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Full-Text Articles in International Economics

Coastal And Marine Tourism/Eco-Tourism In The Future, Mohammad Nur Nobi, Md. Alauddin Majumder Oct 2019

Coastal And Marine Tourism/Eco-Tourism In The Future, Mohammad Nur Nobi, Md. Alauddin Majumder

Journal of Ocean and Coastal Economics

Having the world's largest unbroken sea-beach and vast coastline, Bangladesh has an immense potentiality to develop sustainable coastal and marine tourism. In Bangladesh, coastal and marine tourism is already in operation, though on a limited scale. But the growth of tourism in this country is lagging behind compared to the world as a whole. The contribution of this sector in the economy of Bangladesh is still below the mark. Therefore, the economy can be benefited by harnessing opportunities pertinent to the country’s coastal and marine tourism. To attract the local and foreign tourists, the country can improve the ...


The Shifting Dynamics Of International Reserve Currencies, Robert J. Righi Oct 2019

The Shifting Dynamics Of International Reserve Currencies, Robert J. Righi

Undergraduate Economic Review

With the recognition by the IMF of the Chinese renminbi as an international reserve currency in 2015, it is important to understand the modern influence of reserve currencies. We use currency exchange rate data and apply modified workhorse regression models to assign each country’s gross domestic product at purchasing power parity to a reserve currency bloc in order to obtain a global sphere of influence for each reserve currency. We find that the United States retains its dominance but faces challenges from the renminbi and the euro in recent years as the international monetary system becomes tri-polar.


Plastic Bags And Bamboo Stools, Grace R. Bithell Oct 2019

Plastic Bags And Bamboo Stools, Grace R. Bithell

Marriott Student Review

This paper conducts a critical analyses of microfinance institutions. It gives an overview of the complexities of credit in developing countries and shows how microfinance fits into the equations. It discussed the successes and failures of microenterprises in trying to alleviate poverty. It also delves into best practices pertaining to lending to the poor and how microfinance is impacted by culture in developing nations.


Back To Beijing: The Future Of The Olympic Games, Jennifer Maynard Oct 2019

Back To Beijing: The Future Of The Olympic Games, Jennifer Maynard

Marriott Student Review

Just four years ago, the IOC made an unprecedented decision to award Beijing with the 2022 Winter Olympic Games bid, making China the first Asian country ever to host both the Summer and Winter Games. What’s more, prior to this second visit to China, the Olympics will have been held in Pyeongchang (2018) and Tokyo (2020). At the same time that this national superpower has the opportunity to capitalize once again on the all eyes-on-China phenomenon, the IOC has the chance to truly go global.


Coming Stakes In The Ocean: Food Production, Shipping And Trade, Tourism, Ecosystem-Biodiversity, New Technologies And Climate Change Challenges In Bangladesh, Muhammad Abdur Rouf, Sk Mustafizur Rahman, Md Nazmul Ahsan Oct 2019

Coming Stakes In The Ocean: Food Production, Shipping And Trade, Tourism, Ecosystem-Biodiversity, New Technologies And Climate Change Challenges In Bangladesh, Muhammad Abdur Rouf, Sk Mustafizur Rahman, Md Nazmul Ahsan

Journal of Ocean and Coastal Economics

Blue economy is an emerging concept in all over the world where Bangladesh is not in exception. The blue economy of Bangladesh is subject to multiple interlinked activities. Among the major activities, food production, shipping and trade, tourism, ecosystem-biodiversity, new technologies and climate change challenges are the most promising sectors which are discussed in this chapter to project the present and future potential, constrains, ways to overcome in the context of the blue economy of Bangladesh following various published literature. The review has revealed that Bangladesh has enormous resources which have great potential to uplift the existing economy, improving livelihoods ...


Future Importance Of Maritime Activities In Bangladesh, M Gulam Hussain, Pierre Failler, Subrata Sarker Oct 2019

Future Importance Of Maritime Activities In Bangladesh, M Gulam Hussain, Pierre Failler, Subrata Sarker

Journal of Ocean and Coastal Economics

Blue Economy is a concept of economic growth through the sustainable utilization of ocean resources with technological inputs to improve livelihoods and meet the growing demands for jobs without hampering the health of the ocean ecosystem. This paper offers an overview of current maritime key activities, major trends and scenarios, future blue economy development activities with economic and social importance, ecological importance and blue economy policy framework. This paper also focuses on the major constraints and challenges. The current maritime key activities include extraction of living and non-living resources, land based activities, trades and transportation, shipbuilding and ship breaking, tourism ...


The Effect Of Inflation Targeting Policies On Dollarization-A Cross-Country Analysis, Dweepobotee Brahma Sep 2019

The Effect Of Inflation Targeting Policies On Dollarization-A Cross-Country Analysis, Dweepobotee Brahma

The Hilltop Review

This paper attempts to review the experiences of various dollarized economies from the adoption of an explicit inflation-targeting framework for domestic monetary policy. Dollarization is the phenomenon where agents in a country choose to use a foreign currency instead of their domestic currency. This often occurs in response to episodes of high inflation rate in the domestic economy. Central Banks of these countries often respond by adopting an inflation-targeting regime. This paper attempts to evaluate the effectiveness of such a policy by conducting a cross-country comparison. A panel dataset from 14 dollarized economies from 2001-2015, is used to compare between ...


The Oppressive Pressures Of Globalization And Neoliberalism On Mexican Maquiladora Garment Workers, Jenna Demeter Jul 2019

The Oppressive Pressures Of Globalization And Neoliberalism On Mexican Maquiladora Garment Workers, Jenna Demeter

Pursuit - The Journal of Undergraduate Research at the University of Tennessee

The international economic trends of globalization and neoliberalism have exposed and enabled the exploitation of Mexican workers, especially women in the maquiladora garment industry. During the 1950s, globalization gave rise to the new international division of labor and transnational corporations (TNCs) that have offshored labor-intensive phases of production to developing countries, many of which have pursued export-led industrialization. Export processing in Mexico was encouraged in the 1960s by Item 807 of the U.S. Tariff Code and Mexico’s Border Industrialization Program. Especially following the Latin American debt crisis of the 1980s, advanced capitalist countries and International Financial Institutions foisted ...


Effect Of Oil Price Shock On Monetary Policy In Nigeria: A Vector Autoregressive Analysis, Ama Agyeiwaa Abokwah Jul 2019

Effect Of Oil Price Shock On Monetary Policy In Nigeria: A Vector Autoregressive Analysis, Ama Agyeiwaa Abokwah

International Journal of African Development

This paper examines the effects of oil price shocks on interest rate, real GDP and real effective exchange rate in Nigeria using a vector autoregressive (VAR) model. The results from the impulse response function suggests that positive oil price shocks have no effect on the interest rate (monetary policy), real exchange rate and real GDP. This result suggests that monetary policy in Nigeria does not respond to oil price shocks. Both the impulse response functions and variance decomposition analysis to a large extent confirmed that oil price shocks are only able to explain a small proportion of the forecast error ...


Intergovernmental Authority On Development And East African Community: Viability Of Merger, Andualem Zewdie Jul 2019

Intergovernmental Authority On Development And East African Community: Viability Of Merger, Andualem Zewdie

International Journal of African Development

Constituting a regional economic community has immense benefits to the societies within a given region. Regional Economic Communities (RECs) would play an inevitable role in increasing people to people interactions and gradually forging interdependence in different sectors, which used to limit government to government. Often, such bondage within given RECs among states in general and societies in particular paves the way to address the ills of the respective societies in a collaborative manner. In fact, it is plausible to argue that there is a conducive environment to constitute and build up RECs in the present globalizing world. Parallel to the ...


Opportunities And Challenges For Community-Based Ecotourism Development: The Case Of Alatish National Park, Northwest Ethiopia, Kassegn Berhanu Jul 2019

Opportunities And Challenges For Community-Based Ecotourism Development: The Case Of Alatish National Park, Northwest Ethiopia, Kassegn Berhanu

International Journal of African Development

Contrary to traditional forms of tourism such as mass tourism, ecotourism has widely been recognized as an economic diversification and developmental tool, and an appropriate approach for conservation of natural resources for destinations with tourism heritage possessions as it provides protection and economic incentives. The aim of this study is to assess opportunities and challenges for community-based ecotourism development. A mixed research approach was devised and a cross-sectional research design was used. Tools of primary data collection were questionnaires, focus group discussions, interviews and observation checklists. Secondary data were collected from related articles, research and documents obtained from offices. Quantitative ...


Nutrition And Trade Liberalization In Africa, Ismaelline Eba Nguema Jul 2019

Nutrition And Trade Liberalization In Africa, Ismaelline Eba Nguema

International Journal of African Development

Trade openness and nutrition are concepts that are closely related. Openness could contribute to an improvement in nutrition under only certain conditions. These include improved export earnings, ultimately the import capacity of the countries participating in the exchange, and maintaining a sufficient level of agricultural production. The objective of this article is to analyze the link between trade liberalization and nutrition in Africa.

Trade openness and nutrition are concepts that are closely related. Openness could contribute to an improvement in nutrition under only certain conditions. These include improved export earnings, ultimately the import capacity of the countries participating in the ...


Understanding Remittances In Eritrea: An Exploratory Study, Fikresus Amahazion Jul 2019

Understanding Remittances In Eritrea: An Exploratory Study, Fikresus Amahazion

International Journal of African Development

Migration has been characterized as a fundamental component of the human experience, and today there are several hundred million international migrants around the world. Although migrants leave their home country, they maintain links, particularly through remittances. Economic remittances supplement the domestic incomes of millions of poor families and are vital for many developing countries. This paper explores economic remittances into Eritrea, examining the particular trends, amounts received, and how remittances are generally consumed. Additionally, the paper explores general perceptions about remittances and their impact upon society in Eritrea. Based on interviews and focus group discussions with individuals and households across ...


Editorial Note, Sisay Asefa Jul 2019

Editorial Note, Sisay Asefa

International Journal of African Development

Chief Editor Sisay Asefa discusses the articles in Vol 5 n. 2 of the International Journal of African Development.


International Journal Of African Development, Vol. 5, Issue 2 Jul 2019

International Journal Of African Development, Vol. 5, Issue 2

International Journal of African Development

Complete issue of International Journal of African Development, Volume 5, Issue 2 - Spring 2019.


The Impact Of 2018 Tariffs On U.S. Trade Values Across Relevant Categories, Lydia Murray May 2019

The Impact Of 2018 Tariffs On U.S. Trade Values Across Relevant Categories, Lydia Murray

Undergraduate Economic Review

The Office of the United States Trade Representative, under the direction of President Donald Trump, has implemented protectionist tariffs to an extent not seen in the past several decades. This paper explores data from the U.S. Census Bureau to analyze how the values of U.S. imports and exports have differed from what would have been expected for 2018 in the absence of tariffs. This is done by using past years’ data to create a predictive curve for 2018 trade values across several different product categories, which have been subject to tariffs. The general finding of this paper is ...


A Cge-Model Analysis Of U.S. Imposed Automotive Tariffs, Angela Li Apr 2019

A Cge-Model Analysis Of U.S. Imposed Automotive Tariffs, Angela Li

Undergraduate Economic Review

Using a computable generable equilibrium (CGE) model, this research paper evaluates the effects of a U.S. imposed 25% automotive import tariff on NAFTA countries and the European Union, the greatest U.S. automotive trade partners. Three simulations were conducted: the implementation of tariffs with no retaliation, equivalent retaliation on the same products, and retaliation on the top exports of politically significant states, with sensitivity analysis applied in the final scenario. The results demonstrate that the EU is marginally affected while the NAFTA countries experience the greatest increases in prices and reduction in total wages.


The Point Of No Return? Protecting Liberty From Globalism And Nationalism, Elliot Zalewski Apr 2019

The Point Of No Return? Protecting Liberty From Globalism And Nationalism, Elliot Zalewski

The Spectrum: A Scholars Day Journal

The world's borders are beginning to rapidly fade away from significance. Consequently, previously independent nations are being forced into the same shrinking economic and political arena. Isolationism is a thing of the past, and no nation can escape the gravitational pull of the global governance community, particularly in reference to international organizations such as the UN and EU. Hence, allied nations are voluntarily relinquishing their sovereignty in exchange for a place in the seemingly beneficial conglomerate entities, while nations who are adversaries cannot avoid interactions, rising tensions and the threat of military intervention. As a response to the chaos ...


Review Of Giridharadas, A. (2018). "Winners Take All: The Elite Charade Of Changing The World." New York: Alfred A Knopf., Joshua H. Martin, Kae Novak Apr 2019

Review Of Giridharadas, A. (2018). "Winners Take All: The Elite Charade Of Changing The World." New York: Alfred A Knopf., Joshua H. Martin, Kae Novak

Class, Race and Corporate Power

A review of Ananad Giridharadas' "Winners Take All: The Elite Charade of Changing the World" (2018). New York: Alfred A Knopf.


Belgium’S 2008 Recentralization Of Wage-Setting Mechanisms And The Decentralization-Unit Labor Costs-Net Exports Link: Chronicle Of A Death Foretold?, Ines Pedro Fernandes Mar 2019

Belgium’S 2008 Recentralization Of Wage-Setting Mechanisms And The Decentralization-Unit Labor Costs-Net Exports Link: Chronicle Of A Death Foretold?, Ines Pedro Fernandes

Undergraduate Economic Review

Anchored on scholarly literature on international competitiveness and the classical definition of competitiveness as net exports, policy making institutions support decentralized wage-setting mechanisms. The rationale is that decentralized wage-setting systems lower wages and unit labor costs (ULC) and, therefore, increase net exports. This paper contains a literature review on the wage-setting–ULC–net exports link and challenges conventional rationales by examining the co-evolution of Belgium’s real wages and net exports across wage percentiles and sectors. Belgium is a case in point, since the country experienced both increasing real wages and increasing net exports after recentralizing wage-setting mechanisms in 2008.


The Gettysburg Economic Review, Volume 11, Spring 2019 Jan 2019

The Gettysburg Economic Review, Volume 11, Spring 2019

Gettysburg Economic Review

No abstract provided.


Blockchain Technology - China's Bid To High Long-Run Growth, Tyler J. Mann Jan 2019

Blockchain Technology - China's Bid To High Long-Run Growth, Tyler J. Mann

Gettysburg Economic Review

Despite having the second largest economy at $13 trillion, China has only recently surpassed the World Bank’s definition of the ‘middle-income range’ which is a gross national income per capita between $1,000 to $12,000 (constant 2011 international $). This is a noteworthy accomplishment since many other developing nations have fallen victim to economic stagnation within this range leading to the term “middle-income trap”. This paper will argue that one of the ways in which China escaped the middle-income trap and will continue to grow its economic influence is through the support of blockchain technology. Research and development, early ...


The Fork In The Road Revisited: An Attempt To Overcome The Clash Between Formalistic And Pragmatic Approaches, Markus A. Petsche Jan 2019

The Fork In The Road Revisited: An Attempt To Overcome The Clash Between Formalistic And Pragmatic Approaches, Markus A. Petsche

Washington University Global Studies Law Review

This article revisits one of the most controversial issues of international investment law, namely the question of the effect of fork-in- the-road (FITR) clauses contained in investment treaties. It provides a comprehensive and detailed examination of the relevant arbitral case law, highlighting the co-existence of two formalistic approaches (based respectively on the distinction between treaty and contract claims and the lis pendens-related triple-identity test) with the more pragmatic fundamental-basis test established by the ICSID tribunal in Pantechniki v. Albanania and subsequently endorsed in H&H v. Egypt. This contribution critically examines these two strands of case law, emphasizing both the ...


Why China Had To “Ban” Cryptocurrency But The U.S. Did Not: A Comparative Analysis Of Regulations On Crypto-Markets Between The U.S. And China, Rain Xie Jan 2019

Why China Had To “Ban” Cryptocurrency But The U.S. Did Not: A Comparative Analysis Of Regulations On Crypto-Markets Between The U.S. And China, Rain Xie

Washington University Global Studies Law Review

The cryptocurrency market grew from a $1.5 billion market capitalization in early 2013 to over $795 billion in January 2018. Bitcoin, an exemplar cryptocurrency, gained value from $0.08 before 2010 to over $17,000 per bitcoin in December 2017. While cryptocurrencies have campaigned for revolutionizing financial transactions, the crypto-market is plagued by nefarious minds, fleecing investors in frauds and Ponzi schemes. This crypto-mania therefore presents numerous legal and regulatory challenges that demand prompt and efficient responses. Nevertheless, the decentralized, anonymous nature of cryptocurrencies magnifies these challenges and has constantly outpaced the law’s ability to respond. To understand ...


Eyes On The Money: How Realist Economic Policy Facilitates The Modern Surveillance State In The Usa And The Prc, Benjamin Warder Dec 2018

Eyes On The Money: How Realist Economic Policy Facilitates The Modern Surveillance State In The Usa And The Prc, Benjamin Warder

Channels: Where Disciplines Meet

This paper examines the manner in which the United States of America and the People’s Republic of China, as the world’s leading economic superpowers, pursue a generally realist international relations approach to maintaining and securing their bases of economic power, and how this purpose translates into the development and proliferation of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) camera networks in major cities as a means of protecting those cities as economic hubs crucial to the national economy. Two research questions guide the paper. First, how does each state demonstrate realist policies in the process of securing economic centers and the ...


Can A Global Fund Help Solve The Global Marine Plastic Debris Problem?, Karen Raubenheimer, Alistair Mcilgorm Dec 2018

Can A Global Fund Help Solve The Global Marine Plastic Debris Problem?, Karen Raubenheimer, Alistair Mcilgorm

Journal of Ocean and Coastal Economics

The problem of marine plastic debris impacts all of the world’s oceans and requires all nations to respond. However, developing States require funds to improve waste management infrastructure and services in order to reduce marine debris at source. Plastics manufacturers and retailers globally must be incentivised to design products for the environment as well as for the collection and end-of-life treatment facilities available within the intended markets. Given the oceans are a global common, we investigate the option of developing a global fund mechanism to progress the necessary actions to reduce plastic waste entering the world’s oceans. This ...


Breaking The Poverty Trap In Africa: A Comparative Perspective On Poverty Alleviation, Abu Girma Moges Oct 2018

Breaking The Poverty Trap In Africa: A Comparative Perspective On Poverty Alleviation, Abu Girma Moges

International Journal of African Development

An increasing number of African countries have recently registered improved rates of economic growth. Translating economic growth into poverty reduction, however, requires putting into place policies and institutions that promote a sustainable and shared economic growth process. The degree of success in poverty reduction depends largely on balancing the process of economic growth and the judicious pattern of income distribution so that an increasing share of the population benefits from the growth process and engages in more productive endeavors. Building the necessary policy and institutional framework to promote sustainable and shared economic growth is central in breaking the poverty trap ...


Indigenous Knowledge And The Development Debate In Africa, Fidelis Ewane, Samson Ajagbe Oct 2018

Indigenous Knowledge And The Development Debate In Africa, Fidelis Ewane, Samson Ajagbe

International Journal of African Development

This research employs Bourdieu’s theory of habitus to explain the disposition of the donor community to integrate indigenous knowledge systems and practices into development projects. The theory’s objectivist perspective specifies the mechanism that links structural conditioning to social practice and regularities. It holds that power is culturally and symbolically created, and it is constantly re-legitimized through the interplay of agency and structure. This facilitates an analysis of the development field as social space characterized by indigenous and donor power relations. It argues that the reinforcement of indigenous knowledge as the main channel for development will generate transferable local ...


Does Inclusive Growth Matter For Regional Integration In Africa? An Empirical Assessment, Mohammed Shuaibu, Mamello Nchake Oct 2018

Does Inclusive Growth Matter For Regional Integration In Africa? An Empirical Assessment, Mohammed Shuaibu, Mamello Nchake

International Journal of African Development

Inclusive growth is an important channel through which African countries can foster higher regional integration especially through trade. This is because many African countries are characterized by exclusive growth, small and fragmented domestic markets that are landlocked and often prone to external shocks. Using an augmented gravity specification, this paper conducts an empirical investigation of the relationship between regional integration and inclusive growth in Africa. The adapted model is estimated using ordinary least squares, Pseudo Poisson maximum likelihood estimator and the Blundell-Bond system generalized method of moment estimator. The empirical results reveal that inclusive growth plays a vital role towards ...


The Impact Of Motivation On Employee Performance In Selected Insurance Companies In Nigeria., Oluwayomi A. Ekundayo Mr. Oct 2018

The Impact Of Motivation On Employee Performance In Selected Insurance Companies In Nigeria., Oluwayomi A. Ekundayo Mr.

International Journal of African Development

Motivation refers to a complexity of forces that inspires a person at work to intensify his desire and willingness to use his potentialities to perform in order to achieve organizational goals or objectives. This study investigates the relationship between motivation and the level of employee performance as applied to some selected insurance companies in Lagos. The study has three main objectives: to evaluate the effects of motivation on employee performance in some selected insurance companies, to assess motivational factors that can influence employee performance, and to recommend possible policies and innovations for better performance of the employees and increased profitability ...