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Articles 1 - 12 of 12

Full-Text Articles in International Economics

State Trading Enterprises In A Differentiated Environment: The Case Of Global Malting Barley Markets, Fengxia Dong, Thomas L. Marsh, Kyle W. Stiegert Dec 2003

State Trading Enterprises In A Differentiated Environment: The Case Of Global Malting Barley Markets, Fengxia Dong, Thomas L. Marsh, Kyle W. Stiegert

CARD Working Papers

The lack of transparency in the pricing and operational activities of state trading enterprises (STEs) has caused members of the World Trade Organization to express concern that certain countries’ STEs might circumvent Uruguay Round commitments on export subsidies, domestic support, or market access. The purpose of this study is to examine the market structure of the differentiated world malting barley market in which two STEs (the Canadian Wheat Board and the Australian Barley Board) maintain jointly a very large share of the export market. In particular, this study focuses on the exclusive procuring and pricing policies used by both STEs ...


Groundnut Trade Liberalization: A South-South Debate?, John C. Beghin, Ndiame Diop, Holger Matthey, Mirvat Sewadeh Nov 2003

Groundnut Trade Liberalization: A South-South Debate?, John C. Beghin, Ndiame Diop, Holger Matthey, Mirvat Sewadeh

CARD Working Papers

We use a new partial-equilibrium, multi-market international model to analyze trade and agricultural policies affecting markets for peanut/groundnut products. The model covers four goods in thirteen countries/regions, including a large set of developing countries. Welfare is evaluated by looking at consumers’ equivalent variation, quasiprofits in farming, quasi-profits in crushing, and taxpayers’ revenues and outlays implied by distortions. We calibrate the model on recent historical data and current policy information. We analyze several groundnut trade liberalization scenarios in deviation from the recent historical baseline. Trade liberalization in groundnut markets has a strong South-South dimension, opposing India and, to a ...


Aggregate Private R&D Investments In Agriculture: The Role Of Incentives, Public Policies, And Institutions, Oscar Alfranca, Wallace E. Huffman Oct 2003

Aggregate Private R&D Investments In Agriculture: The Role Of Incentives, Public Policies, And Institutions, Oscar Alfranca, Wallace E. Huffman

Economics Publications

Most observers have come to agree that Research and Development (R&D) is fundamental to the innovations that take place in advanced countries and that drive growth and development around the world. This is equally true for agricultural R&D, which has substantially increased the supply of food and fiber over time. Given the evident importance of agricultural R&D, we look at the forces that determine the amount of privately funded research in this vital sector using a sample of European countries. We construct indicators of private incentives, property rights, and publicly funded research in the various countries. Private research has grown with unusual speed in recent years and offers the prospect of advances in the quality of agricultural goods as well as reductions in their costs. Furthermore, considerable interest exists in knowing how changes in private and public research expenditures are related empirically; for example, are they complements or substitutes?1 If they are substitutes, then additional private agricultural R&D expenditures may not result in larger total agricultural research expenditures.


Meat Traceability And Consumer Assurance In Japan, Roxanne L. B. Clemens Sep 2003

Meat Traceability And Consumer Assurance In Japan, Roxanne L. B. Clemens

MATRIC Briefing Papers

Japanese consumers are sophisticated, highly conscious of food quality and safety, and willing to pay for attributes they believe define a high-quality, safe product. A recent series of domestic and international food safety crises have elevated the importance of meat safety among Japanese consumers. The Japanese government and food industry are implementing new policies and systems intended to assure consumers that the food supply is safe and wholesome. Given that these systems tend to focus heavily on consumer assurance programs and traceability, this paper examines the demand for such programs from the perspective of Japanese meat importers, processors, and retailers ...


Modeling Tariff Rate Quotas In A Global Context: The Case Of Sugar Markets In Oecd Countries, Dominique Van Der Mensbrugghe, John C. Beghin, Don Mitchell Sep 2003

Modeling Tariff Rate Quotas In A Global Context: The Case Of Sugar Markets In Oecd Countries, Dominique Van Der Mensbrugghe, John C. Beghin, Don Mitchell

CARD Working Papers

We use mixed-complementarity-problem programming to implement tariff rate quotas (TRQs) in the global computable general equilibrium (CGE) LINKAGE model. We apply the approach to TRQs in sugar markets in OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries. We calibrate the model on 2000 policy levels for OECD countries to reflect the full implementation of their World Trade Organization commitments. We look at reforms of TRQ and TRQ-like schemes in the European Union, the United States, and Japan, as well as multilateral trade liberalization. We derive the impact of reforms on welfare, bilateral trade flows, and terms of trade. A 33 ...


Agricultural Trade And The Doha Round: Lessons From Commodity Studies, John C. Beghin, Ataman Aksoy Jul 2003

Agricultural Trade And The Doha Round: Lessons From Commodity Studies, John C. Beghin, Ataman Aksoy

CARD Briefing Papers

While global analytical approaches to agricultural trade liberalization yield large gains for most economies, there are substantial variations in the policy regimes across commodities. To clarify the multiplicity of distortions and impacts, the World Bank's Trade Department undertook a series of commodity studies. The studies highlight the important challenges faced by negotiating countries in the Doha Round of the World Trade Organization (WTO) trade negotiations. The studies provide a sharper look at the North-South dimensions of the agricultural trade debate, with the North's trade barriers, domestic support, and tariff escalation. They also underscore the South-South challenges on border ...


Lessons From The Danish Ban On Feed-Grade Antibiotics, Dermot J. Hayes, Helen H. Jensen Jun 2003

Lessons From The Danish Ban On Feed-Grade Antibiotics, Dermot J. Hayes, Helen H. Jensen

CARD Briefing Papers

McDonald's Corporation, one of the largest buyers of meat in the U.S. fast-food industry, recently adopted a policy that prohibits its direct suppliers from using medically important antibiotics as growth promotants in food animals after 2004. Although the implications of such a voluntary ban in the United States remain to be seen, recent experiences in Denmark provide some comparable evidence on the effects for hog production. An economic analysis, compiled from information gleaned from interviews with Danish veterinarians, farmers, economists, and industry analysts, estimates the economic costs of an antibiotics ban on pork producers in the United States ...


An Analysis Of The Proposed Doha Round Modalities, Food And Agricultural Policy Research Institute, Bruce A. Babcock, Jacinto F. Fabiosa, Holger Matthey, Murat Isik, Simla Tokgoz, Amani E. Elobeid, Chad E. Hart, Frank H. Fuller, Seth Meyer Jun 2003

An Analysis Of The Proposed Doha Round Modalities, Food And Agricultural Policy Research Institute, Bruce A. Babcock, Jacinto F. Fabiosa, Holger Matthey, Murat Isik, Simla Tokgoz, Amani E. Elobeid, Chad E. Hart, Frank H. Fuller, Seth Meyer

CARD Staff Reports

The Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture (URAA) provided a continuing mandate for progressive reforms to liberalize world agricultural markets. A new round of negotiation was put into motion in early 2000 and later formalized in what is now called the Doha Round. The Doha Round negotiation follows the same principle laid out in the URAA, with the introduction of three reform anchors: market access, export competition, and reduction of domestic support. This paper specifies the new schedule of commitments for each member country under the proposed modalities and assesses the potential market impacts of these changes for world agricultural markets ...


Modeling World Peanut Product Markets: A Tool For Agricultural Trade Policy Analysis, John C. Beghin, Holger Matthey May 2003

Modeling World Peanut Product Markets: A Tool For Agricultural Trade Policy Analysis, John C. Beghin, Holger Matthey

CARD Working Papers

This paper presents a new partial-equilibrium, multi-market international model developed to analyze policies affecting peanut products markets. The model covers four goods (food-quality peanuts, crush-quality peanuts, peanut oil, and groundnut cake) in 13 countries/regions (Argentina, Canada, China, the EU-15, the Gambia, India, Malawi, Mexico, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, the United States, and Rest of World). Welfare is evaluated by looking at consumers' equivalent variation, quasi-profits in farming (peanut farming, livestock), quasi-profits in crushing, and taxpayers' revenues and outlays implied by distortions. We calibrate the model for three recent years (1999/2000, 2000/01, and 2001/02) on historical data ...


Emerging Forms Of Competitive Advantage: Implications For Agricultural Producers, Michael J. Barone, Thomas E. Decarlo Mar 2003

Emerging Forms Of Competitive Advantage: Implications For Agricultural Producers, Michael J. Barone, Thomas E. Decarlo

MATRIC Research Papers

Traditional recommendations for building sustainable competitive advantages revolve around differentiating a product from the competition along attributes that are important and relevant to customers. However, strategic approaches based on such notions do not represent viable options for companies competing in commodity markets characterized by a lack of physical product differentiation. The objective of this paper is to conduct a literature review with the aim of identifying alternative approaches to creating competitive advantage that can be used even under conditions in which no differences in actual quality exist across products. This review of the literature uncovered three non-traditional strategies that provide ...


Fapri 2003 U.S. And World Agricultural Outlook, Bruce A. Babcock, Jacinto F. Fabiosa, Holger Matthey, Murat Isik, Simla Tokgoz, Amani E. Elobeid, Chad Hart, Alexander E. Saak, Frank Fuller, Karen Kovarik, Abner W. Womack, Robert E. Young Ii, Patrick C. Westhoff, D. Scott Brown, Brian Willott, Daniel Madison, Seth Meyer, John Kruse, Julian Binfield Jan 2003

Fapri 2003 U.S. And World Agricultural Outlook, Bruce A. Babcock, Jacinto F. Fabiosa, Holger Matthey, Murat Isik, Simla Tokgoz, Amani E. Elobeid, Chad Hart, Alexander E. Saak, Frank Fuller, Karen Kovarik, Abner W. Womack, Robert E. Young Ii, Patrick C. Westhoff, D. Scott Brown, Brian Willott, Daniel Madison, Seth Meyer, John Kruse, Julian Binfield

FAPRI Staff Reports

The FAPRI 2003 World Agriculture Outlook presents final projections of FAPRI's agricultural outlook on world agricultural production, consumption, and trade. FAPRI projections assume average weather patterns worldwide, existing policy, policy commitments under current trade agreements, and recent policy changes such as the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002. FAPRI projections do not include conjectures on potential policy changes such as the various proposals under consideration in the WTO Doha Round negotiations. The major macroeconomic drivers of the 2003 FAPRI baseline are the deepening crisis in Latin America,; full economic recovery in many countries in the next two ...


China's Cotton Policy And The Impact Of China's Wto Accession And Bt Cotton Adoption On The Chinese And U.S. Cotton Sectors, Cheng Fang, Bruce A. Babcock Jan 2003

China's Cotton Policy And The Impact Of China's Wto Accession And Bt Cotton Adoption On The Chinese And U.S. Cotton Sectors, Cheng Fang, Bruce A. Babcock

CARD Working Papers

In this paper we provide an analysis of China's cotton policy and develop a framework to quantify the impact of both China's World Trade Organization (WTO) accession and Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton adoption on Chinese and U.S. cotton sectors. We use a Chinese cotton sector model consisting of supply, demand, price linkages, and textiles output equations. A two-stage framework model provides gross cropping area and total area for cotton and major subsitute crops from nine cotton-producing regions in China. Cotton demand, total fiber demand, and cotton share are estimated for each end user. The estimated parameters from ...