cooperation: A Reply, Dan Kovenock, Marie Thursby

Economics Faculty Articles and Research

In our 1992 paper, we analyzed GATT and its dispute settlement procedure (DSP) in the context of a supergame model of international trade featuring both explicit (GATT) and implicit (non-GATT) agreements. Our paper departed from the previous economics literature on GATT enforcement (see, for instance Hungerford (1991) and Ludema (1990)) by incorporating the ``twin engines of international obligation and retaliation'' (Hudec, 1990). International obligation imposed a cost of violating an explicit international agreement, such as GATT, while retaliation could take place either within the rules stipulated by the international agreement or by punishment outside of the agreement. In Section 2 ...