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2012

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Articles 1 - 30 of 164

Full-Text Articles in International Economics

Endogenous R&D And Intellectual Property Laws In Developed And Emerging Economies, Aniruddha Bagchi, Abhra Roy May 2015

Endogenous R&D And Intellectual Property Laws In Developed And Emerging Economies, Aniruddha Bagchi, Abhra Roy

Abhra Roy

The incentive of providing protection of intellectual property has been analyzed, both for an emerging economy as well as for a developed economy. The optimal patent length and the optimal patent breadth within a country are found to be positively related to each other for a fixed structure of laws abroad. Moreover, a country can respond to stronger patent protection abroad by weakening its patent protection under certain circumstances and by strengthening its patent protection under other circumstances. These results depend upon the curvature of the R&D production function. Finally, we investigate the impact of an increase in the ...


Supply Response, Exchange Rate And Domestic Price In Nigeria, Emmanuel C. Ani, Samson Adeniyi Aladejare Dec 2012

Supply Response, Exchange Rate And Domestic Price In Nigeria, Emmanuel C. Ani, Samson Adeniyi Aladejare

Journal for the Advancement of Developing Economies

The purpose of this paper is to empirically investigate the impact of exchange rate and domestic price on export trade in Nigeria. Firstly, based on the literature review and findings of the study in the area, the paper aligned itself within the premise of the traditionalist view which concludes that non-oil export trade in Nigeria is predicated by currency depreciation via lower export prices. Secondly, the introduction of domestic prices, alongside naira rate of exchange as major determinants of non–oil exports in Nigeria, has the implication of showing that currency devaluation could be used to improve the balance of ...


Examining Eurozone Divergence, Charles Noble Dec 2012

Examining Eurozone Divergence, Charles Noble

Economics Theses

This paper provides a brief history of European integration followed by an examination of the Eurozone financial crisis and the economic divergence among particular economies (Germany compared with Greece, Portugal, Spain, and Ireland) it induced. Afterwards a list of structural and policy reforms meant to achieve economic convergence is provided. The paper concludes that in order for the Eurozone to achieve economic convergence, it would be best if Greece and Portugal exited the monetary union. The smaller, more homogeneous union could then more readily achieve economic convergence to function, both politically and economically, as a sustainable monetary union.


Inter-Industry Gender Wage Gaps By Knowledge Intensity: Discrimination And Technology In Korea, William C. Horrace, Beyza P. Ural, Jin Hwa Jung Dec 2012

Inter-Industry Gender Wage Gaps By Knowledge Intensity: Discrimination And Technology In Korea, William C. Horrace, Beyza P. Ural, Jin Hwa Jung

William C Horrace

A new gender wage gap decomposition methodology is introduced that does not suffer from the identification problem caused by unobserved non-discriminatory wage structure. The methodology is used to measure the relative size of Korean gender wage gaps from 1994 to 2000 across industries, differentiated by industrial knowledge intensity, where knowledge intensity is the extent to which industries produce or employ high-technology products. Korea represents an important case study, since it possesses one of the fast growing knowledge-intensive economies, among industrialized countries. Empirical results indicate that over this period, discrimination (the unexplained portion of the gender wage gaps) in Korea was ...


Waste Dynamics, Country Heterogeneity And The European Environmental Policy Effectiveness, Massimiliano Mazzanti Dec 2012

Waste Dynamics, Country Heterogeneity And The European Environmental Policy Effectiveness, Massimiliano Mazzanti

Massimiliano Mazzanti

No abstract provided.


Testing The Marshall-Lerner-Robinson Condition In Ghana Prior To 1983: Was A Devaluation Of The Cedi Justified In Improving The Trade Balance?, Judith Olivia Canipe Dec 2012

Testing The Marshall-Lerner-Robinson Condition In Ghana Prior To 1983: Was A Devaluation Of The Cedi Justified In Improving The Trade Balance?, Judith Olivia Canipe

Masters Theses

The aim of this paper is to empirically predict the quantitative impact of a devaluation of the Ghanaian Cedi on the trade account for 1960 to 1983. The imperfect substitutes model is employed to test the Marshall-Lerner-Robinson condition. In doing so, conclusions are drawn about the World Bank's implementation of loan conditionalities requiring a devaluation in order to address the trade deficit. Similarities between the economic structure of Ghana and other less developed countries allow for an extension of this study to other countries considering depreciation policies. The effect of a currency devaluation on the cocoa industry is also ...


Essays On International And Environmental Economics, Jacob Wibe Nov 2012

Essays On International And Environmental Economics, Jacob Wibe

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis consists of three chapters employing quantitative open economy models to study international trade transmission, the economic impacts of climate change, and remittance transfers.

The first chapter examines the role of production sharing and trade in the transmission of the 2008-2009 recession. In the model, production sharing is represented by a tradable sector that produces a composite good exclusively for the foreign market. The results suggest that trade transmission can account for 67% of the fall in output in Canada, 24% of the fall in output in Mexico, and about two-thirds of the fall in trade for both countries ...


Assessing The Impact Of Cluster Policies: The Case Of The Arranjos, Lucas Figal Garone, Alessandro Maffioli, Cesar M. Rodriguez, Gonzalo Vazquez Bare, Joao Alberto Denegri Nov 2012

Assessing The Impact Of Cluster Policies: The Case Of The Arranjos, Lucas Figal Garone, Alessandro Maffioli, Cesar M. Rodriguez, Gonzalo Vazquez Bare, Joao Alberto Denegri

Economics Faculty Publications and Presentations

This paper assesses the impact of a cluster development policy in Latin America. A Local Productive Arrangement (APL) is a cluster of firms within the same territory, operating around the same activity and maintaining ties of cooperation and learning among themselves and with other stakeholders. Using firm-level data comprising information on SMEs from Brazil for the years 2002 to 2009 we apply fixed effects, matching and reweighting methods to estimate both the direct and the indirect – i.e. spillovers – causal effect of participating in APLs on a series of SMEs’ performance indicators, including level of employment, value of exports and ...


Trade, Firm Selection, And Industrial Agglomeration, Wen-Tai Hsu, Ping Wang Nov 2012

Trade, Firm Selection, And Industrial Agglomeration, Wen-Tai Hsu, Ping Wang

Research Collection School Of Economics

We develop a model of trade and agglomeration that incorporates trade in both intermediate goods and final goods and allows all firms to choose their locations. There are two types of labor: skilled labor, which is mobile, and unskilled labor, which is immobile. Upon choosing its factory site, a final goods firm that is managed by skilled labor can produce these goods using local unskilled labor and a variety of intermediate goods produced by productivity-heterogeneous producers. We characterize world equilibrium and establish the conditions under which industrial agglomeration arises as a stable equilibrium outcome. We show that when the unskilled ...


The Continuing Saga Of Globalism: Comparing Ethiopia’S Developmental State Strategies To Those Of Malaysia, Asayehgn Desta Nov 2012

The Continuing Saga Of Globalism: Comparing Ethiopia’S Developmental State Strategies To Those Of Malaysia, Asayehgn Desta

Collected Faculty and Staff Scholarship

Using the conceptual framework of a developmental state, forwarded by the Economic Commission for Africa, it was found that Ethiopia’s democratic developmental state is unique and operates differently from the Malaysian developmental state model. Economically, Ethiopia has recorded staggering economic growth since it adopted the developmental state. The Malaysian developmental state was developed to be market-oriented and as a result Malaysia’s GDP grew at 5.23 percent from 2005-2011. Malaysia’s incidence of poverty declined from 49% in 1970 to less than 5% in 2000. Ethiopia has focused on a planned developmental state, without speeding the direction of ...


Designing International Institutions For Global Security, Rupayan Gupta Nov 2012

Designing International Institutions For Global Security, Rupayan Gupta

Fall 2012 Faculty Showcase

This talk focuses on the challenges inherent in designing international institutions for global security. The area of inquiry is interdisciplinary in nature, incorporating insights from economics, international relations, and mathematics (game theory). It is argued that this line of research would benefit from greater incorporation of techniques from bargaining theory and mechanism design. An agenda is proposed for interdisciplinary collaboration and some interesting results are presented from author’s published and ongoing research.


The Continuing Saga Of Globalism: Comparing Ethiopia’S Developmental State Strategies To Those Of Malaysia, Asayehgn Desta Oct 2012

The Continuing Saga Of Globalism: Comparing Ethiopia’S Developmental State Strategies To Those Of Malaysia, Asayehgn Desta

Asayehgn Desta

Using the conceptual framework of a developmental state, forwarded by the Economic Commission for Africa, it was found that Ethiopia’s democratic developmental state is unique and operates differently from the Malaysian developmental state model. Economically, Ethiopia has recorded staggering economic growth since it adopted the developmental state. The Malaysian developmental state was developed to be market-oriented and as a result Malaysia’s GDP grew at 5.23 percent from 2005-2011. Malaysia’s incidence of poverty declined from 49% in 1970 to less than 5% in 2000. Ethiopia has focused on a planned developmental state, without speeding the direction of ...


Reserve Currency And A Lender Of Next-To-Last Resort: A Literature Review, Alida S. Skold Oct 2012

Reserve Currency And A Lender Of Next-To-Last Resort: A Literature Review, Alida S. Skold

Alida S. Skold

The role of the US dollar as the global dominant reserve currency is eroding. Debate is ongoing regarding next steps. Moving the international monetary system to a single global currency is part of the debate. Literature reviews the eroding role of the US dollar and implications the erosion carries for the US. The Special Drawing Rights developed by the IMF could fill the role of Keynes’ recommended global currency known as the “bancor.” Regardless of the nature of the global reserve currency, access to liquidity is required to have an effective international monetary system. Literature defines a missing layer of ...


Government Documents On Rare Earth Minerals, Bert Chapman Oct 2012

Government Documents On Rare Earth Minerals, Bert Chapman

Libraries Faculty and Staff Presentations

Rare earth minerals contain unique chemical and physical properties such as lanthanum, are found in small concentrations, need extensive precise processes to separate, and are critical components of modern technologies such as laser guidance systems, personal electronics such as Blackberries, and satellites. The U.S. has some rare earth resources, but is heavily dependent on access to them from from Afghanistan, Bolivia, and China. Losing access to these resources would have significant economic, military, and political implications. This presentation will highlight government information resources on rare earth minerals from agencies such as the Department of Energy (DOE), Department of Defense ...


Could Us-Syrian Strategies Lead To Genocide?, David J. Keeling Oct 2012

Could Us-Syrian Strategies Lead To Genocide?, David J. Keeling

Geography/Geology Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Catching Up Or Pulling Away: Intra-Industry Trade, Productivity Gaps And Heterogeneous Firms, Rod Falvey, David Greenaway, Zhihong Yu Oct 2012

Catching Up Or Pulling Away: Intra-Industry Trade, Productivity Gaps And Heterogeneous Firms, Rod Falvey, David Greenaway, Zhihong Yu

Rodney Falvey

In this paper we develop a heterogeneous firm, intra-industry trade model in which countries are asymmetric in both technology and size. In the trading equilibrium, the industry productivity levels countries are jointly determined by the technology gap and trade barriers. We find that the (exogenous) technological gap is a key determinant of the size and direction of the intra-industry resource reallocation introduced by trade. Most importantly, the effect of trade on the (endogenous) productivity gap could be non monotonic over time. In the short-run, where the number of incumbents cannot adjust to trade, the effect of import competition dominates and ...


Paths To Success: Benchmarking Cross-Country Sustainable Tourism, Lucian Cernat, Julien Gourdon Oct 2012

Paths To Success: Benchmarking Cross-Country Sustainable Tourism, Lucian Cernat, Julien Gourdon

Julien Gourdon

Given the complexity of the issues surrounding the concept of sustainable tourism, the current paper tries to provide a unified methodology to assess tourism sustainability, based on a number of quantitative indicators. The proposed methodological framework (Sustainable Tourism Benchmarking Tool – STBT) will provide a number of benchmarks against which the sustainability of tourism activities in various countries can be assessed. A model development procedure is proposed: identification of the dimensions (economic, socio-ecologic, infrastructure) and indicators, method of scaling, chart representation and evaluation on three Asian countries. This application to three countries shows us that a similar level of tourism activity ...


India China Services Trade: Promise Or Predicament?, Suparna Karmakar, Nipika Walia Sharma Oct 2012

India China Services Trade: Promise Or Predicament?, Suparna Karmakar, Nipika Walia Sharma

Suparna Karmakar

India-China bilateral trade has witnessed a huge spurt over the years, and China is now one of India’s largest trading partners. Amid growing trade relations between the two nations, however, increasing trade deficit with China has become a major concern for India. In order to reverse this trend, Indian government is looking at possible solutions, one of which is exploring the bilateral trade prospects in tradable services, a sector in which the country has demonstrated competitive advantage. This paper explores the prospects and challenges for India in garnering a higher market access into the large and nascent domestic services ...


The Pros And Cons Of Outsourcing, Angela Smith Oct 2012

The Pros And Cons Of Outsourcing, Angela Smith

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Outsourcing has become increasingly popular to the public since the mid-20th century and has become more controversial in the last decade. The United States economy has been under the microscope for the last 4 years due to an economic recession. Outsourcing has been a subject of interest that has been brought up numerous times by economists. Offshore outsourcing is the main type of outsourcing that is of concern in relation to the United States economy. This topic is highly debated because of the unemployment rate in America.


Economic Freedom, Human Rights, And The Returns To Human Capital: An Evaluation Of The Schultz Hypothesis, Elizabeth M. King, Claudio E. Montenegro, Peter F. Orazem Oct 2012

Economic Freedom, Human Rights, And The Returns To Human Capital: An Evaluation Of The Schultz Hypothesis, Elizabeth M. King, Claudio E. Montenegro, Peter F. Orazem

Economics Publications

Hundreds of studies measure the private returns to schooling, most focusing on a single country or a subset of countries. Following Mincer (1974), inference on returns to schooling and work experience are derived from the regression coefficients of log earnings on years of schooling and quadratic terms in age. Due mainly to George Psacharopolous and his colleagues (Psacharopoulos 1973, 1994; Psacharopoulos and Patrinos 2004), we have compilations of estimated returns to schooling across many countries. These estimates show remarkable consistencies. Despite differences in estimation methods, specifications, and level of economic development, virtually all studies show that earnings rise with years ...


Foreign Direct Investment: Clearing The Infrastructure Bottlenecks, Kim Song Tan, Sim Yee Lau Oct 2012

Foreign Direct Investment: Clearing The Infrastructure Bottlenecks, Kim Song Tan, Sim Yee Lau

Research Collection School Of Economics

No abstract provided.


A Necessary Effort: The Construction Of A Binational Immigration Policy For Nicaraguan Immigrants In Costa Rica, Irma Castañeda Oct 2012

A Necessary Effort: The Construction Of A Binational Immigration Policy For Nicaraguan Immigrants In Costa Rica, Irma Castañeda

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Although the experiences of Nicaraguan immigrants to Costa Rica have been well-studied, the investigation of this topic through the lens of the construction of public policies is missing. Through the testimonies of Nicaraguans that emigrated or still live and work in Costa Rica, I learned that immigrants, especially those that are undocumented, are vulnerable to the violation of their rights, for example, through the lack of access to public services or mistreatment by their bosses. Because of these violations, it is necessary to examine the topic of the immigration policies of both countries because they influence the treatment and integration ...


Import Decisions And Firm Performance - An Empirical Analysis For The Netherlands, Henk Lm Kox Sep 2012

Import Decisions And Firm Performance - An Empirical Analysis For The Netherlands, Henk Lm Kox

Henk LM Kox

This paper investigates the relation between import decisions and productivity performance for Dutch firms. Importer productivity premiums appear to be larger than those for exporting firms. In the perspective of recent trade theory this indicates that trade costs for importers are at least as important as they are for exporting firms. For import starters I find evidence that ex ante productivity-based self selection is important. This also points in the direction of considerable sunk trade costs for firms that engage in direct imports.


Unleashing Competition In Eu Business Services, Henk Lm Kox Sep 2012

Unleashing Competition In Eu Business Services, Henk Lm Kox

Henk LM Kox

This policy brief provides research results indicating that a lack of competitive selection contributes to the productivity stagnation in European business services. Competition between small firms and large firms in business services is found to be weak. Inefficiencies also persist within size classes, which indicates a lack of competitive pressure. Markets for business services appear to work best in countries with flexible regulation on employment change, and with low regulatory costs for firms that start-up or exit a business. Countries with more openness to foreign competition perform better in terms of competitive selection and productivity. Policy simulations show that many ...


Getting Through The Hard Times Together? Chinese Workers And Unions Respond To The Economic Crisis, Eli D. Friedman Sep 2012

Getting Through The Hard Times Together? Chinese Workers And Unions Respond To The Economic Crisis, Eli D. Friedman

Articles and Chapters

How do post-socialist unions respond to market crisis? And what are the implications of this response for labor representation? Drawing on literature on post-socialist labor and union democracy, I argue that economic crisis affects not just labor – capital and labor – state relations, but also the relationship between union representatives and workers. Such a dynamic is highlighted by an empirical account of the divergent activities of workers and All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU) unions in China following the economic crisis of 2008. While the union responded to mass unemployment with an administrative and policy-oriented strategy, workers took to the streets ...


Vertical Trade, Exchange Rate Pass-Through, And Exchange Rate Regime, Yao Tang, Ke Pang Sep 2012

Vertical Trade, Exchange Rate Pass-Through, And Exchange Rate Regime, Yao Tang, Ke Pang

Economics Department Working Paper Series

We compare the welfare of different combinations of monetary and currency policies in an open-economy macroeconomic model that incorporates two important features of many small economies: a high level of vertical international trade and a prevalent use of a large trade partner's currency as the invoicing currency for both imports and exports. In this environment, a small economy prefers a fixed exchange rate regime over a flexible regime, while the larger economy prefers a flexible exchange rate regime. There are two main causes underlying our results. First, in the presence of sticky prices, relative prices adjust through changes in ...


The Educated Middle Class, Their Economics Prospects, And The Arab Spring, Davin Chor, Filipe R. Campante Sep 2012

The Educated Middle Class, Their Economics Prospects, And The Arab Spring, Davin Chor, Filipe R. Campante

Research Collection School Of Economics

The recent uprisings in the Arab World carry a broader lesson, highlighting the importance of sustaining an economy that provides sufficient job opportunities for an increasingly educated and skilled middle class.


Ma Thesis - Migration And Development: The Development Impacts Of Short-Term Labour Migration Of Ni-Vanuatu Workers To New Zealand, Ronald R. Kumar Aug 2012

Ma Thesis - Migration And Development: The Development Impacts Of Short-Term Labour Migration Of Ni-Vanuatu Workers To New Zealand, Ronald R. Kumar

Dr Ronald R Kumar

The New Zealand’s Recognised Seasonal Employer (RSE) scheme is a New Zealand Government initiative that officially commenced in 2007. In this programme, five developing Pacific Island countries (PICs), namely Kiribati, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, and Vanuatu – referred to as the kick start countries, participated in short-term labour migration. The objectives of this Scheme are at least two fold. Firstly, the scheme was initiated to address seasonal labour shortage in New Zealand and second, to give employment opportunity to selected PICs. Since 2007, the RSE Scheme has undergone significant changes primarily addressing issues and concerns that emerged along the way ...


The Transformation Of China’S Agriculture System And Its Impact On Southeast Asia., Phoebe Luo, John Andrew Donaldson, Qian Forrest Zhang Aug 2012

The Transformation Of China’S Agriculture System And Its Impact On Southeast Asia., Phoebe Luo, John Andrew Donaldson, Qian Forrest Zhang

Qian Forrest ZHANG

The increased role for agribusiness and larger scale production in China’s agricultural system is limited by China’s severe lack of arable land. The Household Responsibility System provides farmers a measure of power, hampering agribusiness from acquiring land needed for expansion. Some Chinese companies have sought cheaper and often more accessible land in nearby regions, including Southeast Asia. While such investments have the potential to deliver benefits, including increased productivity, structural constraints such as weak land ownership and environmental laws, highly unequal distribution of land and underdevelopment of peasant organizations prevent many poorer farmers from benefiting from these investments.


Does Small And Medium Enterprises’ (Smes) Understand The Concept Of Intellectual Property Rights (Ip) On Their Business?:, Johansein L. Rutaihwa Mr. Aug 2012

Does Small And Medium Enterprises’ (Smes) Understand The Concept Of Intellectual Property Rights (Ip) On Their Business?:, Johansein L. Rutaihwa Mr.

Johansein Rutaihwa

No abstract provided.