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2004

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Articles 1 - 30 of 38

Full-Text Articles in International Economics

Country Of Origin As A Brand: The Case Of New Zealand Lamb, Roxanne L. B. Clemens, Bruce A. Babcock Nov 2004

Country Of Origin As A Brand: The Case Of New Zealand Lamb, Roxanne L. B. Clemens, Bruce A. Babcock

MATRIC Briefing Papers

New Zealand has used country-of-origin labeling (COOL) as a "country brand" to differentiate New Zealand lamb in international markets and increase consumer awareness of this lamb as a high-quality imported product. The case of New Zealand lamb is especially interesting as an unsubsidized commodity product competing against subsidized lamb in some of the most competitive and sophisticated retail markets in the world. Given New Zealand's dependence on international markets, producers, processors, and exporters needed to develop strategies to create and maintain a strong positive image for their product. This paper explores the history of New Zealand lamb exports, the ...


Rethinking Agricultural Domestic Support Under The World Trade Organization, Chad E. Hart, John C. Beghin Nov 2004

Rethinking Agricultural Domestic Support Under The World Trade Organization, Chad E. Hart, John C. Beghin

CARD Briefing Papers

This paper focuses on the third pillar of the Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture (URAA) of the World Trade Organization (WTO), the discipline of agricultural domestic support. The paper examines the current definition of agricultural domestic support used by the WTO, focusing on the Aggregate Measure of Support (AMS) and other forms of support that are less to least distorting (Blue and Green Box payments). The analysis looks at the recent experience of four member states (the United States, the European Union, Japan, and Brazil). The structure of recent support varies considerably by country. Some countries, notably the United States ...


How Do The Asian Economies Compete With Japan In The Us Market, China Exceptional? A Triangular Trade Approach, Hiro Ito, Yushi Yoshida Oct 2004

How Do The Asian Economies Compete With Japan In The Us Market, China Exceptional? A Triangular Trade Approach, Hiro Ito, Yushi Yoshida

Economics Faculty Publications and Presentations

Political conflicts among trading partners have changed their forms with ever-increasing flows of foreign direct investment. A decrease in the exports of Japan might merely be a reflection of a global production shift by Japanese multinational corporations. We investigate the effect of Japanese trade on the exports of other countries to the United States in the 1990s. In our sample we include eight Asian countries besides the US and Japan. With the trade data disaggregated at the HS 4-digit level, we regress the exports of an Asian country to the US on the Japanese exports to the US and the ...


Global Agricultural Liberalization: An In-Depth Assessment Of What Is At Stake, Dominique Van Der Mensbrugghe, John C. Beghin Sep 2004

Global Agricultural Liberalization: An In-Depth Assessment Of What Is At Stake, Dominique Van Der Mensbrugghe, John C. Beghin

CARD Working Papers

We use the global LINKAGE model to assess the impact of trade and support policies in agriculture on income, trade, and output patterns. We provide order-of-magnitude estimates of the impacts of policy changes rather than point estimates. Two sets of simulations are used to identify key drivers in the results. One set decomposes the aggregate results by looking at the impacts of partial reforms, regionally and across instruments, to identify the relative contribution to global gains of reforms in industrialized and developing countries and of border protection versus domestic support. The second set responds to critics of trade reform (inflated ...


Keeping Farmers On The Land: Adding Value In Agriculture In The Veneto Region Of Italy, Roxanne L. B. Clemens Sep 2004

Keeping Farmers On The Land: Adding Value In Agriculture In The Veneto Region Of Italy, Roxanne L. B. Clemens

MATRIC Briefing Papers

Italy's relatively small area, high population density, and high land and labor costs have created the challenges of ensuring profitably for agricultural producers, slowing urban encroachment onto arable land, and keeping farm families on land that has been handed down within the families for generations. As part of the solution to these issues, the European Union is enacting policies to reduce producer dependence on direct subsidies while increasing the competitiveness of agricultural products and returns to producers, reinvigorating rural communities, and encouraging environmentally sound production methods. These regulations provide incentives for producers to add value to their products by ...


Effects Of Regional Trade Agreements On Trade In Agrifood Products: Evidence From Gravity Modeling Using Disaggregated Data, Sampath Jayasinghe, Rakhal Sarker Sep 2004

Effects Of Regional Trade Agreements On Trade In Agrifood Products: Evidence From Gravity Modeling Using Disaggregated Data, Sampath Jayasinghe, Rakhal Sarker

CARD Working Papers

The recent proliferation of regional trade agreements (RTAs) has intensified the debate on their merits. A growing literature has addressed this policy debate, focusing on the welfare and trade effects of RTAs and their likely impacts on the multilateral trading system. Some view them as stepping-stones toward multilateral trade liberalization while others see them as stumbling blocks against free trade. The existing literature has neglected some important aspects of RTAs dealing with trade in agrifood products. This study analyzes trade creation and diversion effects of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on trade of six selected agrifood products from ...


The Politics Of Wto Enforcement Mechanism, Pao Li Chang Aug 2004

The Politics Of Wto Enforcement Mechanism, Pao Li Chang

Research Collection School Of Economics

This paper attempts to develop a formal economic framework to analyze the influences of domestic political considerations by democratic governments in shaping the WTO enforcement outcomes following a violation ruling against the defendant. Since a different mix of import and export sectors in the defendant and complainant country will benefit from the various potential enforcement outcomes, they become competing forces which steer the strategic interactions between the disputing governments. The results of the paper illustrate the complainant's strategy in selecting the retaliation list, and the likelihood of the defendant's compliance or compensation in response to the proposed or ...


The Politics Of Wto Enforcement Mechanism, Pao Li Chang Jul 2004

The Politics Of Wto Enforcement Mechanism, Pao Li Chang

Research Collection School Of Economics

This paper attempts to develop a formal economic framework to analyze the influences of domestic political considerations by democratic governments in shaping the WTO enforcement outcomes following a violation ruling against the defendant. Since a different mix of import and export sectors in the defendant and complainant country will benefit from the various potential enforcement outcomes, they become competing forces which steer the strategic interactions between the disputing governments. The results of the paper illustrate the complainant's strategy in selecting the retaliation list, and the likelihood of the defendant's compliance or compensation in response to the proposed or ...


Geographical Indications And Property Rights: Protecting Value-Added Agricultural Products, Bruce A. Babcock, Roxanne L. B. Clemens May 2004

Geographical Indications And Property Rights: Protecting Value-Added Agricultural Products, Bruce A. Babcock, Roxanne L. B. Clemens

MATRIC Briefing Papers

Since 1992, the European Union has protected high-quality agricultural products based on geographical origin using designations of geographical indications (GIs). U.S. producers and processors can obtain a type of trademark called a certification mark, which provides similar protections to that of GIs but protects products only within the United States. In the current round of the World Trade Organization (WTO) negotiations, the European Union and other countries are seeking to expand protection through GIs. If they achieve the full range of protection they are seeking, many U.S. producers and processors could no longer use many product names currently ...


Brazil: The Future Of Modern Agriculture?, Holger Matthey, Jacinto F. Fabiosa, Frank H. Fuller May 2004

Brazil: The Future Of Modern Agriculture?, Holger Matthey, Jacinto F. Fabiosa, Frank H. Fuller

MATRIC Briefing Papers

In an attempt to understand better Brazil's future role in agricultural markets, the authors of this report traveled to Brazil on a fact-finding mission in September 2003. The goal was to get a first-hand impression of Brazil's agricultural sector and especially its future potential. In this report we provide a general description of crop and livestock production, government policies, public and private cooperation, and transportation and biotechnology issues. The most striking observations made during our time in Brazil was the universal sense of optimism expressed by producers, government officials, agronomists, and market analysts about the future growth of ...


Implications Of Agency Theory For Optimal Land Tenure Contracts, Wallace E. Huffman, Richard E. Just Apr 2004

Implications Of Agency Theory For Optimal Land Tenure Contracts, Wallace E. Huffman, Richard E. Just

Economics Publications

For more than 2 centuries, economists have been interested in agricultural contracts, especially landowner-tenant contracts. The early work by Marshall (1890) argued that share tenancy was inefficient relative to owner cultivation and should not be expected to persist when other arrangements are available. Later D. Gale Johnson (1950) and Cheung (1969) argued that, if landowners can costlessly monitor and enforce tenants’ effort, then share tenancy can compete effectively with owner cultivation or cash rental. Subsequently, Stiglitz (1974) and Newberry and Stiglitz (1979) introduced principal-agent models in the more realistic case where monitoring is costly to study optimal landowner-tenant risk sharing ...


Un Tren Que Pasa: La Lucha De La Faa Por Alcanzar La Representación En El Mercosur, Heather John Apr 2004

Un Tren Que Pasa: La Lucha De La Faa Por Alcanzar La Representación En El Mercosur, Heather John

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

In response to the Common Market of the South (MERCOSUR) process of regional economic integration which began in 1991, in 1994 national organizations of family farmers from the member countries formed a transnational coalition entitled La Coordinadora de Organizaciones Agricultores Familiares del MERCOSUR (COPROFAM) to represent themselves at the regional level. This study examines the reasons why the Federación Agraria Argentina (FAA), the largest member from Argentina and a longstanding Argentine institution, chose to represent itself as part of a transnational coalition at this regional level. Furthermore, it attempts to answer what the obstacles and successes of COPROFAM have been ...


The Challenge Of Conforming To Sanitary And Phytosanitary Measures For China's Agricultural Exports, Fengxia Dong, Helen H. Jensen Mar 2004

The Challenge Of Conforming To Sanitary And Phytosanitary Measures For China's Agricultural Exports, Fengxia Dong, Helen H. Jensen

MATRIC Working Papers

China's bilateral trade in food and agricultural products has grown dramatically since the country's entry into the World Trade Organization (WTO). However, the country faces significant problems related to sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) compliance because of increasing concerns about food safety, stricter SPS requirements in trade, and competitiveness in export markets. China's food and agricultural industry will need to address the SPS issues and make significant changes in production and distribution methods in order to gain wider access to world markets. This study provides a systematic and comprehensive analysis of current Chinese SPS conditions, the food safety ...


The Empirical Relationship Between Exchange Rates And Interest Rates In Post-Crisis Asia, Hwee Kwan Chow, Yoonbai Kim Mar 2004

The Empirical Relationship Between Exchange Rates And Interest Rates In Post-Crisis Asia, Hwee Kwan Chow, Yoonbai Kim

Research Collection School Of Economics

In post-crisis Asia, all crisis-hit countries (except Malaysia) announced a shift from exchange rate based monetary policy framework to the explicit adoption of inflation targeting that uses interest rates as the key monetary policy operating instrument. In this study, we examine the empirical relationship between exchange rates and interest rates, and investigate how the dynamics between them have changed following the crisis. This is carried out by constructing a bivariate VAR-GARCH model for each of the four Asian crisis countries, namely Indonesia, Korea, Philippines and Thailand. The findings suggest these countries do not use interest rate policy more actively to ...


Have U.S. - Japan Trade Agreements Made A Difference?, Byron Gangnes, Craig Parsons Mar 2004

Have U.S. - Japan Trade Agreements Made A Difference?, Byron Gangnes, Craig Parsons

Research Collection School Of Economics

International trade is governed by a complicated patchwork of international treaties, bilateral agreements, and unilateral actions, often directed at trade in very specific commodities. A determination of the impact of trade measures begins with an assessment of their direct effect on trade volumes and prices in targeted sectors. While in some cases—such as the recent U.S. anti-dumping duties on steel—the measures have readily identifiable impacts, in others cases the effects are more difficult to determine.


Trade, Capital Accumulation And Structural Unemployment: An Empirical Study Of The Singapore Economy, Hiau Looi Kee, Hian Teck Hoon Mar 2004

Trade, Capital Accumulation And Structural Unemployment: An Empirical Study Of The Singapore Economy, Hiau Looi Kee, Hian Teck Hoon

Research Collection School Of Economics

This paper studies the factors responsible for the secular decline of Singapore’s unemployment rate over the period 1966-2000 in an environment of low and stable inflation rates. We introduce wage bargaining and unions into a specific-factors, two-sector economy with an export sector and a non-tradable sector to obtain an endogenous natural unemployment rate. Increases in the relative export price and capital stock in the export sector are predicted to reduce structural unemployment. These hypotheses could not be rejected based on structural estimations and co-integration regressions. Empirically, capital accumulation in the export sector explains most of the decline in Singapore ...


Why Is China So Competitive? Measuring And Explaining China's Competitiveness, F. Gerard Adams, Byron Gangnes, Yochanan Shachmurove Mar 2004

Why Is China So Competitive? Measuring And Explaining China's Competitiveness, F. Gerard Adams, Byron Gangnes, Yochanan Shachmurove

Research Collection School Of Economics

This paper evaluates factors responsible for the competitiveness of China in the world economy and relative to its East Asian rivals. China has been highly successful in capturing world export markets. Chinese competitiveness is not just a matter of an undervalued exchange and extremely low labor costs. It reflects primarily the coincidence of favorable cost conditions with improvements in China’s ability to produce products that meet world market specifications. These improvements are closely related to foreign participation in China’s economy through foreign direct investment and joint venture enterprises.


The Place Of Human Rights Law In World Trade Organization Rules, Stephen Joseph Powell Feb 2004

The Place Of Human Rights Law In World Trade Organization Rules, Stephen Joseph Powell

Stephen Joseph Powell

WTO rules routinely are linked to the inability of nations to make meaningful progress in sharpening environmental and other human rights protections, for example, the failure of the 2002 Johannesburg World Summit on Sustainable Development to usher in any new treaties despite the bright promise of the Rio Earth Summit of the previous decade. The common brief of environmental, medical, and development interest groups is that the market principles of supply and demand, comparative advantage, and non-discrimination on which global trade rules are built have encumbered pursuit by nations of fundamental non-economic objectives that must in any reasoned legal hierarchy ...


“Industrialización Del Sur De Tamaulipas”, Ramiro Esqueda-Walle Jan 2004

“Industrialización Del Sur De Tamaulipas”, Ramiro Esqueda-Walle

Ramiro Esqueda-Walle

El trabajo analiza las características socioeconómicas de la Zona Conurbada del Sur de Tamaulipas, sin embargo, se analiza con mayor profundidad la dimensión regional que presenta Altamira, ya que este municipio sin duda es el que mayor proyección económica tiene por la vocación portuaria e industrial que va adquiriendo paulatinamente.


Agents Cooperation And Network Sustainability: A Note On Social Capital, Massimiliano Mazzanti Jan 2004

Agents Cooperation And Network Sustainability: A Note On Social Capital, Massimiliano Mazzanti

Massimiliano Mazzanti

No abstract provided.


Endogeneidad De Los Criterios Del Área Monetaria Óptima. Un Enfoque Alternativo Para El Caso Del Mercosur, Francisco Carlos Ruiz Diaz Jan 2004

Endogeneidad De Los Criterios Del Área Monetaria Óptima. Un Enfoque Alternativo Para El Caso Del Mercosur, Francisco Carlos Ruiz Diaz

Francisco Carlos Ruiz Diaz

Este documento propone para el caso del MERCOSUR, la aplicación de los criterios de endogeneidad como método alternativo de análisis costo-beneficio, el cual difiere de los métodos tradicionales al incorporar los efectos dinámicos en la evaluación de si determinadas zonas se constituyen o no en potencial candidato para ser considerada Área Monetaria Optima. El marco general presentado considera todas las características relevantes de las economías abiertas contrastando los hechos estilizados derivados de las predicciones teóricas de modelos de los Ciclos Económicos Reales Internacionales. Se pone énfasis a la necesidad de dotar al proceso de integración regional de credibilidad institucional lo ...


Prescriptive Authority: Global Markets As A Challenge To National Regulatory System, David J. Gerber Jan 2004

Prescriptive Authority: Global Markets As A Challenge To National Regulatory System, David J. Gerber

All Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


The Ethnic Question In Law And Development, Lan Cao Jan 2004

The Ethnic Question In Law And Development, Lan Cao

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Transnational Labor Mobilizing In Two Mexican Maquiladoras: The Struggle For Democratic Globalization, Victoria Carty Jan 2004

Transnational Labor Mobilizing In Two Mexican Maquiladoras: The Struggle For Democratic Globalization, Victoria Carty

Sociology Faculty Articles and Research

The struggle to improve workers' rights in Mexican maquiladoras and export processing zones elsewhere in the world is central to the politics of global economic integration. State-centered development is increasingly compromised by supranational institutions and trade agreements. Meanwhile, multinational corporations are relocating at an unprecedented rate to overseas locations. Export processing zones are notorious for poor working conditions and result in a "race to the bottom." The maquila sector in Mexico is a prime example of this phenomenon. This article uses two case studies to examine ways in which grassroots organizing has successfully resisted low wages and poor working conditions ...


Fapri 2004 U.S. And World Agricultural Outlook, John C. Beghin, Fengxia Dong, Amani E. Elobeid, Jacinto F. Fabiosa, Frank Fuller, Chad Hart, Karen Kovarik, Holger Matthey, Alexander E. Saak, Simla Tokgoz, Ed Chavez, Eric Wailes, Abner W. Womack, William H. Meyers, Julian Binfield, D. Scott Brown, John Kruse, Daniel Madison, Seth Meyer, Patrick C. Westhoff Jan 2004

Fapri 2004 U.S. And World Agricultural Outlook, John C. Beghin, Fengxia Dong, Amani E. Elobeid, Jacinto F. Fabiosa, Frank Fuller, Chad Hart, Karen Kovarik, Holger Matthey, Alexander E. Saak, Simla Tokgoz, Ed Chavez, Eric Wailes, Abner W. Womack, William H. Meyers, Julian Binfield, D. Scott Brown, John Kruse, Daniel Madison, Seth Meyer, Patrick C. Westhoff

FAPRI Staff Reports

The FAPRI 2004 U.S. and World Agricultural Outlook presents final projections of world agricultural production, consumption, and trade. Food and Agricultural Policy Research Institute (FAPRI) projections assume average weather patterns worldwide, existing policy, policy commitments under current trade agreements, and new policy changes such as the enlargement of the European Union and Common Agricultural Policy reforms. FAPRI projections do not include conjectures on potential policy changes. The major macroeconomic drivers of the 2004 FAPRI baseline are the continuing solid economic growth worldwide, and currency movements against the U.S. dollar.


Building A Better Seating Chart For Sovereign Restructurings, Anna Gelpern Jan 2004

Building A Better Seating Chart For Sovereign Restructurings, Anna Gelpern

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Every sovereign debt restructuring in recent memory has wrestled with the problem of inter-creditor equity. Governments have discriminated among creditors in ways that were hard to predict and often were not revealed until after a debt default. In contrast, debts of firms, individuals and even localities are ranked in order of priority established by contract and statute. This ranking is known at borrowing, generally corresponds to the order of repayment in bankruptcy liquidation, and helps define the creditors' relative bargaining power in reorganization. Without a bankruptcy backstop, most debts of national governments are legally equal. Yet in practice, sovereign immunity ...


Inside The Black Box: How Should A Sovereign Bankruptcy Regime Be Structured?, Patrick Bolton, David A. Skeel Jr. Jan 2004

Inside The Black Box: How Should A Sovereign Bankruptcy Regime Be Structured?, Patrick Bolton, David A. Skeel Jr.

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

No abstract provided.


Policy Watch: Trade Adjustment Assistance, Katherine Baicker, M. Marit Rehavi Jan 2004

Policy Watch: Trade Adjustment Assistance, Katherine Baicker, M. Marit Rehavi

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Vultures Or Vanguards?: The Role Of Litigation In Sovereign Debt Restructuring, Jill E. Fisch, Caroline M. Gentile Jan 2004

Vultures Or Vanguards?: The Role Of Litigation In Sovereign Debt Restructuring, Jill E. Fisch, Caroline M. Gentile

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

No abstract provided.


The Politics Of Wto Enforcement Mechanism, Pao-Li Chang Jan 2004

The Politics Of Wto Enforcement Mechanism, Pao-Li Chang

Research Collection School Of Economics

This paper attempts to develop a formal economic framework to analyze the influences of domestic political considerations by democratic governments in shaping the WTO enforcement outcomes in the wake of a violation ruling against the defendant. Since a different mix of import and export sectors in the defendant and complainant country will benefit from the various potential enforcement outcomes, they become competing forces which steer the strategic interactions between the disputing governments. The results of the paper illustrate the complainant’s strategy in selecting the retaliation list, and the likelihood of the defendant’s compliance or compensation in response to ...