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2017

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Articles 1 - 30 of 135

Full-Text Articles in International Economics

Water Poverty And Its Impact On Income Poverty And Health Status In Sudan: The Case Of Gezira State (1993-2013), Mutasim Abdelmawla Dec 2017

Water Poverty And Its Impact On Income Poverty And Health Status In Sudan: The Case Of Gezira State (1993-2013), Mutasim Abdelmawla

International Journal of African Development

Water resource development can address poverty, improve well-being, and enhance people's opportunities in different fields of life. Even though water resources are available in Sudan, some parts of the country still continue to face significant water provision challenges. This research is aimed at measuring water poverty in Gezira State, Sudan over the period of 1993-2013 using the methodology of Sullivan et al. (2003). The research employed data collected from the Central Bureau of Statistics, Khartoum, Sudan. Both descriptive and empirical approaches are used to analyze the data. The average incidence of the water poverty index (WPI) over the period ...


The Aid Effectiveness Architecture In Africa: An Analysis Of Aid Structures In Kenya’S Agriculture Sector, Daniel Kipleel Borter Dec 2017

The Aid Effectiveness Architecture In Africa: An Analysis Of Aid Structures In Kenya’S Agriculture Sector, Daniel Kipleel Borter

International Journal of African Development

This study examines in detail the development aid architecture in Kenya’s agriculture sector. The focus is on the mechanisms in place within the Kenyan government (and ministry of agriculture in particular), mechanisms among and within donor agencies, and overall coordination mechanisms that bring together the donors and the government. Findings show that coordination and harmonization activities among donors are yet to yield the desired outcomes such as the division of labor protocol and joint programming. Weaknesses are also observed on the government side where it appears authorities are yet to internalize PD concepts and interpret them to suit the ...


Does Privatization Improve Productivity? Empirical Evidence From Ethiopia, Tadesse Wodajo, Dawit Senbet Dec 2017

Does Privatization Improve Productivity? Empirical Evidence From Ethiopia, Tadesse Wodajo, Dawit Senbet

International Journal of African Development

Theoretically, it is posited that privatization enables the private sector to play a dominant role in the economy by enhancing competition, productivity and efficiency. When evaluated using these criteria, privatization of the manufacturing industries has failed in Ethiopia. Our empirical results show that, at best, privatization did not result in improving productivity, and at worst, it led to a decline in productivity. We argue that the main reason for this outcome is the unique economic and business environment prevailing in Ethiopia, which does not allow the standard economic assumptions of market competition to hold. Ethiopia’s ‘private sector’ can be ...


Editorial Note, Sisay Asefa Dec 2017

Editorial Note, Sisay Asefa

International Journal of African Development

No abstract provided.


International Journal Of African Development, Vol. 4, Issue 2 Dec 2017

International Journal Of African Development, Vol. 4, Issue 2

International Journal of African Development

Complete issue of International Journal of African Development, Volume 4, Issue 2 - Fall 2017.


Antinomies Of Globalization, Yahya Mete Madra Dec 2017

Antinomies Of Globalization, Yahya Mete Madra

Markets, Globalization & Development Review

The defining antinomy of the post-2008 crash phase is argued to be the one between neoliberalism and populism. This essay aims to complicate the terms of this antinomy and offers a reading that problematizes the association of neoliberalism with internationalism and globalization on the one hand and populism with nationalism and anti-imperialism on the other. Not only internationalism in its historical origins is an anti-imperialist concept but also today we can easily discern how reactionary forms of populist nationalisms are made possible by globalization of finance—a hallmark of neoliberalism. The essay concludes with a discussion of the possibility of ...


The Impact Of Extended Reproductive Time Horizons: Evidence From Israel's Expansion Of Access To Ivf, Naomi Gershoni, Corinne Low Dec 2017

The Impact Of Extended Reproductive Time Horizons: Evidence From Israel's Expansion Of Access To Ivf, Naomi Gershoni, Corinne Low

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

Women’s time-limited fertility window, compared to men’s longer period of fecundity, could be a key constraint shaping the gender gap in career choices and hence outcomes. Israel’s 1994 policy change to make in vitro fertilization free provides a natural experiment for how fertility time horizons impact women’s investment choices. We find that following the policy change women marry later, complete more college education, achieve more post-college education, and have better labor market outcomes. Additionally, we find the “penalty” in spousal quality for women who get married after thirty substantially dissipates. This suggests that persistent labor market ...


Why The World Needs A Reserve Asset With A Hard Anchor, Warren Coats, Dongsheng Di, Yuxuan Zhao Dec 2017

Why The World Needs A Reserve Asset With A Hard Anchor, Warren Coats, Dongsheng Di, Yuxuan Zhao

Warren Coats

From the 1970s, the global currency system has two features: the use of one or a few sovereign currencies as the global reserve asset and the floating exchange rate regime between major currencies.This paper points out that the costs of the dollar’s use as an international reserve currency exceed the benefits for both the US and the rest of the world. These costs include the exporting of American manufacturing as a byproduct of its current account deficit needed to supply its currency to the rest of the world. In addition to the detriment to trade from unpredictable exchange ...


Poverty Mapping Using Convolutional Neural Networks Trained On High And Medium Resolution Satellite Images, With An Application In Mexico, Boris Babenko, Jonathan Hersh, David Newhouse, Anusha Ramakrishnan, Tom Swartz Dec 2017

Poverty Mapping Using Convolutional Neural Networks Trained On High And Medium Resolution Satellite Images, With An Application In Mexico, Boris Babenko, Jonathan Hersh, David Newhouse, Anusha Ramakrishnan, Tom Swartz

Economics Faculty Articles and Research

Mapping the spatial distribution of poverty in developing countries remains an important and costly challenge. These “poverty maps” are key inputs for poverty targeting, public goods provision, political accountability, and impact evaluation, that are all the more important given the geographic dispersion of the remaining bottom billion severely poor individuals. In this paper we train Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) to estimate poverty directly from high and medium resolution satellite images. We use both Planet and Digital Globe imagery with spatial resolutions of 3-5 m2 and 50 cm2 respectively, covering all 2 million km2 of Mexico. Benchmark poverty estimates come from ...


The Gatt/Wto Welfare Effects: 1950–2015, Pao-Li Chang, Wei Jin Dec 2017

The Gatt/Wto Welfare Effects: 1950–2015, Pao-Li Chang, Wei Jin

Research Collection School Of Economics

This paper provides a comprehensive evaluation of the welfare impact of GATT/WTO in its entire history of 1950-2015 for 180 countries. The analysis embeds nonparametric matching methods in structural quantitative simulations. The results indicate substantial (but highly heterogeneous) welfare gains created by GATT/WTO at the global level and across more than six decades of its history. An extensive set of robustness checks with respect to model specifications, parameter values, and matching estimations are provided. We also characterize the effects of GATT/WTO on global income disparity, its interaction with preferential trade agreements, and the effects of China's ...


Cultural Preferences In International Trade: Evidence From The Globalization Of Korean Pop Culture, Pao-Li Chang, Iona Hyojung Lee Dec 2017

Cultural Preferences In International Trade: Evidence From The Globalization Of Korean Pop Culture, Pao-Li Chang, Iona Hyojung Lee

Research Collection School Of Economics

The Korean pop culture (TVdramas and K-pop music) has grown immensely popular across the globe over thepast two decades. This paper analyzes its impacts on international trade. We compilea cross-country panel dataset of South Korea's TV show exports to over 150countries for the period of 1998{2014. These variations in exposure to Koreanpop cultures are used to identify changes in consumer preferences for Koreanmerchandise across time, countries, and products (at the HS 4-digit level).First, we find that more Korean TV show exports significantly increase Koreanexports of goods for women, while the effects are much smaller on men'smerchandise ...


The Mexico -Us Border Region And The New Challenges Of Nafta, Maria Del Rosio Barajas-Escamilla Phd, Maritza Sotomayor Nov 2017

The Mexico -Us Border Region And The New Challenges Of Nafta, Maria Del Rosio Barajas-Escamilla Phd, Maritza Sotomayor

Maritza Sotomayor

No abstract provided.


Disaster And Recovery: The Effects Of Post-Disaster Aid On Economic Development, Joshua M. Drouin Nov 2017

Disaster And Recovery: The Effects Of Post-Disaster Aid On Economic Development, Joshua M. Drouin

Steeplechase: An ORCA Student Journal

The effects of aid on economic development is topic typically studied from the perspective of corruption and allocative efficiency. We examine aid to less developed nations from a different viewpoint; assuming aid reaches the intended recipients, does it actually benefit them? We utilize Indonesia and the 2004 earthquake and tsunami as a natural experiment to observe the influx of aid, and compare the regions development before and after the disaster. By establishing a baseline before the disaster, and utilizing a new start point after the destruction, we can gauge the reconstruction efforts and observe whether aid is beneficial or harmful ...


What Drives Economic Growth? A Look Into Structural Transformation And Export Diversification, Dany Bahar Nov 2017

What Drives Economic Growth? A Look Into Structural Transformation And Export Diversification, Dany Bahar

Lectures/Events (BMW)

As part of the Brookings Scholar Lecture Series, Brookings Mountain West invites you to a lecture titled "What drives economic growth? A look into structural transformation and export diversification" by Brookings Fellow in Global Economy and Development, Dany Bahar.

About 60 percent of cross-country income differences can be explained by productivity differences. In the long-run, productivity is what best explains economic growth and welfare. This lecture seeks to understand the drivers of economic and productivity growth for countries, and in particular, the role of structural transformation and diversification. The lecture will draw on work by other scholars as well as ...


Questioning The Advances In Global Trade: An Assessment Of The Development Chapter In The Trans-Pacific Partnership, Alice Gerow Nov 2017

Questioning The Advances In Global Trade: An Assessment Of The Development Chapter In The Trans-Pacific Partnership, Alice Gerow

SPICE: Student Perspectives on Institutions, Choices and Ethics

The Trans-Pacific Partnership is on its way to becoming the largest trade deal ever made and proposes to write the rules for global trade. The TPP includes several novelties in trade negotiation such as a chapter specifically interested in issues surrounding development. This paper offers a content-based analysis of the TPP’s Development chapter to gauge the value of this symbolic addition. In order to make this assessment, the United Nations Conference for Trade and Development, the intergovernmental organization responsible for assisting developing nations in the negotiation of trade deals, serves as a reference point for the representation of developing ...


The Sustainability Edge, Jagdish Sheth, Suhas Apte Nov 2017

The Sustainability Edge, Jagdish Sheth, Suhas Apte

Asian Management Insights

How to drive top-line growth with triple-bottom-line thinking.


A New Toolkit For Thailand 4.0, Abhisit Vejjajiva, Philip Charles Zerrillo Nov 2017

A New Toolkit For Thailand 4.0, Abhisit Vejjajiva, Philip Charles Zerrillo

Asian Management Insights

The Prime Minister of Thailand from 2008 to 2011 and the current leader of the Democrat Party, Abhisit Vejjajiva, addresses the challenges facing the Thai economy today, in this interview with Philip Zerrillo.


Does “America First'' Help America? The Impact Of Country Image On Exports And Welfare, Pao-Li Chang, Tomoki Fujii, Wei Jin Nov 2017

Does “America First'' Help America? The Impact Of Country Image On Exports And Welfare, Pao-Li Chang, Tomoki Fujii, Wei Jin

Research Collection School Of Economics

This paper estimates the effects of bilateral and time-varying preference bias on trade flows and welfare. We use a unique dataset from the BBC World Opinion Poll that surveys (annually during 2005-2017 with some gaps) the populations from a wide array of countries on their views of whether an evaluated country is having a mainly positive or negative influence in the world. We identify the effects on bilateral preference parameters due to shifts in these country image perceptions, and quantify their general equilibrium effects on bilateral exports and welfare (each time for an evaluated exporting country, assuming that the exporting ...


Optimal Tariffs With Inframarginal Exporters, Rishi Sharma Oct 2017

Optimal Tariffs With Inframarginal Exporters, Rishi Sharma

Economics Faculty Scholarship

This paper shows that an importing country can have an incentive to impose a tariff to extract rents earned by foreign exporters even in a perfectly competitive setting. To demonstrate this, I develop a new model of international trade that incorporates fixed costs of exporting and firm heterogeneity within a perfectly competitive framework. In this setting, despite the fact that there are no pre-existing distortions, the optimal tariff is positive even for a small country with no world market power. In the limit, as either firm heterogeneity or the fixed costs of exporting vanish, the optimal tari approaches zero.


Stock Markets, Credit Markets, And Technology-Led Growth, James R. Brown, Gustav Martinsson, Bruce C. Petersen Oct 2017

Stock Markets, Credit Markets, And Technology-Led Growth, James R. Brown, Gustav Martinsson, Bruce C. Petersen

Finance Publication

The high-tech sector accounts for the majority of corporate innovation in modern economies. In a sample of 38 countries, we document a strong positive relation between the initial size of the country's high-tech sector and subsequent rates of GDP and total factor productivity growth. We also find a strong positive connection between a country's equity (but not credit) market development and the size of its high-tech sector. Our main difference-in-differences estimates show that better developed stock markets support faster growth of innovative-intensive, high-tech industries. The main channels for this effect are higher rates of productivity and faster growth ...


Russia's Northern Rook: Nord Stream 2 On The European Energy Chessboard, David E. Wilson Oct 2017

Russia's Northern Rook: Nord Stream 2 On The European Energy Chessboard, David E. Wilson

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

The Nord Stream 2 pipeline proposes to connect Germany to the world’s largest natural gas reserves in Russia, allowing the state-owned Russian energy behemoth Gazprom to double its export capacity through the ‘Northern Corridor’ transit route to Europe. This project has been the subject of sharp disapproval from Central and Eastern European countries, as well as the United States, which fear the prospect of increasing dependence on gas imports from a Russia perceived as politically aggressive and unreliable. This paper will identify the geopolitical and geoeconomic implications involved in the construction of Nord Stream 2 by adopting a geostrategic ...


Evaluating Frameworks For Multilateral Investor-State Dispute Settlement, Danielle Rosenthal Oct 2017

Evaluating Frameworks For Multilateral Investor-State Dispute Settlement, Danielle Rosenthal

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Utilizing both empirical studies of investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS) regimes and the accounts of both public and private practitioners of these processes, this study aims to inform public policymakers, multinational corporation leadership, and academic researchers on some of the key issues to consider when developing a multilateral friendly ISDS regime. By analyzing the procedural and functional details of both traditional arbitration (via the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes and the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law) and investment dispute courts (via those proposed in the Trans-Atlantic Trade and Investment Partnership and the EU Canada Comprehensive Economic and ...


Mexico Consensus Economic Forecast, Volume 20, Number 4, Thomas M. Fullerton Jr., Adam G. Walke Oct 2017

Mexico Consensus Economic Forecast, Volume 20, Number 4, Thomas M. Fullerton Jr., Adam G. Walke

Border Region Modeling Project

No abstract provided.


Asean And The South China Sea: Approaches To Resolving The Conflict, Jennifer Jie Li Oct 2017

Asean And The South China Sea: Approaches To Resolving The Conflict, Jennifer Jie Li

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

In recent years, tensions have escalated between actors in the South China Sea, one of which is the Association for Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the region’s primary intergovernmental organization. The purpose of this report is to determine the effectiveness of ASEAN in resolving the South China Sea disputes and to clarify how geopolitical factors have impacted the organization’s actions. Through an analysis of evolving maritime claims and the current state of affairs, this paper suggests that ASEAN must be involved in any attempt to resolve the conflict peacefully. Acknowledging the importance of the diplomatic channels that ASEAN has ...


Essays On The Impact Of Exchange Rate Movements On Stock Return And Country Output, Junnan Zhao Sep 2017

Essays On The Impact Of Exchange Rate Movements On Stock Return And Country Output, Junnan Zhao

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Exchange rate movements are widely believed to be a major source of uncertainty at both micro- and macro-economic levels. At the microeconomic level, corporate managers controlling risk and investors seeking to hedge their portfolios are both obviously interested in estimates of a firm’s exchange rate exposure ̶ i.e., how much of the value of a firm will be affected by exchange rate movements. At the macroeconomic level, a currency appreciation may have a contractionary effect on a country's output.

Chapter 1 tests whether the launch of the euro around 1999 significantly reduced stock market volatility and exchange rate ...


Essays On Inequality And Macroeconomic Stability, Thomas Hauner Sep 2017

Essays On Inequality And Macroeconomic Stability, Thomas Hauner

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation consists of three chapters. . .

Chapter 1: Aggregate Wealth and Its Distribution as Determinants of Financial Crises: Panel Evidence This essay investigates the relationship between wealth inequality and financial crises across a panel of nine advanced economies over the past 100 years. While substantiation of a role for income inequality is ambiguous in the literature, evidence is presented suggesting a unique capacity for the accumulation of assets to increase the likelihood of a future financial crisis episode. Testing long-run panel data with a reduced form, two-way fixed effects model, estimates suggest that increasing wealth inequality, in an economy with ...


Essays In International Economics: Decomposing Episodes Of Large Growth In International Trade, Brandon K. Malloy Sep 2017

Essays In International Economics: Decomposing Episodes Of Large Growth In International Trade, Brandon K. Malloy

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

My thesis consists of three chapters relating to topics in International Economics. In the first essay, I use bilateral trade data from Canada, Germany, Japan, Mexico, the U.S. and the U.K. to decompose the patterns of trade growth across various goods classifications during episodes of rapid growth in bilateral trade. I find that bilateral trade growth during these episodes is granular- less than 5\% of goods classifications account for over 65\% of overall bilateral trade growth. I quantitatively assess whether ``Melitz-style" trade models, with heterogeneous productivity firms, CES demand and fixed and variable costs of exporting, can match ...


Determinants Of Firm-Level Domestic Sales And Exports With Spillovers: Evidence From China, Badi H. Baltagi, Peter H. Egger, Michaela Kesina Sep 2017

Determinants Of Firm-Level Domestic Sales And Exports With Spillovers: Evidence From China, Badi H. Baltagi, Peter H. Egger, Michaela Kesina

Center for Policy Research

This paper studies the determinants of firm-level revenues, as a measure of the performance of firms in China's domestic and export markets. The analysis of the determinants of the aforementioned outcomes calls for a mixed linear-nonlinear econometric approach. The paper proposes specifying a system of equations, which is inspired by Basmann's work and recent theoretical work in international economics and conducts comparative static analyses regarding the role of exogenous shocks to the system to flesh out the relative importance of transmissions across outcomes.


Before International Tax Reform, We Need To Understand Why Firms Invert, Michael S. Knoll Sep 2017

Before International Tax Reform, We Need To Understand Why Firms Invert, Michael S. Knoll

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

A wave of corporate inversions by U.S. firms over the past two decades has generated substantial debate in academic, business, and policy circles.

The core of the debate hinges on a couple of key economic questions: Do U.S. tax laws disadvantage U.S.-domiciled companies relative to their foreign competitors? And, if so, do inversions improve the competitiveness of U.S. multinational firms both abroad and at home?

There is unfortunately little, if any, empirical work directly determining whether U.S.-based MNCs are currently tax-disadvantaged compared to their foreign rivals, or measuring the amount by which (if ...


Duality Theory In Empirical Work, Revisited, Francisco Rosas, Sergio H. Lence Aug 2017

Duality Theory In Empirical Work, Revisited, Francisco Rosas, Sergio H. Lence

Economics Publications

We compute a pseudo-dataset by Monte Carlo simulations featuring important characteristics of US agriculture, such that the initial technology parameters are known, and employing widely used datasets for calibration. Then, we show the usefulness of this calibration by applying the duality theory approach to datasets bearing as sources of noise only the aggregation of technologically heterogeneous firms. Estimation recovers initial parameters with reasonable accuracy. These conclusions are expected, but the proposed calibration sets the basis for analysing the performance of duality theory in empirical work when datasets have more observed and unobserved sources of noise, as those faced by practitioners.