Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

International Economics Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 24 of 24

Full-Text Articles in International Economics

The Shifting Dynamics Of International Reserve Currencies, Robert J. Righi Oct 2019

The Shifting Dynamics Of International Reserve Currencies, Robert J. Righi

Undergraduate Economic Review

With the recognition by the IMF of the Chinese renminbi as an international reserve currency in 2015, it is important to understand the modern influence of reserve currencies. We use currency exchange rate data and apply modified workhorse regression models to assign each country’s gross domestic product at purchasing power parity to a reserve currency bloc in order to obtain a global sphere of influence for each reserve currency. We find that the United States retains its dominance but faces challenges from the renminbi and the euro in recent years as the international monetary system becomes tri-polar.


The Impact Of 2018 Tariffs On U.S. Trade Values Across Relevant Categories, Lydia Murray May 2019

The Impact Of 2018 Tariffs On U.S. Trade Values Across Relevant Categories, Lydia Murray

Undergraduate Economic Review

The Office of the United States Trade Representative, under the direction of President Donald Trump, has implemented protectionist tariffs to an extent not seen in the past several decades. This paper explores data from the U.S. Census Bureau to analyze how the values of U.S. imports and exports have differed from what would have been expected for 2018 in the absence of tariffs. This is done by using past years’ data to create a predictive curve for 2018 trade values across several different product categories, which have been subject to tariffs. The general finding of this paper is ...


A Cge-Model Analysis Of U.S. Imposed Automotive Tariffs, Angela Li Apr 2019

A Cge-Model Analysis Of U.S. Imposed Automotive Tariffs, Angela Li

Undergraduate Economic Review

Using a computable generable equilibrium (CGE) model, this research paper evaluates the effects of a U.S. imposed 25% automotive import tariff on NAFTA countries and the European Union, the greatest U.S. automotive trade partners. Three simulations were conducted: the implementation of tariffs with no retaliation, equivalent retaliation on the same products, and retaliation on the top exports of politically significant states, with sensitivity analysis applied in the final scenario. The results demonstrate that the EU is marginally affected while the NAFTA countries experience the greatest increases in prices and reduction in total wages.


Belgium’S 2008 Recentralization Of Wage-Setting Mechanisms And The Decentralization-Unit Labor Costs-Net Exports Link: Chronicle Of A Death Foretold?, Ines Pedro Fernandes Mar 2019

Belgium’S 2008 Recentralization Of Wage-Setting Mechanisms And The Decentralization-Unit Labor Costs-Net Exports Link: Chronicle Of A Death Foretold?, Ines Pedro Fernandes

Undergraduate Economic Review

Anchored on scholarly literature on international competitiveness and the classical definition of competitiveness as net exports, policy making institutions support decentralized wage-setting mechanisms. The rationale is that decentralized wage-setting systems lower wages and unit labor costs (ULC) and, therefore, increase net exports. This paper contains a literature review on the wage-setting–ULC–net exports link and challenges conventional rationales by examining the co-evolution of Belgium’s real wages and net exports across wage percentiles and sectors. Belgium is a case in point, since the country experienced both increasing real wages and increasing net exports after recentralizing wage-setting mechanisms in 2008.


Foreign Capital Inflows And Economic Well-Being: A Statistical Analysis Of 46 Sub-Saharan African Countries From 1995-2015, Alexander M. Csanadi Oct 2018

Foreign Capital Inflows And Economic Well-Being: A Statistical Analysis Of 46 Sub-Saharan African Countries From 1995-2015, Alexander M. Csanadi

Undergraduate Economic Review

Variation in the economic well-being among sub-Saharan African countries is among the highest of any region in the world. This paper attempts to address this disparity by exploring the role of foreign capital inflows. This project extends the concept of well-being beyond GDP growth, to include measures of poverty and inequality. A multivariate regression analysis finds that the observed capital inflows have significant effects on all three measurements of well-being. Findings suggest that the level of affluence of the domestic population has significant effects on the ability of those populations to translate diaspora remittances into improvements in well-being.


The Economic Impacts Of A U.S. Withdrawal From Nafta: A Cge Analysis, Jonathan Liu May 2018

The Economic Impacts Of A U.S. Withdrawal From Nafta: A Cge Analysis, Jonathan Liu

Undergraduate Economic Review

The aim of this study is to examine the economic impacts of a U.S. withdrawal from the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on Canada, Mexico and the United States. The shocks simulate scenarios in which the U.S instates penalizing tariff rates on NAFTA countries, a trade war between NAFTA members and a tariff reset to the WTO MFN rates. The effects of these tariff structures are analyzed under the framework of a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model with a focus on macroeconomic variables and welfare. The findings show that, in all iterations, Mexico’s economy takes a ...


Making The Grade: The Contribution Of Education Expenditure To Economic Growth, Neil Frank Apr 2018

Making The Grade: The Contribution Of Education Expenditure To Economic Growth, Neil Frank

Undergraduate Economic Review

Does education expenditure promote long-run economic growth? Empirical evidence is inconclusive. This paper addresses the question of how education expenditure influences economic growth using a long run growth accounting model analyzing 179 countries from 1970 to 2014. Overall, the results indicate that education expenditure does positively affect growth. However, when the sample is split into different criteria based on economic prosperity of the countries in question, the results change. In non-oil countries education expenditure increases economic growth, in developing countries education expenditure has a negative impact and in OECD countries the impact is non-significant.


Education And Economic Dominance, Daniil Kashkarov Dec 2016

Education And Economic Dominance, Daniil Kashkarov

Undergraduate Economic Review

The paper examines the role of national education in achieving leading positions in global economic relations. Theoretical part uses stock of knowledge accumulated by scholars in the sphere related to human capital. Empirical part uses logistic regressions in order to test for relationship between global economic dominance and national education. Membership in the G20 is used in the models as a dependent categorical variable indicating the fact of the worldwide leadership. The models indicate that human capital and its educational part have statistically significant influence on the probability of becoming worldwide economic leader.


The Impact Of Culture, Institutions, And The Euro On Trade Flows In Europe, James Aylward Nov 2016

The Impact Of Culture, Institutions, And The Euro On Trade Flows In Europe, James Aylward

Undergraduate Economic Review

This paper sets out to study the role of cultural and institutional differences across European countries in explaining patterns of bilateral trade within Europe by using a gravity model approach on panel data for 24 European countries, covering the years 2002 through 2006. It may be expected that cultural and institutional “distance” between Eurozone countries would have a comparatively smaller impact on bilateral trade flows by virtue of the countries’ shared currency relative to the impact of such determinants on bilateral trade flows between two countries that do not share a currency. Alternatively, such determinants could have a significant impact ...


Determining Yuan Valuation- An Extension Of The Imf External Balance Assessment Approach, Shantanu A. Banerjee Nov 2016

Determining Yuan Valuation- An Extension Of The Imf External Balance Assessment Approach, Shantanu A. Banerjee

Undergraduate Economic Review

This paper applies the IMF EBA methodology to a China-specific time series analysis, using a 2SLS instrumented regression with Newey-West standard errors to determine the policy gap that results from PBOC intervention. We find the impact of reserve accumulation to be more significant in magnitude than indicated by the EBA, demonstrating a modest improvement in accuracy with the introduction of central bank liquidity swaps as a novel instrument. Evidence of a long term equilibrium relationship is also found between the real effective exchange rate and reserve accumulation, with the presence of medium level capital controls.


Crafting Chaos: The Classification Of Unilateral Transfers Under The Current Account At Bretton Woods And Its Impact On Remittances To The Indian State Of Kerala, Anish Gawande Nov 2016

Crafting Chaos: The Classification Of Unilateral Transfers Under The Current Account At Bretton Woods And Its Impact On Remittances To The Indian State Of Kerala, Anish Gawande

Undergraduate Economic Review

This essay aims to analyse the classification of unilateral transfers under the current account at Bretton Woods despite significant opposition from larger delegations of major Allied powers, bringing to the forefront the global liquidity of remittances in the post-War years permitted by their fully currency convertible nature. Using the example of the Indian State of Kerala, this paper charts the relevance of their sustained uninterrupted flow to their subsequent exponential growth in the last three decades, using the case study as a pivot to argue for better policy measures that maximise their multiplier effect.


The Shochu Conundrum: Economics And Gatt Article Iii, Alex Davis May 2016

The Shochu Conundrum: Economics And Gatt Article Iii, Alex Davis

Undergraduate Economic Review

This paper will discuss the National Treatment (NT) obligation contained in Article III of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) 1994 as applied in precedential tax discrimination cases. Case law has not taken a firm stance on the economic versus legal interpretation of the likeness/directly competitive or substitutable (DCS) criterion or the principle of “so as to afford protection” (SATAP) captured in Article III.2. After examining the case law on discriminatory taxation, I conclude that the NT obligation in trade agreements is imperfect. Nonetheless, NT is a critical component of these agreements, and the international trade ...


Exploring Economic And Social Factors That Increase Economic And Well-Being Measurements Of Developing And Developed Countries, Kofi D. Boadu Jan 2016

Exploring Economic And Social Factors That Increase Economic And Well-Being Measurements Of Developing And Developed Countries, Kofi D. Boadu

Undergraduate Economic Review

The historical growth paths of developed and developing countries reveal the challenges that developing countries face in traveling the road from poverty to prosperity. Based on economic development literature, economic theory, and ordinary least squares (OLS) regression method, this research considers whether or not, and to what extent globalization characteristics, foreign direct investment levels (FDI), secondary school enrollment rates, information communication technology (ICT) as a percentage of trade imports, and happiness levels of 103 developing and developed countries, impact their GDP per capita levels. This paper will also take a look at alternative ways of viewing and measuring economic success.


International Trade In Telecommunication Services: A Cross Sectional Gravity Regression, Justin C. Doty Sep 2015

International Trade In Telecommunication Services: A Cross Sectional Gravity Regression, Justin C. Doty

Undergraduate Economic Review

The gravity model has been successful in measuring the effects of institutions, trade barriers, and other characteristics on trade in goods. Kimura and Lee [2004] find the gravity model is also suitable for measuring trade in services. The Organization for Economic Co-Development [2009a] develop gravity models for pilot service sectors such as construction, computer, professional, and telecommunication services. The purpose of this paper is to extend the findings of the OECD paper for telecommunication services. The paper finds that a 10 percent increase in distance between countries will decrease imports by 11.77 percent. Imports of telecommunication services are influenced ...


Art Arbitrage - Violations Of The Law Of One Price Created By Fine Art Auctions, Amy Liu Jun 2015

Art Arbitrage - Violations Of The Law Of One Price Created By Fine Art Auctions, Amy Liu

Undergraduate Economic Review

Although fine art is becoming increasingly popular as investment, its price determination is relatively opaque. This paper expands upon the work of Pesando (1993) and Pesando and Shum (2007) concerning the law of one price in the art auction industry. By examining the sale history of silkscreen prints from Andy Warhol’s 1970 series Flowers, this paper controls for the physical characteristics of particular artwork and seeks to determine the likelihood of sale and price differentials created by specific auction environments. This paper further examines the extent to which auction houses take into account these auction environments when setting presale ...


State Failure And Political Instability: The Impact Of Educational Attainment In Africa, Jesse D. Neugarten Jan 2015

State Failure And Political Instability: The Impact Of Educational Attainment In Africa, Jesse D. Neugarten

Undergraduate Economic Review

I investigate the role of educational attainment on state failure and political stability across the African continent. For the empirical analysis, I estimate a Linear Probability Model (LPM) for State Failure by Ordinary Least Squares (OLS). I hypothesize that differences in educational attainment in Africa can explain differences in political stability and state failure. Furthermore, I believe that this effect has persisted over time and that early educational attainment in the late colonial and early independence era is a significant determinant of state affairs in more recent times. I find that early secondary educational attainment explains higher state stability, while ...


Evaluate The Effect Of Imf’S Longer-Term Concessional Lending Programs On Growth In The Development Background Of Sub-Saharan Region, Guanyi Yang Sep 2013

Evaluate The Effect Of Imf’S Longer-Term Concessional Lending Programs On Growth In The Development Background Of Sub-Saharan Region, Guanyi Yang

Undergraduate Economic Review

Despite different voices from critics, the IMF has put development at the center of its policies. This paper tries to separate the effect of SAF, ESAF, PRGF, and ECF on growth empirically. Selecting a sample of 44 countries in the Sub-Saharan region from 1986 to 2011, it analyzes whether the IMF’s longer-term structural adjustment programs influences economic growth in participating countries. Consistent with previous studies, this research shows that SAF and ESAF have statistically insignificant impact on growth in the short term and long term. PRGF and ECF, on the other hand, are found to have a large and ...


Shanghai As An International Financial Center - Aspiration, Reality And Implication, Raph Luo Mar 2012

Shanghai As An International Financial Center - Aspiration, Reality And Implication, Raph Luo

Undergraduate Economic Review

China’s rapid economic development, especially in the financial sector, has ignited the discussion of the re-emergence of Shanghai as a leading international financial center (IFC). Much still remains to be done for Shanghai to catch up with established centers such as New York and London, including deepening its capital markets and opening itself up to cross-border capital flows. While Shanghai’s current financial development has been made possible largely by China’s past economic conditions and policies, recent reforms are also likely to guarantee Shanghai the position as a world-class onshore IFC in the near future. The rise of ...


Returns From Self-Employment: Using Human Capital Theory To Compare U.S. Natives And Immigrants, Nikola Popovic Mar 2012

Returns From Self-Employment: Using Human Capital Theory To Compare U.S. Natives And Immigrants, Nikola Popovic

Undergraduate Economic Review

The focus of this paper is to examine the economic returns from self-employment when comparing natives and immigrants. I hypothesize that returns from self-employment will increase with age and education, and that immigrants from China, India, and the Philippines will have higher returns while immigrants from Mexico will have lower returns than natives. I also hypothesize that immigrants with high levels of education will earn more than natives with the same amount of education. The OLS regressions show that human capital variables explain the differences in self-employed income between natives and immigrants, as the literature suggests.


Economic Shocks, Trade And International Relations, Jack Barnes Thompson Feb 2012

Economic Shocks, Trade And International Relations, Jack Barnes Thompson

Undergraduate Economic Review

In an interdependent world, trade has unavoidable game aspects. A model with two agents is used to determine the impact of trade and a military alliance between two major world players, North America and China, and an external non-actor, South Korea. The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of cooperative actions and outcomes by the two agents on a two-track policy for South Korea. We also study a variant to the game by considering a change in international relations. Welfare implications are also observed.


Interest Rate Policy In China: The Impact Of Suppressed Deposit Rates On Household Income From 2000-2007, Zhuliang James Zhang Dec 2011

Interest Rate Policy In China: The Impact Of Suppressed Deposit Rates On Household Income From 2000-2007, Zhuliang James Zhang

Undergraduate Economic Review

An often-overlooked impact of China’s policy of maintaining low interest has been the suppression of household interest income, which has increased the propensity of households to save while decreasing their consumption rates. This paper posits that from 2000 to 2007, deposit rates in China were suppressed annually by around 720 basis points, imposing an implicit tax on annual per-capita income of 12.8% on average. Raising deposit rates will increase household income and boost consumption in the medium-term if the Chinese government is able to initiate policy shifts that distribute the gains of economic growth more equitably to households ...


Economic Freedom And Fiscal Performance: A Regression Analysis Of Indices Of Economic Freedom On Per Capita Gdp, Jason R. Ockey Apr 2011

Economic Freedom And Fiscal Performance: A Regression Analysis Of Indices Of Economic Freedom On Per Capita Gdp, Jason R. Ockey

Undergraduate Economic Review

This paper explores whether different forms of economic freedom drive fiscal performance. We also seek to determine which specific measurements of economic freedom have the most statistically significant impacts. Though the results of our analysis show that economic freedom does impact levels of per capita GDP, the interpretation of these results is more complicated. Because some indices of economic freedom have negative effects on per capita GDP or are statistically insignificant, it is important to note that simply generally increasing a country’s overall level of economic freedom will not necessarily spur economic growth or increase fiscal performance. This paper ...


The Role Of Entrepreneurship In Economic Growth, Daniel Smith May 2010

The Role Of Entrepreneurship In Economic Growth, Daniel Smith

Undergraduate Economic Review

This study confirms that the level of entrepreneurship in a given country has a significant positive effect on the level of economic growth in that country. Contrary to some established theories, this study has found evidence that the level of entrepreneurship in a given country is not explained by the levels of the traditional causes of economic growth in that country (specifically the amounts of labor, capital, and knowledge that a country possesses as well as the presence or absence of market friendly government policies). Instead, entrepreneurship acts as an independent factor.


The Extended Heckscher-Ohlin Model: Patterns Of Trade Between The U.S. And China, Mark Clements Jan 2007

The Extended Heckscher-Ohlin Model: Patterns Of Trade Between The U.S. And China, Mark Clements

Undergraduate Economic Review

Though there have been many attempts to extend the Heckscher-Ohlin model in order to account for empirical data, I intend to examine John Romalis’ model of factor proportions and commodity structure. The purpose of this paper is to examine Romalis’ model to see if it is supported by empirical data on trade between China and the United States. In order to do this, I will use data from the 2000 and 2005 U.S. Census trade data CD-ROM to determine if Romalis’ extended Hecksher-Ohlin model of international trade can explain the U.S.-China pattern of trade.