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2008

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Articles 1 - 30 of 59

Full-Text Articles in International Economics

Políticas Y Medidas Para Fomentar Las Remesas Familiares En La República Dominicana: Impacto Económico Y Lecciones Para Cuba, Mario A. Gonzalez-Corzo, Scott Larson Dec 2008

Políticas Y Medidas Para Fomentar Las Remesas Familiares En La República Dominicana: Impacto Económico Y Lecciones Para Cuba, Mario A. Gonzalez-Corzo, Scott Larson

Publications and Research

No abstract provided.


Earnings Mobility In Times Of Growth And Decline: Argentina From 1996 To 2003, Gary S. Fields, María Laura Sánchez Puerta Dec 2008

Earnings Mobility In Times Of Growth And Decline: Argentina From 1996 To 2003, Gary S. Fields, María Laura Sánchez Puerta

Articles and Chapters

In recent years, the economy of Argentina has experienced both rapid economic growth and severe economic decline. In this paper, we use a series of one-year long panels to study who gained the most in pesos when the economy grew and who lost the most in pesos when the economy contracted. Various considerations led us to expect that mobility would be divergent—that is, that the individuals who started with the highest initial earnings would enjoy the largest earnings gains in pesos. Contrary to expectations and for a wide range of specifications, mobility is found to be mostly convergent, sometimes ...


Aspectos Legais Dos Mecanismos De Compartilhamento Monetário: Currency Board, União Monetária E Adoção De Moeda Estrangeira [Legal Aspects Of Currency-Sharing Mechanisms: Currency Board, Monetary Union, And Adoption Of A Foreign Currency], Jefferson Alvares Dec 2008

Aspectos Legais Dos Mecanismos De Compartilhamento Monetário: Currency Board, União Monetária E Adoção De Moeda Estrangeira [Legal Aspects Of Currency-Sharing Mechanisms: Currency Board, Monetary Union, And Adoption Of A Foreign Currency], Jefferson Alvares

Jefferson Alvares

Aborda os aspectos jurídicos dos mecanismos que possibilitam a utilização de uma mesma moeda por mais de um Estado: o currency board, as uniões monetárias e a adoção de moeda estrangeira. Analisa as raízes sociais e jurídica da moeda; o papel da moeda na economia internacional, incluindo detalhes sobre os mecanismos de compartilhamento monetário; e as condições para a criação de uma área monetária unificada no Mercosul.

[The paper deals with the legal aspects of mechanisms that enable a single currency to be officially employed in two or more national economies: currency boards, monetary unions, and outright use of a ...


Illicit Financial Flows From Developing Countries: 2002-2006, Dev Kar, Devon Cartwright-Smith Dec 2008

Illicit Financial Flows From Developing Countries: 2002-2006, Dev Kar, Devon Cartwright-Smith

Dev Kar

No abstract provided.


Relative Inflation-Forecast As Monetary Policy Target For Convergence To The Euro, Lucjan T. Orlowski Nov 2008

Relative Inflation-Forecast As Monetary Policy Target For Convergence To The Euro, Lucjan T. Orlowski

WCBT Faculty Publications

A monetary policy framework based on targeting a relative inflation-forecast is proposed for the economies converging to the euro. Such strategy aims at containing the differentials between the domestic and the implicit monetary union inflation-forecasts. Hence, these differentials become a basis for setting an operational policy target. The proposed framework can be viewed as an extension of flexible inflation targeting that prioritizes low and stable inflation over the exchange rate stability. It is believed to be consistent with the Maastricht convergence criteria and can be implemented in concurrence with the exchange rate stability benchmark for the ERM2. Several empirical tests ...


Alleviating Global Poverty Through Profitable Partnerships: Moral Imagination & Economic Well-Being, Laura Hartman, P. Werhane, D. Moberg, S. Kelley Oct 2008

Alleviating Global Poverty Through Profitable Partnerships: Moral Imagination & Economic Well-Being, Laura Hartman, P. Werhane, D. Moberg, S. Kelley

Laura Hartman

While at least one out of six in the global human population cannot meet the basic demands of survival and they have little ability to buy goods and services, this situation also presents potential new markets for multinational enterprises seeking long-term sustainability. If economic growth is a continuing and positive goal for the planet and for global companies, then, as markets in developed economies become saturated, these new markets provide fresh opportunities to satisfy this objective.


Water Borne Diseases And Rural Development In Sudan Study Of Malaria In Gezira Irrigated Agricultural Scheme, Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed Oct 2008

Water Borne Diseases And Rural Development In Sudan Study Of Malaria In Gezira Irrigated Agricultural Scheme, Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

Gezira irrigated scheme is globally one of the biggest agricultural productive units administratively managed. It has seen deteriorating productivity for the past two decades. There cries that it should be privatized. That was seriously taken by the government in an economic liquidation of its assets. However, in this study we discuss analyze other aspects than the previously mentioned aspects of production parameters. We focus of health economics and how gradual negligence led to the prevalence of waterborne diseases. That degenerated farmers' abilities to produce. The present study was carried out in the Gezira scheme to measure the impact of water ...


Unpacking Sources Of Comparative Advantage: A Quantitative Approach, Davin Chor Oct 2008

Unpacking Sources Of Comparative Advantage: A Quantitative Approach, Davin Chor

Research Collection School Of Economics

This paper develops an approach for quantifying the relative importance of different sources of comparative advantage for country welfare in a global trade equilibrium. To explain the pattern of specialization, I present a multi-country, perfectly-competitive Ricardian model that extends Eaton and Kortum (2002) to predict industry trade flows. In this framework, comparative advantage is determined by the interaction of country and industry characteristics, with countries specializing in industries whose specific production needs they are best able to meet with their factor endowments, institutional environment, and technological strengths. I estimate the model parameters using a large dataset of bilateral trade flows ...


La Mondialisation Et Les Croyants: Des Effets De La Mondialisation Sur Les Communautés Chrétiennes = Globalization And Believers: Globalization’S Effects On Christian Communities, Carrie Lee Tallichet Oct 2008

La Mondialisation Et Les Croyants: Des Effets De La Mondialisation Sur Les Communautés Chrétiennes = Globalization And Believers: Globalization’S Effects On Christian Communities, Carrie Lee Tallichet

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This research aimed to explore the different manifestations of globalization’s impact on Catholic and Protestant student movements in Toulouse, France. To accomplish this investigation, the researcher sought the opinions of students who participate regularly in religious groups regarding the cultural diversity of their group and their concept of a global Christian community. Based on information gathered in interviews, the researcher concluded, though not definitively, that Catholic and Protestant student groups both experience the effects of globalization, but each in a manner in relation with their faith’s organizational structure: Catholic students felt close ties with other Catholic groups worldwide ...


A Sovereign Wealth Turn, Anna Gelpern Sep 2008

A Sovereign Wealth Turn, Anna Gelpern

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

On September 2, 2008, a group of leading sovereign wealth funds (SWFs) agreed on generally accepted principles and practices. The process that created the so-called Santiago Principles is important in its own right, as a milestone on the way to what might become international financial architecture. Since SWFs rose to prominence two years ago, they have been trapped in sterile domestic arguments between national security and open investment. These have obscured SWFs' significance and the governance challenge they present. The challenge reflects the power shifts and culture clashes of financial integration, which, thanks to capital flow reversals, no longer looks ...


Stages Of The Ongoing Global Financial Crisis: Is There A Wandering Asset Bubble?, Lucjan Orlowski Sep 2008

Stages Of The Ongoing Global Financial Crisis: Is There A Wandering Asset Bubble?, Lucjan Orlowski

WCBT Faculty Publications

This study argues that the severity of the current global financial crisis is strongly influenced by changeable allocations of the global savings. This process is named a “wandering asset bubble”. Since its original outbreak induced by the demise of the subprime mortgage market and the mortgage-backed securities in the U.S., this crisis has reverberated across other credit areas, structured financial products and global financial institutions. Four distinctive stages of the crisis are identified: the meltdown of the subprime mortgage market, spillovers into broader credit market, the liquidity crisis epitomized by the fallout of Bear Sterns with some contagion effects ...


International Competitiveness, Tax Incentives, And A New Argument For Tax Sparing: Preventing Double Taxation By Crediting Implicit Taxes, Michael S. Knoll Aug 2008

International Competitiveness, Tax Incentives, And A New Argument For Tax Sparing: Preventing Double Taxation By Crediting Implicit Taxes, Michael S. Knoll

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Tax sparing occurs when a country with a worldwide tax system grants its citizens foreign tax credits for the taxes that they would have paid on income earned abroad, but that escapes taxation by virtue of foreign tax incentives. The supporters of tax sparing argue that it is a form of foreign aid, an obligation owed to developing countries, and a legitimate means of improving the competitiveness of resident investors. Tax sparing, however, has long been opposed by the United States on the grounds that it is an expensive and problematic concession to developing countries, inconsistent with basic and fundamental ...


A Welfare Analysis Of Capital Account Liberalization, Jürgen Von Hagen, Haiping Zhang Aug 2008

A Welfare Analysis Of Capital Account Liberalization, Jürgen Von Hagen, Haiping Zhang

Research Collection School Of Economics

We develop a model of a small open economy with credit market frictions to analyze the consequences of capital account liberalization. We show that financial opening facilitates the inflows of cheap foreign funds and improves production efficiency. Reforms increasing labor market exibility can further improve such efficiency gains. However, capital account liberalization also has important distributional consequences. Specifically, it may be impossible to use public transfers to fully compensate the loss of those negatively affected by capital account liberalization. This explains why financial opening often meets fierce opposition even though it leads to efficiency gains for the economy as a ...


Financial Frictions And International Trade, Ruanjai Suwantaradon Aug 2008

Financial Frictions And International Trade, Ruanjai Suwantaradon

Research Collection School Of Economics

This paper studies the effects of financial market imperfections on a firm’s operating and exporting decisions. I introduce financial frictions into a trade model with heterogeneous firms along the line of Melitz (2003). With the presence of financial constraints, even among a group of firms with the same productivity level, firms that are more financially constrained operate on a less efficient scale, and as a result, may no longer find operating and/or exporting profitable. In addition, financial frictions may create a distortion compared to the Melitz (2003) world since operation and export participation may be undertaken by those ...


Discussion Of Do The Biggest Aisles Serve Brighter Future? Implications Of Global Retail Chains' Presence For Romania, Davin Chor, Beata Javor, Li Xue Jul 2008

Discussion Of Do The Biggest Aisles Serve Brighter Future? Implications Of Global Retail Chains' Presence For Romania, Davin Chor, Beata Javor, Li Xue

Research Collection School Of Economics

No abstract provided.


Openness, Inequality And Poverty: Endowments Matter, Julien Gourdon, Nicolas Maystre, Jaime De Melo Jul 2008

Openness, Inequality And Poverty: Endowments Matter, Julien Gourdon, Nicolas Maystre, Jaime De Melo

Julien Gourdon

Using tariffs as a measure of openness, this paper finds consistent evidence that the conditional effects of trade liberalization on inequality are correlated with relative factor endowments. Trade liberalization, measured by changes in tariff revenues, is associated with increases in inequality in countries well-endowed with highly skilled workers and capital or with workers that have very low education levels. Similar, although less robust, results are also obtained when decile data are used instead of the usual Gini coefficients. Taken together, the results are strongly supportive of the factor-proportions theory of trade and suggest that trade liberalization in poor countries where ...


The Persistent Problem: Inequality, Difference, And The Challenge Of Development, Aseema Sinha, John Echeverri-Gent, Leslie Elliott Armijo, Marc Blecher, Daniel Brumberg, Valerie Bunce, Kiren A. Chaudhry, John W. Harbeson, Evelyne Huber, Bronwyn Leebaw, Susanne Hoeber Rudolph, Loren Ryter, Susan L. Woodward Jul 2008

The Persistent Problem: Inequality, Difference, And The Challenge Of Development, Aseema Sinha, John Echeverri-Gent, Leslie Elliott Armijo, Marc Blecher, Daniel Brumberg, Valerie Bunce, Kiren A. Chaudhry, John W. Harbeson, Evelyne Huber, Bronwyn Leebaw, Susanne Hoeber Rudolph, Loren Ryter, Susan L. Woodward

CMC Faculty Publications and Research

This report highlights the complex, multidimensional nature of inequality in the era of globalization. It documents that despite the impressive strides by nations like China and India, absolute inequality between the richest and poorest countries is greater than ever before in history. It demonstrates that the rise of China and India creates a new dimension to the persistent problem of inequality.


Oil And Remittances In The Middle East, Azza El-Sharabassy Jul 2008

Oil And Remittances In The Middle East, Azza El-Sharabassy

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

This dissertation constructs a framework for understanding the determinants of remittances. It develops the effects of multiple macro economic variables in one area in the Middle East on the remittances flows and the future development of (another Arab neighboring country) Egypt. The framework will explore the relationship between oil prices and remittances from oil based economies (mainly Saudi-Arabia, Kuwait and the Arab Emirates) to a labor exporting country (Egypt). It also highlights the impact of multiple variables affecting the flow of remittances from labor exporting Arab countries: (1) Prices of oil. (2) Oil revenues. (3) Differentials in deposit interest rate ...


Business Taxes And International Competitiveness, Michael S. Knoll May 2008

Business Taxes And International Competitiveness, Michael S. Knoll

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Around the world, policymakers are obsessed with the competitiveness of their domestic companies and domestically based multinational corporations (MNCs). Such concerns frequently influence policy, especially tax policy. In this paper, I develop a theory of how taxes affect the international competitiveness of businesses. I then use that theory to evaluate basic tax policy decisions, such as the choice between residence- and source-based taxation and the level of tax rates, and to understand the impact various provisions in the U.S. Internal Revenue Code are likely to have on the competitiveness of U.S.-based corporations and MNCs.


Economic Inequality In The New European Union: Are Monetary Policies In The European Union Unfair For Certain Countries?, Gregory Eric Banach May 2008

Economic Inequality In The New European Union: Are Monetary Policies In The European Union Unfair For Certain Countries?, Gregory Eric Banach

Dissertations

This research is focused on the affect one uniform monetary policy will have on the less developed countries that entered the European Union (EU) in 2004. One of the challenges facing the new entrants involves the required implementation of monetary policy goals, even though these new entrants do not have a vote on how the monetary policy is determined. Monetary policy in the EU is the responsibility of the European Central Bank (ECB) who has a stated goal price stability. It is possible to use the Taylor Rule to test whether the ECB focuses on price stability for both old ...


A World Economic Order Based On Cultural Comparative Advantage, John Hooker Apr 2008

A World Economic Order Based On Cultural Comparative Advantage, John Hooker

John Hooker

No abstract provided.


What Effect Does Free Trade In Agriculture Have On Developing Country Populations Around The World?, Jacinto F. Fabiosa Apr 2008

What Effect Does Free Trade In Agriculture Have On Developing Country Populations Around The World?, Jacinto F. Fabiosa

CARD Working Papers

Highlighted in the "battle in Seattle" in 1999, anti-trade sentiments still persist, even with development considerations placed at the core of reform negotiations at the World Trade Organization, in which two-thirds of the members are developing countries.

In this paper, the impact of agricultural trade liberalization on food consumption through changes in income and prices is considered. First, agricultural trade liberalization is estimated to raise economic growth by 0.43% and 0.46% in developing and industrialized countries, respectively. Since food consumption of households with lower income are more responsive to changes in income, their food consumption increases more under ...


How Does Vietnam's Accession To The World Trade Organization Change The Spatial Incidence Of Poverty?, Tomoki Fujii, David Roland-Holst Apr 2008

How Does Vietnam's Accession To The World Trade Organization Change The Spatial Incidence Of Poverty?, Tomoki Fujii, David Roland-Holst

Research Collection School Of Economics

Trade liberalization is good for growth, and growth is good for the poor. This argument is simple but powerful. It has served as the departure point for discussion of the link between trade and poverty among economists and policy-makers, regardless of whether and to what extent they buy this argument. Krueger (1998) considers the inefficiencies that import substitution strategy creates and argues that trade liberalization undertaken at a period of low or negative growth rates can normally lead to a period of higher growth rates. Bhagwati and Srinivasan (2002) emphasize the empirical evidence of China and India. That is, these ...


China’S Economic Conditions, Wayne M. Morrison Mar 2008

China’S Economic Conditions, Wayne M. Morrison

Federal Publications

[Excerpt] Since the initiation of economic reforms in 1979, China has become one of the world’s fastest-growing economies. From 1979 to 2007 China’s real gross domestic product (GDP) grew at an average annual rate of 9.8%. Real GDP grew 11.4% in 2007 (the fastest annual growth since 1994). While China is expected to continue to enjoy rapid economic growth in the years ahead and could become the world’s largest economy within a decade or so, it faces a number of challenges, including widespread corruption, an inefficient banking system, over-dependence on exports and fixed investment for ...


Why Brazil Has Not Grown: A Comparative Analysis Of Brazilian, Indian, And Chinese Economic Management, Fernando Ferrari, Anthony Petros Spanakos Mar 2008

Why Brazil Has Not Grown: A Comparative Analysis Of Brazilian, Indian, And Chinese Economic Management, Fernando Ferrari, Anthony Petros Spanakos

Department of Political Science and Law Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

This paper does not aim to dispute that Brazil would benefit from reforms in any or all of these areas. Rather, the paper offers a skeptical perspective on reform menus and proposes an alternative explanation for the faster growth of Brazil’s peers India and China2. The paper begins by introducing (section 1) the idea of the BRICs countries, to establish the basis for comparisons of most similar cases. It then surveys the results of a generation of Washington Consensus era growth (section 2). Although there is a considerable amount of divergence over what causes growth, it seems that something ...


Far-Flung Europe: What Is The Economic Impact Of Geography?, John Luke Gallup Mar 2008

Far-Flung Europe: What Is The Economic Impact Of Geography?, John Luke Gallup

Economics Faculty Publications and Presentations

Several Western European countries have integral territory thousands of miles from continental Europe. The economic performance in these "outermost" regions tests the impact of geographical isolation in a high income, institutionally uniform setting quite different from the geographical challenges of poor, agriculturally dependent developing countries. The European regional data used have different starting years by country. This required the derivation of a new non-linear estimation model for cross-regional growth. The outermost regions converge to national income levels of continental Europe at least as fast as other poor continental regions, showing no special impact of geography on economic growth. Looking at ...


Hysteresis In Unemployment: Evidence From Latin America, Matias Mednik, Cesar Rodriguez, Inder J. Ruprah Mar 2008

Hysteresis In Unemployment: Evidence From Latin America, Matias Mednik, Cesar Rodriguez, Inder J. Ruprah

Economics Faculty Publications and Presentations

This paper tests the hysteresis hypothesis in unemployment for 13 Latin American countries covering the period 1980-2005. The tests exploit the time series and the cross sectional variation of the series, and allows for cross section dependence and a different number of endogenously determined structural breakpoints. The findings give support to the hysteric dynamic hypothesis for the majority of the countries analyzed. The implications of the results have ramifications regarding macro-stabilization, structural reform, and the design of social safety protection.


The Argentine Financial Crisis: State Liability Under Bits And The Legitimacy Of The Icsid System, William W. Burke-White Jan 2008

The Argentine Financial Crisis: State Liability Under Bits And The Legitimacy Of The Icsid System, William W. Burke-White

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This essay examines the jurisprudence of the International Center for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) arbitral tribunals in a series of cases brought against the Republic of Argentina in the wake of the 2001-2002 Argentine financial collapse. The essay considers the ICSID tribunals' treatment of non-precluded measures provisions in Argentina's bilateral investment treaties (BITs) and the customary law defense of necessity and argues that the ICSID tribunals have sought to radically narrow the opportunities available to states to craft policy responses to emergency situations while strengthening investor protections beyond the intent of the states parties to the BITs ...


Investment Credit Availability - Bank Enterprise Relations In Poland, Joanna Tyrowicz Jan 2008

Investment Credit Availability - Bank Enterprise Relations In Poland, Joanna Tyrowicz

Joanna Tyrowicz

The complaints about insufficient private investment are frequent in Poland. Equally often do we hear the criticism of the monetary policy pointing to excessively high interest rates. This paper estimates the speed of upward adjustment of loan rates relative to downward adjustment, accounting for dierent market segments and products. The empirical results show that for the investment credit upward adjustment is fast, but downward adjustment essentially does not occur. Consumer credit products demonstrate positive values for the speed of both adjustments although still upward changes occur faster than downwards ones. These ndings suggest that banks may tend to discriminate entrepreneurs ...


Economics, Law And Institutions: The Shaping Of Chinese Competition Law, David J. Gerber Jan 2008

Economics, Law And Institutions: The Shaping Of Chinese Competition Law, David J. Gerber

All Faculty Scholarship

China has been considering enactment of an anti-monopoly (antitrust) law since 1993, and it has now enacted such a law. Given the potential importance of this legislation, there is much uncertainty about what the enactment means and what roles it is likely to play in influencing the development of the Chinese economy. This article applies a neo-institutionalist analysis in examining some of the factors that have influenced the shaping of the legislation and that are likely to influence the operation of competition law and its organizations. The main argument is that the central dynamic in both the creation of the ...