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2009

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Articles 1 - 30 of 56

Full-Text Articles in International Economics

新新贸易理论的贡献与发展, 邓翔, 路征 Dec 2009

新新贸易理论的贡献与发展, 邓翔, 路征

Zheng Lu (Chinese: 路征)

梅里兹 (Melitz, 2003)模型确立了异质企业贸易理论的基本框架 ,并迅速成为国际贸易理论研究的新热点 ,围绕着梅里兹模型 ,产生了一批从企业异质性角度分析国际贸易的研究成果 ,从而完善了新新贸易理论的理论体系。本文首先介绍了梅里兹模型的基本框架 ,然后分析了格里兹模型的局限 ,最后介绍了围绕梅里兹模型产生的最新理论成果及启示。


O Fim Do "Privilégio Exorbitante": Comentários A Currency And State Power, De Benjamin J. Cohen [The End Of The "Exorbitant Privilege": Commentary To Currency And State Power, By Benjamin J. Cohen], Jefferson Alvares Dec 2009

O Fim Do "Privilégio Exorbitante": Comentários A Currency And State Power, De Benjamin J. Cohen [The End Of The "Exorbitant Privilege": Commentary To Currency And State Power, By Benjamin J. Cohen], Jefferson Alvares

Jefferson Alvares

Busca contextualizar o estudo Currency and State Power, de Benjamin J. Cohen, descrever sua estrutura conceitual e suas conclusões, e submeter a crítica a premissa de que o poder monetário é decorrência da flexibilidade macroeconômica que acompanha as moedas internacionais.

[The paper aims to set the background for the essay Currency and State Power, by Benjamin J. Cohen, to describe its conceptual framework and conclusions, and to subject to a critical appraisal the premise that monetary power is a result of macroeconomic flexibility, which stems from the international standing of a currency.]


Msc. Thesis Defence, Johansein L. Rutaihwa Mr. Nov 2009

Msc. Thesis Defence, Johansein L. Rutaihwa Mr.

Johansein Rutaihwa

No abstract provided.


The Effect Of A Collective Exchange Rate Adjustment On East Asian Exports, Mizanur Rahman, Kaliappa P. Kalirajan Nov 2009

The Effect Of A Collective Exchange Rate Adjustment On East Asian Exports, Mizanur Rahman, Kaliappa P. Kalirajan

Mizanur Rahman

This paper estimates long-run effects of a collective exchange rate adjustment on multilateral exports from China, Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. The findings show that a 1 percent generalized appreciation of all East Asian exchange rates would reduce East Asian exports by about 3 per cent.


Was Financial Market Contagion The Source Of Economic Crisis In Asia? Evidence Using A Multivariate Var Model, Ahmed Khalid, Masahiro Kawai Sep 2009

Was Financial Market Contagion The Source Of Economic Crisis In Asia? Evidence Using A Multivariate Var Model, Ahmed Khalid, Masahiro Kawai

Ahmed Khalid

The episodes of financial crises in many parts of the world during the 1990s have sparked interest in identifying channels through which such crises spread from one country to another. Researchers have identified several factors that may have sparked and induced contagion. This study further extends the existing research by identifying and testing three financial market variables to trace the alleged origin and the subsequent path of the contagion during the 1997 Asian Crisis. Foreign exchange rates, stock market prices and interest rates are three main financial market indicators, representing the currency, stock and money markets, respectively. We use a ...


The Effects Of Devaluation Of The Tenge Upon The Kazakhstan Economy, John Ja Burke Aug 2009

The Effects Of Devaluation Of The Tenge Upon The Kazakhstan Economy, John Ja Burke

John JA Burke

This article examines the probable effect of the February 2009 devaluation of the Tenge on the Kazakhstan economy. Conventional wisdom holds that currency devaluation increases exports, protects domestic production, and preserves foreign exchange currency reserves. While the latter states the obvious, the causal relation between currency devaluation and increased export revenue and increased domestic production, though logically valid, requires the passage of time to measure. In the context of Kazakhstan, the question of devaluation and its effects also must be examined within the “Dutch Disease” model, as Kazakhstan is an oil dependent country. History teaches that devaluing the Tenge is ...


A Nation In Dilemma, Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed Aug 2009

A Nation In Dilemma, Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

following the Global financial Crisis there were economic collapses in all the world. Sudan officials claimed that the country was immune from that epidemic. Such declaration were truly weird as it has been deeply affected from the first instant. That article presented many questions about the economic and social conditions and the eminent southern Sudan, Darfur crises.


The Impact Of Real Exchange Rate Flexibility On East Asian Exports, Mizanur Rahman Jul 2009

The Impact Of Real Exchange Rate Flexibility On East Asian Exports, Mizanur Rahman

Mizanur Rahman

This paper estimates the impact of intra-regional real exchange rate flexibility on East Asian exports. The hypothesis is that the impact would be negative for East Asian countries regardless of their exchange rate regimes. The results validate the hypothesis. The findings show that for Chinese exports the long-run effect is as much as that of a real appreciation of renminbi. By contrast, for Japanese exports the effect is three times larger than that of a real appreciation of the yen. The findings imply that a regional currency basket mechanism would lessen the adverse effect of exchange rate flexibility and engineer ...


Some Remarks On The Effects Of Active Labour Market Policies In Post-Transition, Joanna Tyrowicz, Piotr Wojcik Jul 2009

Some Remarks On The Effects Of Active Labour Market Policies In Post-Transition, Joanna Tyrowicz, Piotr Wojcik

Joanna Tyrowicz

Social cohesion is the principal goal behind active labour market policies (ALMPs), including those financed at supra-national level, like the European Social Fund. In this paper we use NUTS4 level data on the local labour market dynamics in an attempt to verify direct and indirect effects of ALMPs. We use data for 2000-2007 for Poland, while this period comprised both stark increases and reductions in the unemployment rates. Over this time also the financing of ALMPs has been increased considerably, transforming both to higher intensity of ALMPs (wider coverage) and higher extensiveness of these activities (increase in per treatment cost ...


Quantifying The Value Of Us Tariff Preferences For Developing Countries, Judith M. Dean, John Wainio Jul 2009

Quantifying The Value Of Us Tariff Preferences For Developing Countries, Judith M. Dean, John Wainio

Judith M Dean

In recent debates, trade preference erosion has been viewed by some as damaging to developing countries, and by others as insignificant, except in a few cases. However, little data have been available to back either view. The objective of this paper is to improve our measures of the size, utilization and value of all US non-reciprocal trade preference programs, in order to shed some light on this debate. Highly disaggregated data are used to quantify the margins, coverage, utilization and value of nonagricultural and agricultural tariff preferences, for all beneficiary countries in the US regional programs and in the GSP ...


The Janjaweed And The Armed Movements Of Sudan, Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed Jun 2009

The Janjaweed And The Armed Movements Of Sudan, Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

The emergence of the Janjaweed as an armed force working with the government to suppress rebellions in Darfur region outraged the international community. They were marked by brutality, destruction, burning, killings and mass rapes. They were also described as Arabs. However, that was not the whole picture, no one observed the living conditions of the Arabs or how were they victims also as the other inhabitants of Darfur. No one also observed that they were used by the Ingaz government to execute the dirty work and bear the consequences. The Arab tribes however, also had other thoughts as they realized ...


Regulatory Harmonisation And Its Impact On Trade In Services, Henk Lm Kox Jun 2009

Regulatory Harmonisation And Its Impact On Trade In Services, Henk Lm Kox

Henk LM Kox

* Impact of domestic regulation on volume of bilateral services trade * Impact domestic regulation on choice between FDI and exports (GATS modes 3 and 1)


What Is Special In Services Internationalisation?, Henk Lm Kox May 2009

What Is Special In Services Internationalisation?, Henk Lm Kox

Henk LM Kox

+ Complex services definition and services trade data + What is special in services internationalisation? + Complementarity versus substitution between supply modes + The puzzle of falling export costs and increasing preference for mode-3 supply + impact of market structure on extensive and intensive export margin + impact of bilateral policy differences on mode choice


Assessing The Viability Of Investment In Sudan (1979-2008), Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed May 2009

Assessing The Viability Of Investment In Sudan (1979-2008), Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

Most developing and underdeveloped countries beside Sudan suffer from low levels of income in addition to the low savings that are result from the lack of public savings channels. Hence, investments depend on the individuals' abilities on savings where they are major motivating vehicle for economic activity due to its direct correlation with capital accumulation process that increases the productive capacity for the national economy and help to create job opportunities and achieving economic development. Subsequently, the importance of the investment comes from the effective role that can be practiced on the national product. Currently, Sudan endures severe economic crisis ...


Ensuring A Decent Global Workplace: Labor Rights Belong In Trade Agreements, Lance A. Compa May 2009

Ensuring A Decent Global Workplace: Labor Rights Belong In Trade Agreements, Lance A. Compa

Lance A Compa

[Excerpt] Linking workers' rights to international trade is an idea whose time has come and stayed, despite the best efforts of free trade ideologues to chase it away. In looming congressional debates about "fast track" negotiating authority, the Bush administration and Congress confront powerful demands from workers, trade unionists and a wider public for rules protecting human rights and labor rights, not just corporate investments, in trade agreements.


Are Foreign Investors Attracted To Weak Environmental Regulations? Evaluating The Evidence From China, Judith Dean, Mary Lovely, Hua Wang May 2009

Are Foreign Investors Attracted To Weak Environmental Regulations? Evaluating The Evidence From China, Judith Dean, Mary Lovely, Hua Wang

Mary E. Lovely

At the center of the pollution haven debate is the claim that foreign investors from industrial countries are attracted to weak environment regulations in developing countries. Some recent location choice studies have found evidence of this attraction, but only for inward FDI in industrial countries. The few studies of inward FDI in developing countries have been hampered by weak measures of environmental stringency and by insufficient data to estimate variation in firm response by pollution intensity. This paper tests for pollution haven behavior by estimating the determinants of location choice for equity joint ventures (EJVs) in China. Beginning with a ...


Rogue Counrty And Potential Cooperation: The United States And Sudan And Feasible Economic Partnership, Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed Apr 2009

Rogue Counrty And Potential Cooperation: The United States And Sudan And Feasible Economic Partnership, Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

The United States declared Sudan as a rogue country in 1995 due to many political considerations. It has imposed many economic and political sanctions against it since that time which represented hindrance to development and resulted in economic crises. Oil explorations started long time by Total Oil Company and resumed by Chevron that halted her activities in Sudan after the flaring of the civil war between the Northern and Southern parts of the country. That work was resumed in 1996 by Chinese companies and was crowned by success and commercial production in 1999. Although the economic situations of Sudan improved ...


Who Cries For Sudan: من الذي يرثي السودان, Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed Apr 2009

Who Cries For Sudan: من الذي يرثي السودان, Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

The institutional collapse in Sudan started long time ago. However, it has accelerator in the past years since Nivasha Comprehensive Peace Agreement and Darfur war.


Implication Of Trips Agreement In Tanzania: Case Study Of Pharmaceutical Patent And Hiv/Aids, Johansein L. Rutaihwa Mr. Apr 2009

Implication Of Trips Agreement In Tanzania: Case Study Of Pharmaceutical Patent And Hiv/Aids, Johansein L. Rutaihwa Mr.

Johansein Rutaihwa

No abstract provided.


Explaining Trade Flows: Traditional And New Determinants Of Trade Patterns, Julien Gourdon Mar 2009

Explaining Trade Flows: Traditional And New Determinants Of Trade Patterns, Julien Gourdon

Julien Gourdon

An empirical tradition in international trade seeks to establish whether the predictions of factor abundance theory match with the data. In this paper, we test if the "new" determinants used in the factor content version of H-O-V models (differences in productivity, in returns to scale or in consumers' preferences) help us to improve our estimation of trade patterns in commodities. The results show that conventional factors are still important in determining trade structure although new determinants need to be included to determine comparative advantage. Turning to the change across periods, differences in factor endowments have not diminished over time: we ...


Migration From Zambia: Ensuring Temporariness Through Cooperation, Mohammad Amin, Aaditya Mattoo Feb 2009

Migration From Zambia: Ensuring Temporariness Through Cooperation, Mohammad Amin, Aaditya Mattoo

Mohammad Amin

The paper analyzes migration from Zambia in order to understand how migration policy can support development in the least developed countries. Overall emigration from Zambia is not high by regional standards but the pattern of migration is skewed towards the skilled and away from the unskilled. A development-friendly approach to migration for Zambia would strive to ensure the temporariness of both types of movement. First, because industrial countries may be willing to accept a higher level of unskilled immigration if they could be certain that it was temporary. Secondly, because any adverse effects of brain drain would be greatly alleviated ...


How Much Es In Csr, Anna Sienicka, Joanna Tyrowicz Jan 2009

How Much Es In Csr, Anna Sienicka, Joanna Tyrowicz

Joanna Tyrowicz

This paper approaches the problem of CSR in the context of social economy development in New Member States at the example of Poland. We explore the opportunities for companies to engage into socially beneficial undertakings with direct rather than indirect economic advantages. Namely, we demonstrate to what extent currently existing legal regulations enable bridging the world of civil society institutions with corporate world.

We suggest that even without specialized instruments adopted and implemented by CEECs governments, innova- tive inclusion solutions developed by civil society organizations may actually provide suficient incentives for companies in new member states to develop CSR. We ...


Exogenous Coalition Formation In The E-Marketplace Based On Geographical Proximity, Tomasz Michalak, Joanna Tyrowicz, Peter Mcburney, Michael Wooldridge Jan 2009

Exogenous Coalition Formation In The E-Marketplace Based On Geographical Proximity, Tomasz Michalak, Joanna Tyrowicz, Peter Mcburney, Michael Wooldridge

Joanna Tyrowicz

This paper considers a model for exogenous coalition formation in e-marketplaces. Using its informational advantage, an e-retailer creates coalitions of customers based on geographical proximity. Most of the literature regards this process as endogenous: a coalition leader among the buyers bundles eventual purchases together in order to obtain a better bargaining position. In contrast – and in response to what is typically observed in business practice – we analyse a situation in which an existing e-retailer exogenously forms customers’ coalitions. Results of this study are highly encouraging. Namely, we demonstrate that even under highly imperfect warehouse management schemes leading to contagion effects ...


Unemployment Convergence In Transition, Joanna Tyrowicz, Piotr Wojcik Jan 2009

Unemployment Convergence In Transition, Joanna Tyrowicz, Piotr Wojcik

Joanna Tyrowicz

In this paper an attempt is made to inquire the dynamics of regional unemployment rates in transition economies. We use policy relevant NUTS4 unemployment rates for transition economies characterised by both relatively intense (Poland, Slovaka) and relatively mild labour market hardships (Czech Republic). We apply diverse analytical techniques to seek traces of convergence, including beta- and sigma-convergence as well as time-series approach.

Transition economies typically experienced rapid growth of the unemployment rates due to profound restructuring. Naturally, these processes affected local labour markets asymmetrically, since regions were diversified with respect to industry composition and economic outlooks. Results in each of ...


Foreign Debt And Domestic Savings In Developing Countries, Luke Okafor, Joanna Tyrowicz Jan 2009

Foreign Debt And Domestic Savings In Developing Countries, Luke Okafor, Joanna Tyrowicz

Joanna Tyrowicz

This paper approaches the question of potential causality between foreign debt and domestic savings in the context of developing countries. Literature provides evidence in as far as foreign debt and development is concerned, but little attention was given so far to internal potential for capital formation. We provide a theoretical framework and test its relevance using 1975-2004 data for two groups of countries: sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America with the Caribbean. With the use of instrumental variables we find negative impact of foreign debt on domestic savings especially in the long run. The results are not susceptible to the choice ...


Is The Impact Really That High? The Effect Of Fdi In Transition, Jan Hagemejer, Joanna Tyrowicz Jan 2009

Is The Impact Really That High? The Effect Of Fdi In Transition, Jan Hagemejer, Joanna Tyrowicz

Joanna Tyrowicz

Literature is not clear on the effect of FDI on the economic performance in hosting countries. The analysed eects include productivity, propensity to export, access to financial markets, etc. Although foreign subsidiaries usually perform better than the average of the hosting economies, sometimes the selection eect is found to be considerable. The analysed eects In this paper we use a unique dataset based on accounting annual reports to the statistical authorities by all medium and large Polish enterprises over a period 1997-2006. We apply a propensity score matching technique to disentangle the effect of self-selection and FDI entry (treatment). We ...


When Eastern Labour Markets Enter Western Europe - Ceecs Labour Market Institutions Upon Euro Zone Accession, Joanna Tyrowicz Jan 2009

When Eastern Labour Markets Enter Western Europe - Ceecs Labour Market Institutions Upon Euro Zone Accession, Joanna Tyrowicz

Joanna Tyrowicz

This paper reviews the literature on the labour market institutions in European Union Member States in the context of monetary integration. Traditionally, labour markets are a key concept in the optimal currency area theory, playing the role of the only accommodation mechanism of asymmetric shocks after the monetary unification. There are several theoretical frameworks linking the institutional design of the labour market to the potential effectiveness of monetary policy in the context of currency areas. Many empirical studies addressed these issues too, yielding important policy implications for labour market reforms in the process of monetary unification. However, there seem to ...


Nonlinear Stochastic Convergence Analysis Of Regional Unemployment Rates In Poland, Joanna Tyrowicz, Piotr Wojcik Jan 2009

Nonlinear Stochastic Convergence Analysis Of Regional Unemployment Rates In Poland, Joanna Tyrowicz, Piotr Wojcik

Joanna Tyrowicz

This paper analyzes convergence of unemployment rates in Poland at NUTS4 level by testing nonlinear convergence, applying the modified KSS-CHLL for each pair of territorial units. The results suggest that actually the convergence is a rare phenomenon and occurs only in 1916 cases out of potential over 70 000 combinations. This paper inquires what systematic reasons contribute to this phenomenon.

There are some circumstances under which unemployment convergence should be more awaited than in the others. These include sharing a higher level territorial authority, experiencing similar labour market hardship or sharing the same structural characteristics. For each of these three ...


Blame No One? Investment Decisions Of The Polish Stock-Listed Companies, Joanna Tyrowicz Jan 2009

Blame No One? Investment Decisions Of The Polish Stock-Listed Companies, Joanna Tyrowicz

Joanna Tyrowicz

It is often raised that enterprises in transition countries are cursed with credit constraints and insufficient capital. Regardless of whether this belief holds for the whole of the economy, the Agency Theory provides a useful both theoretical and empirical framework helping to verify the efficiency of investment decisions in case of companies for which 'objective' future cash-flow valuation is available. The assertion of managerial discretion has been verified empirically for many different countries with the analytical background provided by user cost of capital and Tobin's Q theories. This paper’s contribution is the analysis of the Polish stock-listed companies ...


Labour Market Racial Discrimination In South Africa Revisited, Joanna Tyrowicz, Maciej Szelewicki Jan 2009

Labour Market Racial Discrimination In South Africa Revisited, Joanna Tyrowicz, Maciej Szelewicki

Joanna Tyrowicz

Discrimination is a significant issue in labour market economics across developed as well as developing countries. In this paper we inquire the actual size of wage discrimination in the Republic of Soutn Africa, accounting for large differences in endowments. We apply the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition as well as propensity score matching to adequately determine the size of the pay gap. Although the size of the absolute racial pay gap is enormous, amounting for more than 500%, the actual estimated effect non-attributable to other factors ranges between 45%-55%. This estimator however assumes homogenous discrimination across the wage distribution, while data suggest ...