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Full-Text Articles in International Economics

Aid, Growth And Jobs, Gary S. Fields Jan 2015

Aid, Growth And Jobs, Gary S. Fields

Articles and Chapters

Various development objectives are worthy, but one objective merits special attention: reducing the scourge of absolute economic misery in the world. This study focuses on an important but relatively underemphasized approach to poverty reduction: helping the poor earn more in the labour market for the work they do, so that they can buy the goods and services they need to move up out of poverty. The core of the study is divided into three sections: defining the global poverty challenge and the world’s employment problem, presenting policy options for improving employment outcomes for the poor, and suggesting ways of ...


Challenges And Policy Lessons For The Growth-Employment-Poverty Nexus In Developing Countries, Gary S. Fields Jan 2012

Challenges And Policy Lessons For The Growth-Employment-Poverty Nexus In Developing Countries, Gary S. Fields

Articles and Chapters

Productivity growth and structural change are generally considered to be important determinants of economic growth. However recent research revealed that they do not necessarily lead to higher growth and employment rates. Recent studies, drawing on data from developing countries, showed that only the “right” kind of productivity growth resulted in higher employment rates. Enterprises in Africa and Latin America caught up in matters of technology; however, this process resulted in a substitution of employment by technology. The same is true for structural change; only the “right” kind of structural change caused more growth and employment. Whereas in Asia, labour shifted ...


Taiwan’S Private Sector Labour Market Prior To 1996, Gary S. Fields Jan 2007

Taiwan’S Private Sector Labour Market Prior To 1996, Gary S. Fields

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Analysis of the inter-industry earnings differentials revealed that these differentials were quite small by international standards, and indeed, that earnings were rising at roughly the same rate in every sector of the labour market in Taiwan. Wage differentials in Taiwan's private sector are generally in line with the economy as a whole; quite small by international standards, with real wages rising at very similar rates throughout all of the major private sector industries, whilst also demonstrating similar growth and decline patterns. For example, the agricultural sector in Taiwan is a declining sector of the economy, relative to non-agriculture ...


Long-Term Economic Mobility And The Private Sector In Developing Countries: New Evidence, Gary S. Fields, Walter S. Bagg Jan 2003

Long-Term Economic Mobility And The Private Sector In Developing Countries: New Evidence, Gary S. Fields, Walter S. Bagg

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Consistent with the mainstream view of economic growth as a factor promoting long-term economic mobility, we hypothesize that those economies in which economic growth has been most rapid are precisely the ones that have achieved the greatest progress toward poverty reduction through improved labor market conditions, especially in private employment. We also hypothesize that the positive relationship running from economic growth through the labor market to poverty reduction continued to hold in the 1990s in essentially the same way as in earlier years when globalization was less intense. Both hypotheses are confirmed by our data. Our results therefore cast ...


Escaping From Poverty: Household Income Dynamics In Indonesia, South Africa, Spain, And Venezuela, Gary S. Fields, Paul L. Cichello, Samuel Freije, Marta Menéndez, David Newhouse Jan 2003

Escaping From Poverty: Household Income Dynamics In Indonesia, South Africa, Spain, And Venezuela, Gary S. Fields, Paul L. Cichello, Samuel Freije, Marta Menéndez, David Newhouse

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] This study presents the main results of a larger, more technical report (Fields and others 2001) and subsequent work (Fields and others 2002) that analyzes income mobility in Indonesia, South Africa, Spain, and Venezuela. These economies were selected on the basis of the availability of panel data with which to analyze household income dynamics in the 1990s. By following households over time, we are able to investigate how households that were poor initially fared economically, relative to their richer counterparts. We can learn more about how and why households exit—and enter—poverty.

To gauge income mobility, this study ...


The Employment Problem In South Africa, Gary S. Fields Dec 2000

The Employment Problem In South Africa, Gary S. Fields

Articles and Chapters

South Africa is experiencing a major employment problem that includes not only unemployment, but also low labour market earnings. In this article, Gary Fields discusses what can be done to alleviate South Africa's employment problem.


Wage-Setting Institutions And Economic Growth, Gary S. Fields, Henry Wan Jr. Jan 1989

Wage-Setting Institutions And Economic Growth, Gary S. Fields, Henry Wan Jr.

Articles and Chapters

Wage-setting institutions in several Asian and Latin American economies are compared and contrasted. The Asian economies have relied more on market wage determination, whereas the Latin American economies have encouraged institutions which push wages in key sectors up above market-clearing levels. Market wage determination, combined with export-led growth, has resulted in rapidly rising real wages in the context of full employment in the Asian economies. The Latin American economies have done less well.


Comment On Internal Migration In Developing Countries: A Survey, Gary S. Fields Jan 1980

Comment On Internal Migration In Developing Countries: A Survey, Gary S. Fields

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] It is a privilege to discuss Todaro’s paper. The material is presented clearly, succinctly, and fairly. Todaro claims credit where he has earned it, gives credit where it is due, and withholds credit where it is not due. On the whole, the resulting document is an accurate survey, valuable both to practitioners in the field and to newcomers.


Private And Social Returns To Education In Labour Surplus Economies, Gary S. Fields Jan 1972

Private And Social Returns To Education In Labour Surplus Economies, Gary S. Fields

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] The purpose of this paper is to consider the cost-benefit criterion for resource allocation in labour surplus economies calling particular attention to the contrasts with full employment economies. The specific plan is as follows. Section 1 reviews the debate over the applicability of cost-benefit analysis to problems of investment in education. Section 2 draws two important distinctions which are not always clear to educational planners and enumerates the likely benefits, both private and social, from education. Section 3 considers the case of full employment economies. Section 4 looks at the private returns to education in labour surplus economies in ...