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Economic growth

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Full-Text Articles in International Economics

Blockchain Technology - China's Bid To High Long-Run Growth, Tyler J. Mann Jan 2019

Blockchain Technology - China's Bid To High Long-Run Growth, Tyler J. Mann

Gettysburg Economic Review

Despite having the second largest economy at $13 trillion, China has only recently surpassed the World Bank’s definition of the ‘middle-income range’ which is a gross national income per capita between $1,000 to $12,000 (constant 2011 international $). This is a noteworthy accomplishment since many other developing nations have fallen victim to economic stagnation within this range leading to the term “middle-income trap”. This paper will argue that one of the ways in which China escaped the middle-income trap and will continue to grow its economic influence is through the support of blockchain technology. Research and development, early ...


Breaking The Poverty Trap In Africa: A Comparative Perspective On Poverty Alleviation, Abu Girma Moges Oct 2018

Breaking The Poverty Trap In Africa: A Comparative Perspective On Poverty Alleviation, Abu Girma Moges

International Journal of African Development

An increasing number of African countries have recently registered improved rates of economic growth. Translating economic growth into poverty reduction, however, requires putting into place policies and institutions that promote a sustainable and shared economic growth process. The degree of success in poverty reduction depends largely on balancing the process of economic growth and the judicious pattern of income distribution so that an increasing share of the population benefits from the growth process and engages in more productive endeavors. Building the necessary policy and institutional framework to promote sustainable and shared economic growth is central in breaking the poverty trap ...


Foreign Capital Inflows And Economic Well-Being: A Statistical Analysis Of 46 Sub-Saharan African Countries From 1995-2015, Alexander M. Csanadi Oct 2018

Foreign Capital Inflows And Economic Well-Being: A Statistical Analysis Of 46 Sub-Saharan African Countries From 1995-2015, Alexander M. Csanadi

Undergraduate Economic Review

Variation in the economic well-being among sub-Saharan African countries is among the highest of any region in the world. This paper attempts to address this disparity by exploring the role of foreign capital inflows. This project extends the concept of well-being beyond GDP growth, to include measures of poverty and inequality. A multivariate regression analysis finds that the observed capital inflows have significant effects on all three measurements of well-being. Findings suggest that the level of affluence of the domestic population has significant effects on the ability of those populations to translate diaspora remittances into improvements in well-being.


The Environmental Effects Of Economic Growth Of China And India Its Impact On Brazil, Russia, India, China, And South Africa (Brics), Shonjira Chaiwat May 2018

The Environmental Effects Of Economic Growth Of China And India Its Impact On Brazil, Russia, India, China, And South Africa (Brics), Shonjira Chaiwat

Capstone Projects and Master's Theses

This capstone discusses the environmental effects of economic growth, focusing on China and India and its relations with the BRICS pact. China and India have an impacted increasing population within their borders. With the increase of population and struggles for economic growth, these countries are creating a detrimental environment. In this capstone, I review the theory of ecological civilization as well as the Kuznet Curve Hypothesis. Although within the past few decades the BRICS have used unsustainable practices, they have signed the Paris Climate Agreement in order to combat climate change, which means they will use more sustainable methods for ...


Educational Expenditure And Economic Growth Nexus In Nigeria (1987-2016), Abiodun O. Ayeni, Osagie F. Omobude Jan 2018

Educational Expenditure And Economic Growth Nexus In Nigeria (1987-2016), Abiodun O. Ayeni, Osagie F. Omobude

Journal for the Advancement of Developing Economies

This study empirically investigated educational expenditure and economic growth nexus in Nigeria using secondary and times series data from 1987 to 2016, sourced from the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN), National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) and other agencies and sources. Relevant statistical tools were employed in exploring the relationships between these variables. The random characteristics of the variables were tested using the Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) technique. The links among educational expenditure, education sectoral output and economic growth were tested via the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) and bound test approach developed by Pesaran and Shin. Four research hypotheses were tested ...


The Impact Of Aid On The Economic Growth Of Developing Countries (Ldcs) In Sub-Saharan Africa, Maurice W. Phiri Jan 2017

The Impact Of Aid On The Economic Growth Of Developing Countries (Ldcs) In Sub-Saharan Africa, Maurice W. Phiri

Gettysburg Economic Review

Least Developed Countries (LDCs) of Sub-Saharan African have been recipients of official development assistance for more than 5 decades; however they are still characterized by chronic problems of poverty, low living standards and weak economic growth. The hot question is: Is aid effective in promoting economic growth? Thus, this paper investigates the impact of aid on the economic growth of 12 least developed countries in Sub-Saharan Africa over a period of 20 years. I take a fixed effects instrumental variable approach and the results imply that aid has a statistically insignificant negative impact on economic growth. I therefore conclude that ...


Employment, Income Distribution And Economic Growth In Seven Small Open Economies, Gary S. Fields Nov 2016

Employment, Income Distribution And Economic Growth In Seven Small Open Economies, Gary S. Fields

Gary S Fields

[Excerpt] Resurgent interest has been manifested among development economists in trickle-down, i.e., the view that the more rapid the rate of economic growth, the more rapid the improvement in employment and income distribution. Throughout this paper, the term ‘income distribution’ will refer to the location and dispersion of the pattern of incomes, i.e., to ‘absolute incomes and poverty’ and to ‘relative income inequality’. Empirical evidence supports trickle-down in some cases, but the evidence is contrary to trickle-down in others.

These data indicate:

  1. A high rate of economic growth is neither necessary nor sufficient for inequality to decline.
  2. A ...


Earnings Mobility In Times Of Growth And Decline: Argentina From 1996 To 2003, Gary S. Fields, María Laura Sánchez Puerta Jul 2016

Earnings Mobility In Times Of Growth And Decline: Argentina From 1996 To 2003, Gary S. Fields, María Laura Sánchez Puerta

Gary S Fields

In recent years, the economy of Argentina has experienced both rapid economic growth and severe economic decline. In this paper, we use a series of one-year long panels to study who gained the most in pesos when the economy grew and who lost the most in pesos when the economy contracted. Various considerations led us to expect that mobility would be divergent—that is, that the individuals who started with the highest initial earnings would enjoy the largest earnings gains in pesos. Contrary to expectations and for a wide range of specifications, mobility is found to be mostly convergent, sometimes ...


Challenges And Policy Lessons For The Growth-Employment-Poverty Nexus In Developing Countries, Gary S. Fields Jul 2016

Challenges And Policy Lessons For The Growth-Employment-Poverty Nexus In Developing Countries, Gary S. Fields

Gary S Fields

Productivity growth and structural change are generally considered to be important determinants of economic growth. However recent research revealed that they do not necessarily lead to higher growth and employment rates. Recent studies, drawing on data from developing countries, showed that only the “right” kind of productivity growth resulted in higher employment rates. Enterprises in Africa and Latin America caught up in matters of technology; however, this process resulted in a substitution of employment by technology. The same is true for structural change; only the “right” kind of structural change caused more growth and employment. Whereas in Asia, labour shifted ...


Exploring The Budget Deficit-Economic Growth Nexus: New Evidence From Ghana, Kojo Oppong Nkrumah, Emmanuel Orkoh, Augustine Mensah Owusu Jan 2016

Exploring The Budget Deficit-Economic Growth Nexus: New Evidence From Ghana, Kojo Oppong Nkrumah, Emmanuel Orkoh, Augustine Mensah Owusu

Journal for the Advancement of Developing Economies

In this paper, we combine Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) approach with trend analysis to assess the relationship between Ghana’s budget deficit and economic growth from 2000 to 2015 using quarterly data. The trend analysis reveals that since 2000, years of high budget deficit were usually followed by years of low economic growth and vice versa. This phenomenon was pronounced in 2009, when the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth rate fell from 7.3 percent in 2008 to 4 percent in 2009, following an increase in the budget deficit from 8 percent in 2007 to 11.5 percent in 2008 ...


Poverty In Modern China: Left Behind In Western China, Kia Hitt Jan 2016

Poverty In Modern China: Left Behind In Western China, Kia Hitt

Honors Projects and Presentations: Undergraduate

This thesis addresses research on the current issues and conditions of those living in poverty in Western China. Although China has experienced rapid economic growth throughout the last 30 years, more than 150 million Chinese people still live under the international poverty line of $1.90 per day. The majority of those living under extreme poverty primarily reside in the Western rural regions of China, while development and economic growth remains largely restricted to those living along the Eastern coast of China. Large trends of income and GDP inequality spread across the nation from Eastern to Western China. This trend ...


Economic Development And Female Labor Force Participation In The Middle East And North Africa: A Test Of The U-Shape Hypothesis, Kelsey A. Chapman Jan 2015

Economic Development And Female Labor Force Participation In The Middle East And North Africa: A Test Of The U-Shape Hypothesis, Kelsey A. Chapman

Gettysburg Economic Review

This paper investigates the relationship between economic development and female labor force participation in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Using a panel data set of 20 countries in the region for the period of 1990-2012, I develop an econometric model that tests the U-shape hypothesis. This study builds upon previous literature examining the U-shape hypothesis in time series studies for developing countries, and cross-country studies. The results of this paper suggest that there is a U-shaped relationship between economic growth and female labor force participation rates. The MENA region’s low female labor force participation rates can be ...


Convergencia En Tecnología, Cinthya Caamal, Claudia Sánchez, Vicente German-Soto Dec 2014

Convergencia En Tecnología, Cinthya Caamal, Claudia Sánchez, Vicente German-Soto

Vicente German-Soto

Una de las preguntas más difíciles de contestar es: ¿por qué existen diferencias significativas en los niveles de bienestar de las economías a pesar de que el progreso tecnológico puede ser capitalizado por las empresas, sin importar su situación geográfica? Por ello, el propósito de este capítulo inicial es presentar un estudio que relacione la teoría de la convergencia, en términos de tecnología, y que sugiera cómo aplicarla a un conjunto de países.


Determinants Of Non-Oil Export And Economic Growth In Nigeria: An Application Of The Bound Test Approach, Samson Adeniyi Aladejare, Abdulwahab Saidi Jan 2014

Determinants Of Non-Oil Export And Economic Growth In Nigeria: An Application Of The Bound Test Approach, Samson Adeniyi Aladejare, Abdulwahab Saidi

Journal for the Advancement of Developing Economies

The effects of the recent global economic crises on Nigeria’s economy have reaffirmed the urgent need for economic diversification in the country. Although no country is immune to such global crises, the over reliance on oil export revenue by Nigeria expose her economy excessively to external shocks. Therefore, this research examines the impact of aggregate non-oil sector and its determinant on economic growth. The bound test approach was explored to examine the long and short run effects of the non-oil export and its ensuing determinants. The result reveals a significant effect of non-oil export on economic growth in both ...


Essays On Capital Controls And Exchange Rate Regimes, Yu You Jan 2013

Essays On Capital Controls And Exchange Rate Regimes, Yu You

Theses and Dissertations--Economics

This dissertation consists of three essays on capital controls and exchange rate regimes. The first essay, under the background of international monetary policy trilemma, empirically investigates the validity of the proposition that holding the degree of exchange rate stability constant, a decrease in capital mobility through imposition of capital controls will enhance monetary independence. Using a panel dataset covering 88 countries for the 1995-2010 period and system GMM estimation, this paper finds that 1) capital controls help improve a country’s monetary independence; 2) the effectiveness of capital controls depends on the types of assets and the direction of flows ...


China’S Local Government Debt And Economic Growth, Jia Qi Zhou Jan 2013

China’S Local Government Debt And Economic Growth, Jia Qi Zhou

Gettysburg Economic Review

This paper explores the impact of China’s local government debt on economic growth. This analysis, based on a panel of 31 provinces over 14 years, takes into account a broad range of economic growth determinants as well as various estimation issues including heteroskedascity and omitted variable. The empirical results suggest an inverse relationship between China’s local government debt and economic growth, controlling for other determinants of growth: on average, a 10 percentage point increase in the debt-to-GDP ratio is associated with a slowdown in annual real per capita GDP growth of around 0.27 percentage points per year.


Challenges And Policy Lessons For The Growth-Employment-Poverty Nexus In Developing Countries, Gary S. Fields Jan 2012

Challenges And Policy Lessons For The Growth-Employment-Poverty Nexus In Developing Countries, Gary S. Fields

Articles and Chapters

Productivity growth and structural change are generally considered to be important determinants of economic growth. However recent research revealed that they do not necessarily lead to higher growth and employment rates. Recent studies, drawing on data from developing countries, showed that only the “right” kind of productivity growth resulted in higher employment rates. Enterprises in Africa and Latin America caught up in matters of technology; however, this process resulted in a substitution of employment by technology. The same is true for structural change; only the “right” kind of structural change caused more growth and employment. Whereas in Asia, labour shifted ...


Do Remittances Improve The Standard Of Living In African Countries?, Yohanna Cerna Jan 2012

Do Remittances Improve The Standard Of Living In African Countries?, Yohanna Cerna

DISCOVERY: Georgia State Honors College Undergraduate Research Journal

No abstract provided.


Exploring The Nexus Between Trade, Visitor Arrivals, Remittances And Income In The Pacific: A Study Of Vanuatu, Ronald R. Kumar, Vijay Naidu, Radika Kumar Nov 2011

Exploring The Nexus Between Trade, Visitor Arrivals, Remittances And Income In The Pacific: A Study Of Vanuatu, Ronald R. Kumar, Vijay Naidu, Radika Kumar

Dr Ronald R Kumar

We explore the contributions of trade openness, remittance inflows and expansion in tourism towards improving income in Vanuatu over the periods 1983-2009 using the augmented Solow approach and the ARDL bounds test. The results show trade openness and remittances have a positive and statistically significant effect on the long run growth of the economy while tourism expansion is not statistically significant. For a broad-based development policy we propose: remittance inflows need to be encouraged and additional remittance markets to be explored; trade negotiations with specific focus on temporary movement of natural persons need to be prioritized; and ensuring access to ...


Trade, Aid, Remittances And Financial Development: The Case Of Pakistan, Ronald Kumar Nov 2011

Trade, Aid, Remittances And Financial Development: The Case Of Pakistan, Ronald Kumar

Dr Ronald R Kumar

In this paper, we explore the role of trade openness, overseas development aid (ODA), remittance inflows and financial development vis-à-vis income in Pakistan for the periods 1980-2010 using the bounds procedure within the augmented Solow-model approach. In the long-run, trade openness, ODA, and remittances have a significant positive effect on the income level, while financial development is not statistically significant. In the short run, ODA has contributed positively towards income growth while remittances, trade openness and financial development have lagged negative effects, thus underscoring somewhat different behaviour of aid and remittance inflows. Accordingly, for development policy discourse, we emphasise the ...


The Migration Transition In Asia, Gary S. Fields Sep 2011

The Migration Transition In Asia, Gary S. Fields

Gary S Fields

[Excerpt] This theoretical discussion of the migration transition is Asia develops a framework to understand the turning point from labor exporter to labor importer experienced by the Asian NIEs (Hong Kong, Korea, Singapore and Taiwan). The author concludes that the NIEs' demand for labor curve shifted rapidly, primarily due to export-led growth of a labor-intensive character. Because these economies are well integrated, improvements in labor market conditions in individual sectors are transmitted to all workers, discouraging emigration. Despite industry's efforts to mitigate wage increases through labor import, new technology or relocation overseas, the rapidly improving domestic earnings opportunities induced ...


Long-Term Economic Mobility And The Private Sector In Developing Countries: New Evidence, Gary S. Fields, Walter S. Bagg Aug 2011

Long-Term Economic Mobility And The Private Sector In Developing Countries: New Evidence, Gary S. Fields, Walter S. Bagg

Gary S Fields

[Excerpt] Consistent with the mainstream view of economic growth as a factor promoting long-term economic mobility, we hypothesize that those economies in which economic growth has been most rapid are precisely the ones that have achieved the greatest progress toward poverty reduction through improved labor market conditions, especially in private employment. We also hypothesize that the positive relationship running from economic growth through the labor market to poverty reduction continued to hold in the 1990s in essentially the same way as in earlier years when globalization was less intense. Both hypotheses are confirmed by our data. Our results therefore cast ...


The Great Indian Growth Puzzle: What Caused A Spike In 2003?, Aditya Bindal Jan 2011

The Great Indian Growth Puzzle: What Caused A Spike In 2003?, Aditya Bindal

CMC Senior Theses

This paper will employ unit root tests for finding structural breaks endogenously among India’s key macroeconomic aggregate series, as well as their components and subcomponents. The same analysis will be repeated, wherever data are available, for states. The results from these unit root tests will then be used in regression models for national and state level data to understand the causes behind structural breaks. We find that breakpoints cluster around 1982 and 2003 for most series at the national and state level. The services component appears to be a promising candidate for explaining the 2003 structural break in some ...


Exploring Sectoral Contributions To Growth In Fiji: A Focus On Agriculture Development, Ronald R. Kumar Dec 2010

Exploring Sectoral Contributions To Growth In Fiji: A Focus On Agriculture Development, Ronald R. Kumar

Dr Ronald R Kumar

In this study, we explore the contribution from agriculture, manufacturing and services to the economic growth of Fiji. The results show in the long-run, services sector has the largest contribution (0.91 percent), followed by manufacturing (0.88 percent) and agriculture (0.22 percent). In the short run, mixed contribution from manufacturing and services due to short-run shocks and negative contribution from agriculture due to poor performances of key agricultural activities raises concern for long term economic sustainability. Therefore, key sub-sector integrated policies and reforms to improve and capitalise on agriculture, manufacturing and services are put forward as pro-growth measures ...


The Role Of Entrepreneurship In Economic Growth, Daniel Smith May 2010

The Role Of Entrepreneurship In Economic Growth, Daniel Smith

Undergraduate Economic Review

This study confirms that the level of entrepreneurship in a given country has a significant positive effect on the level of economic growth in that country. Contrary to some established theories, this study has found evidence that the level of entrepreneurship in a given country is not explained by the levels of the traditional causes of economic growth in that country (specifically the amounts of labor, capital, and knowledge that a country possesses as well as the presence or absence of market friendly government policies). Instead, entrepreneurship acts as an independent factor.


Intra-Provincial Inequalities And Economic Growth In China, Joanna Gravier-Rymaszewska, Joanna Tyrowicz, Jacek Kochanowicz Jan 2010

Intra-Provincial Inequalities And Economic Growth In China, Joanna Gravier-Rymaszewska, Joanna Tyrowicz, Jacek Kochanowicz

Joanna Tyrowicz

This paper approaches the problem of inequalities in China. It is specifically focused on analyzing the effects of intra-provincial disparities on the development of the 28 mainland provinces in China. Intra-provincial inequalities, as measured by Theil index, seem positively related to growth, albeit the results are only convincing for the coastal provinces. A case by case analysis, however, suggests highly diversified patterns, including linear or an inverted u-shape for fastest growing coastal provinces and virtually no relationship for the majority of regions. The results corroborate some earlier raised questions about actual policy-making standards in China.


Trade, Foreign Direct Investment, Privatization, And Economic Growth, Hang Thu Nguyen Jan 2010

Trade, Foreign Direct Investment, Privatization, And Economic Growth, Hang Thu Nguyen

Economics Graduate Theses & Dissertations

This thesis tries to enhance our understanding of the role of trade liberalization as it relates to economic growth and the factors affecting trade liberalization in various countries. In addition, this thesis deals with the problem of endogeneity with various econometric methods.

Chapter 2 presents a study of the impact of trade liberalization policy on economic growth with the simultaneous application of privatization policy in 25 transitional countries. The analysis applies two stage least squares (2SLS) to panel data from 1994 to 2006 for these 25 countries. The estimated results provide evidence of a significantly positive effect of both trade ...


Globalization And Economic Growth In Sub-Saharan Africa, Hadiatou Barry Jan 2010

Globalization And Economic Growth In Sub-Saharan Africa, Hadiatou Barry

Gettysburg Economic Review

This study analyzes Sub-Saharan Africa through the framework of globalization. The study‘s objective is to determine whether globalization is a significant factor when associated with economic growth in the region. Using panel data from 1995-2005 for 41 countries and the KOF globalization index, an Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) model was employed to examine the relationship between globalization and other traditional factors of economic growth such as trade, foreign direct investment, loans, aid, natural resources, corruption, and rule of law. The study shows that globalization has a positive, though statistically insignificant impact on the economic growth of Sub-Saharan Africa. However ...


How Does Foreign Direct Investment Affect Growth In Developing Countries? An Empirical Investigation, E. M. Ekanayake, John R. Ledgerwood Jan 2010

How Does Foreign Direct Investment Affect Growth In Developing Countries? An Empirical Investigation, E. M. Ekanayake, John R. Ledgerwood

Publications

This paper analyzes the effects of foreign direct investment on the economic growth of developing countries. The study uses annual data on a group of 85 developing countries covering Asia, Africa, and Latin America and the Caribbean for the period 1980-2007. We explore the hypothesis that foreign direct investment can promote growth in developing countries. We test this hypothesis using panel data series for foreign direct investment, while accounting for regional differences in Asian, African, Latin American, and the Caribbean countries as well as the differences in income levels. While the findings of previous studies are generally mixed, our results ...


Why Economic Performance Has Differed Between Brazil And China? A Comparative Analysis Of Brazilian And Chinese Macroeconomic Policy, Fernando Ferrari-Filho, Anthony Petros Spanakos Jun 2009

Why Economic Performance Has Differed Between Brazil And China? A Comparative Analysis Of Brazilian And Chinese Macroeconomic Policy, Fernando Ferrari-Filho, Anthony Petros Spanakos

Department of Political Science and Law Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

This paper addresses a specific question: why has China grown so rapidly and Brazil not? To answer this question, it (i) establishes the basis for comparison between China and Brazil by contextualizing these countries within the BRICs concept, and (ii) presents a comparative analysis of Brazilian and Chinese reforms focusing only on the issue of macroeconomic policy, especially the monetary and exchange rate regimes, and its effect on growth.