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Full-Text Articles in International Economics

Import Decisions And Firm Performance - An Empirical Analysis For The Netherlands, Henk Lm Kox Sep 2012

Import Decisions And Firm Performance - An Empirical Analysis For The Netherlands, Henk Lm Kox

Henk LM Kox

This paper investigates the relation between import decisions and productivity performance for Dutch firms. Importer productivity premiums appear to be larger than those for exporting firms. In the perspective of recent trade theory this indicates that trade costs for importers are at least as important as they are for exporting firms. For import starters I find evidence that ex ante productivity-based self selection is important. This also points in the direction of considerable sunk trade costs for firms that engage in direct imports.


Unleashing Competition In Eu Business Services, Henk Lm Kox Sep 2012

Unleashing Competition In Eu Business Services, Henk Lm Kox

Henk LM Kox

This policy brief provides research results indicating that a lack of competitive selection contributes to the productivity stagnation in European business services. Competition between small firms and large firms in business services is found to be weak. Inefficiencies also persist within size classes, which indicates a lack of competitive pressure. Markets for business services appear to work best in countries with flexible regulation on employment change, and with low regulatory costs for firms that start-up or exit a business. Countries with more openness to foreign competition perform better in terms of competitive selection and productivity. Policy simulations show that many ...


Dynamic Market Selection In Eu Business Services, Henk Lm Kox, George Van Leeuwen Jul 2012

Dynamic Market Selection In Eu Business Services, Henk Lm Kox, George Van Leeuwen

Henk LM Kox

European business services has witnessed about two decades of virtual productivity stagnation. The paper investigates whether this is caused by weak dynamic market selection. The time pattern of scale-related inefficiencies is used as an indicator for the effectiveness of market selection. We use a DEA method to construct the productivity frontier by sub-sector and size class, for business services in 13 EU countries. From this we derive scale economies and their development over time. Between 1999 and 2005 we observe a persistence of scale inefficiencies and X-inefficiencies , with scale efficiency falling rather than growing over time. This indicates malfunctioning competitive ...


Export Decisions Of Services Firms Between Agglomeration Effects And Market-Entry Costs, Henk Lm Kox Apr 2012

Export Decisions Of Services Firms Between Agglomeration Effects And Market-Entry Costs, Henk Lm Kox

Henk LM Kox

The paper tests the role of agglomeration effects on the export decision of services firms. Recent theories on trade with heterogeneous firms predict that export participation goes along with sunk market-entry costs. Only the more productive firms will be able to overcome these sunk costs. This leads to a process of - ex ante - self selection. These predictions are tested for the services industry, with due account for the possible role of agglomeration effects in large-city areas. Standard empirical tests of the new trade models consistently find productivity-based ex ante self selection by exporters, and this effect is mostly explained by ...


Compliance Costs And Dissimilarity Of Vat Regimes In The Eu, In: A Retrospective Evaluation Of Elements Of The Eu Vat System, Henk Lm Kox Nov 2011

Compliance Costs And Dissimilarity Of Vat Regimes In The Eu, In: A Retrospective Evaluation Of Elements Of The Eu Vat System, Henk Lm Kox

Henk LM Kox

This chapter of the VAT evaluation study presents new indicators that (elsewhere in this study) are used to asses the impacts of current heterogeneous VAT systems in the European Union on intra-EU trade in goods and services. These indicators quantify the extent of differences in VAT regimes across the European Union.
• The current VAT system in the European Union leaves considerable operational and administrative freedom to national governments. This means that, despite European co-ordination on the basic structure of the VAT system, the situation is still such that firms operating in the internal market have to deal with a complex ...


A Retrospective Evaluation Of Elements Of The Eu Vat System - Final Report, Stuart Adam, David Philips, Stephen Smith, Leon Bettendorp, Stefan Boeters, Henk Lm Kox, Bas Straathof, Kasper Stuut Nov 2011

A Retrospective Evaluation Of Elements Of The Eu Vat System - Final Report, Stuart Adam, David Philips, Stephen Smith, Leon Bettendorp, Stefan Boeters, Henk Lm Kox, Bas Straathof, Kasper Stuut

Henk LM Kox

This is the final report of a project on “The retrospective evaluation of elements of the VAT system.” This project has been led by researchers at the Institute for Fiscal
Studies, in co-operation with other members of a consortium of organisations (led by CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis) carrying out a programme of economic analysis of taxation for the European Commission, and with additional contributions to this project from researchers outside the consortium. The full report addresses the following 12 evaluation elements:
(1) To what extent do the current VAT arrangements for cross border supplies of goods and ...


Productivity And Market Selection In Eu Business Services: Role Of Regulatory Policies, Henk Lm Kox Jan 2011

Productivity And Market Selection In Eu Business Services: Role Of Regulatory Policies, Henk Lm Kox

Henk LM Kox

This presentation investigates the effectiveness of productivity-based market selection in European markets for business services and the impact of regulatory policies on this process. As a proxy for effectiveness market selection I use the persistence of scale diseconomies.


Europe's Welfare - The Lisbon Agenda In A Broad Welfare Perspective (European Outlook). In Dutch: Europa's Welvaart -De Lissabon Agenda In Een Breder Welvaartsperspectief, Henk Lm Kox, Harold Creusen, Herman Stolwijk Apr 2010

Europe's Welfare - The Lisbon Agenda In A Broad Welfare Perspective (European Outlook). In Dutch: Europa's Welvaart -De Lissabon Agenda In Een Breder Welvaartsperspectief, Henk Lm Kox, Harold Creusen, Herman Stolwijk

Henk LM Kox

This European Outlook evaluates the results of EU's Lisbon Agenda. The study provides a quantitative analysis of changes in welfare and wellbeing of European citizens over the period 2000-2010. The study not only evaluates the changes in Europe's market sector (production, investment, GDP), but also indicators that measure changes with respect to non-market parts of welfare like natural environment and social-cohesion.


Book Review: The Economics Of Services: Development And Policy. By Jan Owen Jansson, Henk Lm Kox Mar 2010

Book Review: The Economics Of Services: Development And Policy. By Jan Owen Jansson, Henk Lm Kox

Henk LM Kox

No abstract provided.


Export Margins And Export Barriers: Uncovering Market Entry Costs Of Exporters In The Netherlands, Roger Smeets, Harold Creusen, Arjan Lejour, Henk Kox Feb 2010

Export Margins And Export Barriers: Uncovering Market Entry Costs Of Exporters In The Netherlands, Roger Smeets, Harold Creusen, Arjan Lejour, Henk Kox

Henk LM Kox

Even though the Netherlands was the world’s sixth largest exporter in 2009, the majority of Dutch firms does not engage in international trade at all, possibly because they are unable to cover the costs to enter specific foreign markets. What are these costs that limited the internationalisation of Dutch firms? Using detailed and unique transaction-level data on export patterns of about 1,200 large Dutch firms in the years 2006-2007, this research opens the black box of market entry costs. First, we find that more productive firms are both more likely to engage in exports (extensive margin) and to ...


Exports And Productivity Selection Effects For Dutch Firms, Henk Lm Kox, Hugo Rojas Romogosa Dec 2009

Exports And Productivity Selection Effects For Dutch Firms, Henk Lm Kox, Hugo Rojas Romogosa

Henk LM Kox

The paper tests whether recent theories of international trade with heterogeneous firms can explain the export patterns in Dutch firm- and plant- level data in manufacturing and services. Recent trade models with heterogeneous firms predict that the export decision of firms is affected by sunk entry costs in foreign markets, with only the most productive firms self-selecting into exports. We test a latent variable model of the export decision by probit regressions and standard OLS panel regressions. Our results support the self-selection prediction. The process further appears to be conditioned by scale effects, market structure and multinational affiliation. Regarding alternative ...


Regulatory Harmonisation And Its Impact On Trade In Services, Henk Lm Kox Jun 2009

Regulatory Harmonisation And Its Impact On Trade In Services, Henk Lm Kox

Henk LM Kox

* Impact of domestic regulation on volume of bilateral services trade * Impact domestic regulation on choice between FDI and exports (GATS modes 3 and 1)


What Is Special In Services Internationalisation?, Henk Lm Kox May 2009

What Is Special In Services Internationalisation?, Henk Lm Kox

Henk LM Kox

+ Complex services definition and services trade data + What is special in services internationalisation? + Complementarity versus substitution between supply modes + The puzzle of falling export costs and increasing preference for mode-3 supply + impact of market structure on extensive and intensive export margin + impact of bilateral policy differences on mode choice


Determinantes Estructurales De La Productividad De Los Servicios A Empresas En Eu, Henk Lm Kox, George Van Leeuwen Dec 2008

Determinantes Estructurales De La Productividad De Los Servicios A Empresas En Eu, Henk Lm Kox, George Van Leeuwen

Henk LM Kox

The paper investigates the structural factors that affect labour productivity performance in European business services. We estimate the productivity frontier for eight business services sectors and five size classes. Subsequently, we explain the distance of firms to the productivity frontier (X-inefficiencies) and scale efficiency by market structure characteristics, entry- and exit intensity, and national regulatory features. The frontier is assessed both by parametric and by nonparametric methods on a data panel for 13 EU countries. We find that scale effects are important in business services; firms with less than 20 employees experience substantial scale-related productivity disadvantages. Productivity performance of firms ...


Challenges For Business Services In European Economic Growth, Henk Lm Kox May 2007

Challenges For Business Services In European Economic Growth, Henk Lm Kox

Henk LM Kox

#1; Stylised facts on growth of EU business services #1; Problem: dynamic, but weak productivity growth #1; Direct and indirect growth contributions #1; Challenges and opportunities


Market Place Europe - 50 Years Of Market Integration In The European Union (European Outlook), Albert Van Der Horst, Henk Kox, Arjan Lejour, Bas Straathof Mar 2007

Market Place Europe - 50 Years Of Market Integration In The European Union (European Outlook), Albert Van Der Horst, Henk Kox, Arjan Lejour, Bas Straathof

Henk LM Kox

European countries have been working for fifty years to establish a single market. In at least one respect they have succeeded spectacularly: the number of participating countries has grown enormously since 1957. This 5th European Outlook examines the question whether the internal market has also succeeded in another respect, that is, in improving free trade, free investments and free migration between the participating countries. Looking back, the common market has clearly contributed to prosperity in Europe over the past fifty years. Looking ahead, there is scope for further market integration in Europe.


Domestic Regulation And Trade In Professional Services, Henk Lm Kox, Hildegunn Kyvik Nordås Dec 2006

Domestic Regulation And Trade In Professional Services, Henk Lm Kox, Hildegunn Kyvik Nordås

Henk LM Kox

This paper argues that regulatory measures affect the fixed costs of entering a market as well as the variable costs of servicing that market. The study has explained that market entry barriers limit the number of firms that can break even in a particular market. The higher the entry barrier relative to the size of the market, the smaller the number of firms that can break even after having incurred the entry cost. In the face of such entry costs, trade liberalisation, defined as a reduction in variable trade costs, would under realistic assumptions lead to an increase in trade ...


The Dynamic Effects Of European Services Liberalisation, Henk Lm Kox Jul 2006

The Dynamic Effects Of European Services Liberalisation, Henk Lm Kox

Henk LM Kox

#1; A single European market for services? #1; Estimated static effects of liberalisation #1; Dynamic effects of services liberalisation #1; Conclusions and possible policy implications


Economic Impacts Of The 2004 Services Directive, Henk Lm Kox Feb 2006

Economic Impacts Of The 2004 Services Directive, Henk Lm Kox

Henk LM Kox

#1; About CPB #1; Our research on Services Directive #1; Policy differences as market-entry barrier #1; Effects of Services Directive on trade and FDI #1; Macroeconomic effects #1; Role country-of-origin principle #1; The way ahead


The Trade-Induced Effects Of The Services Directive And The Country-Of-Origin Principle, Roland De Bruijn, Henk Lm Kox, Arjan Lejour Dec 2005

The Trade-Induced Effects Of The Services Directive And The Country-Of-Origin Principle, Roland De Bruijn, Henk Lm Kox, Arjan Lejour

Henk LM Kox

The proposed Services Directive by the European Commission could increase intra European trade in commercial services by 30 to 60 percent. This paper analyses the welfare effects of the trade growth using an applied general equilibrium model WorldScan. It shows that GDP could be raised by 0.3 to 0.7 percent and consumption by 0.5 to 1.2 percent in the European Union as a whole. These results could only be realised if the Services Directive is implemented including the country of origin principle. If this principle is excluded from the directive, trade increases only by 20 to ...


Liberalisation Of The European Services Market And Its Impact On Switzerland: Assessing The Potential Impacts Of Following The Eu's 2004 Services Directive, Henk Lm Kox, Arjan Lejour Sep 2005

Liberalisation Of The European Services Market And Its Impact On Switzerland: Assessing The Potential Impacts Of Following The Eu's 2004 Services Directive, Henk Lm Kox, Arjan Lejour

Henk LM Kox

This report is prepared on request of the Swiss State Secretariat for Economic Affairs (SECO), Division Growth and Competition Policy. SECO asked CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis to estimate the quantitative economic implications of a possible decision by the Swiss government to fully adopt the European Commission proposals for a services directive. This report estimates the quantitative economic implications of a possible decision by the Swiss government to fully adopt the European Commission proposals for a services directive. The European Commission's 2004 proposals for a Services Directive consists of measures to reduce or eliminate the obstacles of ...


The Contribution Of Business Services To Aggregate Productivity Growth, Henk Lm Kox Dec 2003

The Contribution Of Business Services To Aggregate Productivity Growth, Henk Lm Kox

Henk LM Kox

As in most OECD countries, the business services industry in the Netherlands has grown much faster than the market sector as a whole. It has, however, displayed stagnating productivity growth, in some periods even a fall in productivity. Does this fast-growing industry with a bad productivity record present a threat to aggregate productivity growth and, hence, to future economic growth? Reviewing existing empirical evidence, the paper argues that this concern need not be valid. The business services industry has an important role in the national innovation system and in knowledge spillovers to other industries. The innovation contribution of business services ...


People Adrift: Migration And Development (In Dutch), Free University, Amsterdam, Henk Lm Kox, Ko Heins Dec 1997

People Adrift: Migration And Development (In Dutch), Free University, Amsterdam, Henk Lm Kox, Ko Heins

Henk LM Kox

People adrift is an edited volume that offers a rich perspective on migration and development. The introductory chapter by both editors provides an analytic survey of the major issues and their relations. The ten next chapters deal with migration motives, economic mechanisms, environmental issues, social and economic impacts on regions, relation with refugee flows and immigration barriers.