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1994

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Articles 1 - 21 of 21

Full-Text Articles in International Economics

Three Monographs: International Monetary Fund; Treasury Systems; Military Conscription And Conscientious Objection, John Sondey Dec 1994

Three Monographs: International Monetary Fund; Treasury Systems; Military Conscription And Conscientious Objection, John Sondey

Economics Staff Paper Series

No abstract provided.


Ua68/2/1 Intercambio Internacional, Vol. Xiii, No. 1, Wku Latin American Studies Dec 1994

Ua68/2/1 Intercambio Internacional, Vol. Xiii, No. 1, Wku Latin American Studies

WKU Archives Records

Newsletter created by WKU Latin American Studies program regarding science, politics and economic advances in Latin America as well as cooperative projects between WKU and universities across Latin America. The newsletter is written in both English and Spanish.


Capturing The Impacts Of North American Free Trade Agreement On South Dakota's Economy, Bashir Qasmi, Scott Fausti Sep 1994

Capturing The Impacts Of North American Free Trade Agreement On South Dakota's Economy, Bashir Qasmi, Scott Fausti

Economics Staff Paper Series

In August 1992, representatives of Canada, Mexico, and the United States concluded their negotiations of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The treaty has been subsequently signed and ratified by all three countries. As of January 1, 1994, NAFTA created the largest free trade area in the world, with more than 360 million people and a combined gross domestic product of roughly $6.5 trillion (in U.S. dollars). A comparison of NAFTA with the European Union (EU) is provided in appendix A. NAFTA essentially lifts trade barriers between Mexico, Canada, and the United States. At the time of ...


The Effect Of Joint-Product Export Smuggling On Export Tax Policy, Scott Fausti May 1994

The Effect Of Joint-Product Export Smuggling On Export Tax Policy, Scott Fausti

Economics Staff Paper Series

This paper analyzes the effect of joint-product export smuggling on the revenue-maximizing export tax rate and tax revenue collection under the small country assumption. The results indicate that the effect of introducing joint product export smuggling is dependent on whether legal and illegal exports are considered a substitutable or complementary activity for the exporting firm. The results of the model are applied to the issue of cigarette smuggling in the United States. The paper concludes that if legal and illegal interstate trade in cigarettes are substitutable activities for firms in the wholesale and retail tobacco industry, then states levying relatively ...


Ua68/2/1 Intercambio Internacional, Vol. Xii, No. 2, Wku Latin American Studies May 1994

Ua68/2/1 Intercambio Internacional, Vol. Xii, No. 2, Wku Latin American Studies

WKU Archives Records

Newsletter created by WKU Latin American Studies program regarding science, politics and economic advances in Latin America as well as cooperative projects between WKU and universities across Latin America. The newsletter is written in both English and Spanish.


Economic Development And Trade Liberalization: The Indonesian Experience, Scott Fausti, Rony Bishry Apr 1994

Economic Development And Trade Liberalization: The Indonesian Experience, Scott Fausti, Rony Bishry

Economics Staff Paper Series

From 1950 to 1965, Indonesia followed an import substitution industrialization development strategy. From 1966 to the present, Indonesia has moved toward an export oriented development strategy. This paper tests the predictions of the Heckscher-Ohlin- Samuelson (HOS) model of international trade by comparing Indonesia's economic performance under two contrasting development strategies. The paper concludes that Indonesia's economic performance under the opposing development strategies supports the predictions of the HOS model. Furthermore, the Indonesian experience under the two development strategies supports the "trade as an engine of growth" hypothesis.


Production Uncertainty, Enforcement And Smuggling: A Stochastic Model, Scott Fausti Apr 1994

Production Uncertainty, Enforcement And Smuggling: A Stochastic Model, Scott Fausti

Economics Staff Paper Series

This paper merges the existing smuggling literature with the literature concerning competitive firm behavior under uncertainty. A stochastic, joint product, model of smuggling is developed. The model introduces production uncertainty, generated by enforcement activity, into a Pitt (1981) type of smuggling production function. This modelling technique allows the trade pattern and welfare results which evolve under smuggling with uncertainty to be compared to smuggling in a world of certainty. It is demonstrated that mere presence of uncertainty increases the real resource cost associated with smuggling, reduces legal and illegal trade, and welfare, when compared to smuggling in a world of ...


Prices, Productivity, And Waste In Ldc Agriculture, Lilyan E. Fulginiti, Richard K. Perrin Apr 1994

Prices, Productivity, And Waste In Ldc Agriculture, Lilyan E. Fulginiti, Richard K. Perrin

GATT Research Papers

Recent studies have revealed that LDCs have been taxing their agricultural sectors at rates of 40 to 50 percent. While it is widely acknowledged that this taxation might have significant allocative effects, this paper examines a cross-country aggregated agricultural production function. The results estimate that the elasticity of productivity with respect to output prices is about 0.1, indicating that the taxation levels have had very significant productivity impacts. Allais-Debreu measures of deadweight loss indicate that from 7 to 16 percent of output or of the agricultural resource base has been wasted due to the associated misallocation of agricultural inputs ...


An Analysis Of The Cap Reform, Michael D. Helmar, Deborah L. Stephens, K. Eswaramoorthy, D. Scott Brown, Dermot J. Hayes, Robert Young, William H. Meyers Apr 1994

An Analysis Of The Cap Reform, Michael D. Helmar, Deborah L. Stephens, K. Eswaramoorthy, D. Scott Brown, Dermot J. Hayes, Robert Young, William H. Meyers

GATT Research Papers

The Treaty of Rome, which established the European Economic Community in 1957, defined the objectives of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). These objectives, contained in Article 39, follow: 1) Increase agricultural productivity by promoting technical progress and by ensuring rational development of agricultural production and optimum use of the production factors, particularly labor. 2) Ensure a fair standard of living for the agricultural community, in particular by increasing the individual earning of the persons engaged in agriculture. 3) Stabilize markets. 4) Assure the availability of supplies. 5) Ensure that supplies reach consumers at reasonable prices. The objectives of the CAP ...


Cap Reform Studies: A Comparison, Chad E. Hart, Michael D. Helmar, Dermot J. Hayes, William H. Meyers Apr 1994

Cap Reform Studies: A Comparison, Chad E. Hart, Michael D. Helmar, Dermot J. Hayes, William H. Meyers

GATT Research Papers

Since the convening of the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), agricultural trade policies have been a prime issue of these negotiations. The European Union (EU) Agricultural Commission responded to the pressures of such focus on agricultural policies as well as to internal budget pressures by submitting the 1992 Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) reform package, a unilateral move by the EU to answer both internal and external concerns. A number of economic studies have examined the 1992 CAP reform package in order to assess its impacts on the EU and world agriculture. This paper summarizes ...


Cartels In An "Nth-Best" World: The Wholesale Foodstuff Trade In Ibadan, Nigeria, Harlan M. Smith Ii, Margaret E. Luttrell Mar 1994

Cartels In An "Nth-Best" World: The Wholesale Foodstuff Trade In Ibadan, Nigeria, Harlan M. Smith Ii, Margaret E. Luttrell

Economics Faculty Research

The purpose of this paper is to develop an understanding of the economic functions and associated welfare implications of the cooperative associations that dominate the wholesale trade in two staple foods. Questionnaire responses lead to several conclusions. Individual traders face incomplete markets, imperfect information, and little government-provided institutional and physical infrastructure. The associations are sophisticated "Coase-like" responses to this market environment: they focus on reducing their members' transaction costs, and hence the marginal private costs of trading. Thus it is likely that these associations enhance efficiency. We conclude with a critique of current government policy with respect to this trade.


Indonesian Agriculture And Gatt, Justo Manrique Mar 1994

Indonesian Agriculture And Gatt, Justo Manrique

GATT Research Papers

This paper attempts to determine the possible impacts of a General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) agreement on the Indonesian agricultural sector. The emphasis of the study is analytical. In particular, the study focuses on how eliminating internal price support policies and trade barriers will affect agricultural production, food security, the Indonesian trade position in world agricultural markets, and income distribution among the urban and rural sectors and low- and high-income farmers over the short and long terms. A liberalized trading system is expected to contribute to a stable Indonesian food supply.


Recent Developments And Analysis Of U.S.–South Korean Agricultural Trade, Dermot J. Hayes Mar 1994

Recent Developments And Analysis Of U.S.–South Korean Agricultural Trade, Dermot J. Hayes

GATT Research Papers

EC Agricultural Commissioner Ray MacSharry surprised many by suggesting dramatic reductions in EC commodity prices, which would in effect recouple much of its agriculture with world prices. In July, all twelve EC agriculture ministers accepted the MacSharry proposal as the basis for negotiation. The entire package will be voted on in October 1991, and the general consensus is that some version of the MacSharry proposal will be adopted at that time. There exists a real possibility, therefore, that the European Community will eventually find an agricultural price reform proposal that is acceptable to the United States and other GATT participants ...


Temperate Fruit And Vegetable Trade Under The Gatt, Julian M. Alston, Colin Carter, Kenneth Weiss, Bin Zhang Feb 1994

Temperate Fruit And Vegetable Trade Under The Gatt, Julian M. Alston, Colin Carter, Kenneth Weiss, Bin Zhang

GATT Research Papers

The Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), if negotiated to a successful completion, will affect world trading patterns. This paper summarizes and analyzes the structure of the international markets for fruits and vegetables, and projects changes in response to reforms likely to follow a successful GATT negotiation. The research focused on the European Community (EC), selected European Free-Trade Association (EFTA) nations, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Brazil, Chile, and Colombia.


The Ec Livestock Sector: Policy, Trade, And Research, Dermot J. Hayes, John Murphy, David A. Hennessy Feb 1994

The Ec Livestock Sector: Policy, Trade, And Research, Dermot J. Hayes, John Murphy, David A. Hennessy

GATT Research Papers

Livestock policies in the European Community (EC) are explained and analyzed. Then we provide a review of the literature on models that attempt to explain livestock production and meat demand in the EC.


The Migration Transition In Asia, Gary S. Fields Jan 1994

The Migration Transition In Asia, Gary S. Fields

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] This theoretical discussion of the migration transition is Asia develops a framework to understand the turning point from labor exporter to labor importer experienced by the Asian NIEs (Hong Kong, Korea, Singapore and Taiwan). The author concludes that the NIEs' demand for labor curve shifted rapidly, primarily due to export-led growth of a labor-intensive character. Because these economies are well integrated, improvements in labor market conditions in individual sectors are transmitted to all workers, discouraging emigration. Despite industry's efforts to mitigate wage increases through labor import, new technology or relocation overseas, the rapidly improving domestic earnings opportunities induced ...


Policy Perspectives And Future Directions: A View From A Former U.S. Trade Representative, Clayton K. Yeutter Jan 1994

Policy Perspectives And Future Directions: A View From A Former U.S. Trade Representative, Clayton K. Yeutter

Clayton K. Yeutter, U.S. Secretary of Agriculture Papers

Tom Donahue expressed very well where we as a nation and we as a world should go on the worker rights issue. I'm going to spend most of my time focusing on how we get there, if we really want to accomplish something. Many countries would prefer not to have worker rights in the GATT at all. When we went to Punta del Este in 1986 to begin the Uruguay Round, the United States was a minority of one in trying to get the worker rights issue on the agenda in any way, shape, or form.


Implications Of The North American Free Trade Agreement For Long-Term Adjustments In U.S.-Mexican Beef Production And Trade, Bryan Melton, Wallace Huffman Jan 1994

Implications Of The North American Free Trade Agreement For Long-Term Adjustments In U.S.-Mexican Beef Production And Trade, Bryan Melton, Wallace Huffman

Economics Publications

North America is in the midst of forming one of the world's largest free trade areas. The Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement was signed in 1988. The signing of the North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) between the United States and Mexico completes the,/ major agreements for the trading area.


Agriculture In The Czech Lands And Slovakia: Some Problems, Policy Options And The Potential For Benefit-Cost Evaluation, Paul Gallagher Jan 1994

Agriculture In The Czech Lands And Slovakia: Some Problems, Policy Options And The Potential For Benefit-Cost Evaluation, Paul Gallagher

Economics Publications

Analyses of proposed policy changes often include three phases. First, the effect on the market is shown. Then the groups that gain and loose are identified. Finally, applied economists often quantify the benefits and costs, using methods such as supply and demand estimates from statistical studies of the market. Quantification draws criticism sometimes, because this process is imprecise. The criticism may take the form of "this is not a problem" or "it's not possible to answer these questions". However, decisions made with imprecise information are probably better than decisions that are avoided because there is no information, or decisions ...


Discussion Of U.S. Domestic Policy And U.S.-E.C. Trade, Giancarlo Moschini Jan 1994

Discussion Of U.S. Domestic Policy And U.S.-E.C. Trade, Giancarlo Moschini

Economics Publications

I would like to congratulate Bruce Gardner for providing a thorough and lucid presentation of the main features of U.S. agricultural policies that affect agricultural trade. His main conclusion is that U.S. commodity programs no longer increase U.S. output; if anything, they result in less U.S. output for some major commodities. Thus, the implications of these policies for trading partners such as the Economic Community (E.C.) should be reassuring. Furthermore, Gardner notes that: (1) the income of U.S. farmers no longer provides a rationale for agricultural price support because farmers have become relatively prosperous ...


The Political Economy Of International Organizations And The New World Order: North-South Relations From A Southern Perspective, Alaadin M. Elgendy Jan 1994

The Political Economy Of International Organizations And The New World Order: North-South Relations From A Southern Perspective, Alaadin M. Elgendy

Theses Digitization Project

No abstract provided.