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2001

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Articles 1 - 24 of 24

Full-Text Articles in International Economics

Quantification Of Sanitary, Phytosanitary, And Technical Barriers To Trade For Trade Policy Analysis, John C. Beghin, Jean-Christophe Bureau Dec 2001

Quantification Of Sanitary, Phytosanitary, And Technical Barriers To Trade For Trade Policy Analysis, John C. Beghin, Jean-Christophe Bureau

CARD Working Papers

This paper presents promising methodologies for modeling and quantifying non-tariff barriers (NTB) to trade in the agricultural and food sectors. We limit the analysis to sanitary, phytosanitary, and technical regulations that can have an impact on trade and to methods that provide some quantitative estimates of the impact of such barriers on market equilibrium, trade flows, economic efficiency, and welfare. Given the heterogeneous nature of these regulations, a unifying methodology does not exist. Quantification of the effects of such measures has focused on a particular product and has relied on methods that belong to different fields of the economic literature ...


Construction Of A "Green Box" Countercyclical Program, Bruce A. Babcock, Chad E. Hart Oct 2001

Construction Of A "Green Box" Countercyclical Program, Bruce A. Babcock, Chad E. Hart

CARD Briefing Papers

The United States Congress is currently devising the next farm bill. One of the many factors influencing the debate is the effect of trade agreements into which the United States has entered. Under the World Trade Organization's Agreement on Agriculture, government spending on trade-distorting agricultural policies (referred to as "amber box" policies) has been limited. However, if the policy is considered non-trade-distorting ("green box"), then spending on such a policy is not constrained under the agreement. We explore the possible construction of a green box policy that is countercyclical to factors related to agriculture. The policy is based on ...


Overhauling The Wto: Opportunity At Doha And Beyond, John Audley, Ann Florini Oct 2001

Overhauling The Wto: Opportunity At Doha And Beyond, John Audley, Ann Florini

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

The world's trade ministers, who will meet at a WTOministerial in November 2001 in Doha, Qatar, are wrong to think that only a newround of negotiations will save the much-maligned international trade system.Carnegie senior associates John Audley and Ann M. Florini argue that theyshould, instead, simultaneously tackle internal and external reform of the WTOto make it a truly equitable institution. Internally, industrial countries muststart treating developing countries as equal partners in making the rules thatgovern global trade, and where necessary provide technical assistance to makethat equality possible. Externally, to satisfy legitimate public demands,members should improve the transparency ...


Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Through Energy Crops In The United States With Implications For Asian-Pacific Countries, Uwe A. Schneider, Bruce A. Mccarl Sep 2001

Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Through Energy Crops In The United States With Implications For Asian-Pacific Countries, Uwe A. Schneider, Bruce A. Mccarl

CARD Working Papers

No abstract provided.


Food Security And Agricultural Protection In South Korea, John C. Beghin, Jean-Christophe Bureau, Sung Joon Park Sep 2001

Food Security And Agricultural Protection In South Korea, John C. Beghin, Jean-Christophe Bureau, Sung Joon Park

CARD Working Papers

As part of its food security policy, South Korea has been pursuing food selfsufficiency using high tariffs and high administrative prices in key agricultural and food markets. Using a dual approach to trade and trade restrictiveness indices, we analyze the impact of these market distortions on welfare and trade volume. Then, we compute optimum distortions, which minimize the welfare costs of observed self-sufficiency and production objectives. We rationalize these optimum distortions to what could be claimed as legitimate protection under a “food security” (FS) box in World Trade Organization negotiations. FS-box protection is sensitive to changes in the definition and ...


Ensuring A Decent Global Workplace: Labor Rights Belong In Trade Agreements, Lance A. Compa Aug 2001

Ensuring A Decent Global Workplace: Labor Rights Belong In Trade Agreements, Lance A. Compa

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Linking workers' rights to international trade is an idea whose time has come and stayed, despite the best efforts of free trade ideologues to chase it away. In looming congressional debates about "fast track" negotiating authority, the Bush administration and Congress confront powerful demands from workers, trade unionists and a wider public for rules protecting human rights and labor rights, not just corporate investments, in trade agreements.


Quality Signaling And International Trade In Food Products, Jean-Christophe Bureau, Estelle Gozlan, Stéphan Marette Aug 2001

Quality Signaling And International Trade In Food Products, Jean-Christophe Bureau, Estelle Gozlan, Stéphan Marette

CARD Working Papers

Focusing on the issue of food safety, the authors consider a framework of repeated purchases under the scenario of imperfect information on product quality (adverse selection and experience goods). A firm in a northern country can more easily detect tainted products than can a southern one. When imports are banned, the northern firm does not always signal the actual quality of its products. Competition from imports may lead the northern firm to test the quality of its products as a way to differentiate itself from foreign competitors. Consumers benefit from the disclosure of information on quality, even though borders are ...


China's Accession To The Wto: What Is At Stake For Agricultural Markets?, Frank H. Fuller, John C. Beghin, Stéphane De Cara, Jacinto F. Fabiosa, Cheng Fang, Holger Matthey Jun 2001

China's Accession To The Wto: What Is At Stake For Agricultural Markets?, Frank H. Fuller, John C. Beghin, Stéphane De Cara, Jacinto F. Fabiosa, Cheng Fang, Holger Matthey

CARD Working Papers

The authors analyze the impact of China's accession to the World Trade Organization on major crop and livestock markets using the FAPRI modeling framework. They incorporate expected changes in consumer income, textile production, and trade policies as exogenous shocks to the baseline model. Following accession, revenues decline in China's livestock, grain, and oilseed industries, while cotton production prospers despite increased cotton imports. Chinese consumers benefit from lower food prices, with vegetable oil, dairy, and meat consumption increasing significantly. Argentina, Brazil, Canada, the European Union, and the United States are the greatest beneficiaries from expanded agricultural trade with China.


The Mind-Body Problem: A Tuberculosis/Tobacco Example, Editor May 2001

The Mind-Body Problem: A Tuberculosis/Tobacco Example, Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

This article illustrates two conflicts between what is, perhaps, best for the mind and best for the body.


Implications Of The Wto On The Redesign Of U.S. Farm Policy, Chad E. Hart, Bruce A. Babcock May 2001

Implications Of The Wto On The Redesign Of U.S. Farm Policy, Chad E. Hart, Bruce A. Babcock

CARD Briefing Papers

The WTO commitments made by the United States are often cited as being an important constraint on the design of future U.S. farm programs. Many, however, are confused about the U.S. commitments and their future importance. In this paper, the authors attempt to fill this gap in understanding by providing a detailed explanation of the WTO agreement and estimates of whether the United States has fully complied with its WTO commitments in recent years. In addition, the authors project the degree of compliance through the 2002 marketing year and examine new alternative program proposals to determine how they ...


Developing Better Economic Information About Coastal Resources As A Tool For Integrated Coastal Management, Judith T. Kildow Dr, Brian Baird, Charles S. Colgan, Hauke Kite-Powell, Rodney Weiher Apr 2001

Developing Better Economic Information About Coastal Resources As A Tool For Integrated Coastal Management, Judith T. Kildow Dr, Brian Baird, Charles S. Colgan, Hauke Kite-Powell, Rodney Weiher

Publications

Measuring economic activity associated with the ocean through examination of the goods and services produced by specified industries and in coastal locations will provide answers to many of the most commonly asked questions about the ocean economy. But even this data will still be incomplete. Beyond are a variety of "non-market" values, which are needed to complete the picture. When someone goes to the beach in Florida or boats on Chesapeake Bay, there may be little that is directly purchased on that day. But the popularity of such activities is testament to their underlying value. Economists have developed a variety ...


Globalization And The Paradox Of Incorporation And Marginalization: An Exploratory Note On Sub-Saharan Africa, Charles R. Lartey Apr 2001

Globalization And The Paradox Of Incorporation And Marginalization: An Exploratory Note On Sub-Saharan Africa, Charles R. Lartey

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

Globalization has of late become the lingua franca of the study of the international political economic system. As its ideological counterpart, globalization has elevated neoliberalism to the status of an international theology. To harness the benefits of a globalizing world economy, conventional wisdom consider the dictums underlying neoliberal policies as “immutable laws” that must be adopted by both the developing and the developed world.

Utilizing a structured, focused analysis based on a case study of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), this research challenges the orthodox notion that the new international context of development that is instigated by the imperatives of globalization, and ...


The Cost Of The U.S. Sugar Program Revisited, John C. Beghin, Barbara El Osta, Jay R. Cherlow, Samarendu Mohanty Mar 2001

The Cost Of The U.S. Sugar Program Revisited, John C. Beghin, Barbara El Osta, Jay R. Cherlow, Samarendu Mohanty

CARD Working Papers

Using a multimarket model of U.S. sweeteners, the authors revisit the cost of the U.S. sugar program by analyzing the welfare implications of its removal. Their approach addresses the industrial organization of food industries that use sweeteners and treats the United States as a large importer. The authors estimate that, with the removal of the U.S. sugar program, cane growers, sugar beet growers, and beet processors would lose, respectively, $307 million, $650 million, and $89 million. Sweetener users would gain $1.9 billion. The deadweight loss of the current sugar program would be $532 million (all estimates ...


The Transformation Of Russian Social Policy In The Transition Toward A Market Economy, Isabel Pla Julian Mar 2001

The Transformation Of Russian Social Policy In The Transition Toward A Market Economy, Isabel Pla Julian

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The last few years have witnessed truly extraordinary events in the formerly communist societies. These countries were characterized by the great importance attached to social policy as opposed to market economy countries with a similar level of economic growth. However, the transition process toward a market economy has set new conditions for the functioning of governing levels and companies, which has affected social policies altogether. On the one hand, economic liberalization has brought about a reduction of the Russian Government's intervention in the economy, particularly in social policy. On the other hand, the privatization of the state company in ...


Geography, Industrial Organization, And Agglomeration Heteroskedasticity Models With Estimates Of The Variances Of Foreign Exchange Rates, Chihwa Kao Jan 2001

Geography, Industrial Organization, And Agglomeration Heteroskedasticity Models With Estimates Of The Variances Of Foreign Exchange Rates, Chihwa Kao

Center for Policy Research

This paper proposes a robust estimation procedure, the bounded influence estimate (BIS), which is robust against departure from the conditional normality of the autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (ARCH) models to describe the behavior of exchange rates. First, the BIE identifies the additive outliers (AO, e.g., Fox 1972) caused by abnormal information arrivals which may be triggered by changes in domestic policies and international shocks. Identification of outliers allows us to analyze the major economic and political factors that contribute directly to the dramatic changes in exchange rates. Second, the performance of the BIE is compared with the maximum likelihood estimate ...


Socio-Economic Changes And Modernization In An Age Of Uncertainty: Taiwan In The 1990s And Its Future Challenge, Wen-Hui Tsai Jan 2001

Socio-Economic Changes And Modernization In An Age Of Uncertainty: Taiwan In The 1990s And Its Future Challenge, Wen-Hui Tsai

Maryland Series in Contemporary Asian Studies

No abstract provided.


Are African Workers Getting Ahead In The New South Africa? Evidence From Kwazulu-Natal, 1993-1998, Paul L. Cichello, Gary S. Fields, Murray Leibbrandt Jan 2001

Are African Workers Getting Ahead In The New South Africa? Evidence From Kwazulu-Natal, 1993-1998, Paul L. Cichello, Gary S. Fields, Murray Leibbrandt

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] In this paper, we use the KIDS panel data to answer three questions about the ‘progress’ of African workers in this one province in post-apartheid South Africa. First, how have African workers progressed as a group? Secondly, which African workers have progressed the most, and by how much have they progressed? Thirdly, to what extent is the progress made by workers driven by transitions between employment and unemployment, or between informal and formal sector employment? We reach the following major findings. First, African workers in KwaZulu-Natal had quite diverse experiences, but experienced positive progress on average. Second, those who ...


Enslaved To Fashion: Corporations, Consumers, And The Campaign For Worker Rights In The Global Economy, George Demartino Jan 2001

Enslaved To Fashion: Corporations, Consumers, And The Campaign For Worker Rights In The Global Economy, George Demartino

Human Rights & Human Welfare

A review of Levi’s Children: Coming to Terms with Human Rights in the Global Marketplace by Karl Schoenberger. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2000. 288pp.

Levi’s Children presents a sobering account of the tribulations of a transnational corporation with a heart trying its best to navigate honorably the polluted moral waters of the global economy. San Francisco-based Levi Strauss and Company, maker of the iconic Levi’s jeans and other apparel, sought to maintain a commitment to social responsibility in the face of intensifying financial pressures to do otherwise. Author Karl Schoenberger puts this account to good effect ...


Dirty Money, Gabriele Camera Jan 2001

Dirty Money, Gabriele Camera

Economics Faculty Articles and Research

An inter-governmental body is encouraging the replacement of currency with the objective of discouraging illegal economic activities. This policy is analyzed in a search-theoretic model where individuals choose legal or illegal production, settle trades via monetary or costly intermediated exchange, and where the government imperfectly monitors monetary transactions. Stationary monetary equilibria with both legal and illegal production exist, in which case the over-provision of currency may increment the extent of illegal production. This result holds also in the presence of intermediated exchange of legal goods. Equilibria with differing transaction patterns and degrees of illicit activities coexist.


Does Free Trade Cause Hunger? Hidden Implications Of The Ftaa, Jonathan B. Wight Jan 2001

Does Free Trade Cause Hunger? Hidden Implications Of The Ftaa, Jonathan B. Wight

Economics Faculty Publications

Voluntary free trade has the potential, slowly and gradually over time, to create "general opulence" because it allows workers to acquire greater competency and specialization: in a word, workers become more productive. The creation of a Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) would expand market areas and thereby potentially contribute to raising future living standards of workers. This paper seeks to analyze the theoretical basis for trade, provide an economic overview of FTAA countries, and analyze the winners and losers from trade.


Fapri 2001 U.S. And World Agricultural Outlook, Bruce A. Babcock, John C. Beghin, Frank Fuller, Samarendu Mohanty, Jacinto F. Fabiosa, Philip Kaus, Cheng Fang, Holger Matthey, Stéphane De Cara, Karen Kovarik, Abner W. Womack, Robert E. Young Ii, Patrick C. Westhoff, Joe Trujillo, D. Scott Brown, Gary M. Adams, Brian Willott, Daniel Madison, Seth Meyer, John Kruse Jan 2001

Fapri 2001 U.S. And World Agricultural Outlook, Bruce A. Babcock, John C. Beghin, Frank Fuller, Samarendu Mohanty, Jacinto F. Fabiosa, Philip Kaus, Cheng Fang, Holger Matthey, Stéphane De Cara, Karen Kovarik, Abner W. Womack, Robert E. Young Ii, Patrick C. Westhoff, Joe Trujillo, D. Scott Brown, Gary M. Adams, Brian Willott, Daniel Madison, Seth Meyer, John Kruse

FAPRI Staff Reports

The Food and Agricultural Policy Research Institute (FAPRI) prepares a preliminary agricultural outlook on world agricultural production, consumption, and trade every fall. This is followed by an outside review, re-evaluation of projections, and completion of the final baseline. The FAPRI 2001 U.S. and World Agricultural Outlook presents these final projections for domestic and world agricultural markets.


The Effects Of Fiscal Decentralization On Health Care In China, Emily Yee Jan 2001

The Effects Of Fiscal Decentralization On Health Care In China, Emily Yee

University Avenue Undergraduate Journal of Economics

From my analysis, I conclude that decentralization has not been detrimental to health care when health care performance is measured by the number of doctors per 10,000 people, mortality rates, and local health care expenditure. However, the effects of decentralization on health care are inconclusive when health care performance is measured by the number of hospital beds per 10,000 people.

This paper is divided into five sections. The first section discusses theories of federalism. The second section presents an overview of China’s economic reforms since 1980. The third section discusses the current state of health care in ...


Management Of Fisheries In Eu: A Principal-Agent Analysis, Frank Jensen, Niels Vestergaard Dec 2000

Management Of Fisheries In Eu: A Principal-Agent Analysis, Frank Jensen, Niels Vestergaard

Niels Vestergaard

In this paper, an EU tax on fishing effort is studied as an alternative to the system of Total Allowable Catches (TACs). The analysis is conducted under imperfect information, and the hypothesis adopted is that the EU lacks information about the costs of individual fishermen. In light of this imperfection, there are at least two reasons for considering an EU tax. First, it can be used to correct part of the market failure associated with fisheries. Second, it can be used to secure correct revelation of fishermen types in light of asymmetric information.


Pragmatic Approaches To Patronage, Omer Gokcekus, Ranjana Mukherjee, Nick Manning Dec 2000

Pragmatic Approaches To Patronage, Omer Gokcekus, Ranjana Mukherjee, Nick Manning

Omer Gokcekus

No abstract provided.