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Full-Text Articles in International Economics

A Dynamic Comparative Advantage Analysis Of Fresh Fruit And Vegetable Trade Between Latin America And The United States, Laurance Prescott, Gordon C. Rausser, Mary Beth Sigler, Jeremy Arnone May 1997

A Dynamic Comparative Advantage Analysis Of Fresh Fruit And Vegetable Trade Between Latin America And The United States, Laurance Prescott, Gordon C. Rausser, Mary Beth Sigler, Jeremy Arnone

GATT Research Papers

In the first of three related papers, the authors analyze the dynamic pattern of comparative advantage in fruit and vegetable trade flows between the United States and Latin America. Their examination of several factors--including market demand, improving investment climates, technological advances, and trade liberalization--indicates a significant potential for the development and expansion of trade flows to meet open windows of opportunity in the United States.


Institutional Rules And Mechanisms For Western Hemisphere Trade, Mary Beth Sigler, Roger Hickey, Jeremy Arnone, Gordon C. Rausser May 1997

Institutional Rules And Mechanisms For Western Hemisphere Trade, Mary Beth Sigler, Roger Hickey, Jeremy Arnone, Gordon C. Rausser

GATT Research Papers

In the third of three related papers, the authors discuss rules and mechanisms that could facilitate the expansion of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and promote freer trade and investment in the Americas. These mechanisms include macroeconomic policies that open trade and capital flows, and institutional policies that specify standards and requirements to protect investments and lower risks.


Impacts Of The Uruguay Round On Agricultural Commodity Markets: Implications For Russia, William H. Meyers Apr 1996

Impacts Of The Uruguay Round On Agricultural Commodity Markets: Implications For Russia, William H. Meyers

GATT Research Papers

Meyers uses the FAPRI agricultural commodity models to help analyze how the final passage of the GATT agreement will impact Russia, the Newly Independent States (NIS), and Central and Eastern Europe. While there are benefits from the GATT accord, he notes that the GATT agreement cannot be seen as a substitute for the efforts that are needed on developing more efficient production and processing systems, improved marketing infrastructure, and improved quality and diversity of products.


Impacts Of The Uruguay Round On The World Rice Market, Karen Oerter Feb 1995

Impacts Of The Uruguay Round On The World Rice Market, Karen Oerter

GATT Research Papers

How will the world rice market be affected by the reductions in agricultural trade barriers produced by the Uruguay Round GATT agreement? A CARD/ FAPRI study projects that by 2002 the world rice market will be substantially affected, not only because of greater access commitments by Japan and the Republic of Korea, but also from expected increases in world consumption that will be stimulated by rising incomes, especially in the developing world.


Agreement On Agriculture In The Uruguay Round Of Gatt: From Punta Del Este To Marrakesh, Zuhair A. Hassan Feb 1995

Agreement On Agriculture In The Uruguay Round Of Gatt: From Punta Del Este To Marrakesh, Zuhair A. Hassan

GATT Research Papers

This paper provides an overview of the Uruguay Round of GATT negotiations, along with a discussion of the key elements of the final Agreement on Agriculture (market access, domestic support, and export competition), the nature of the exemptions available to developing countries, and exemption from the general rules. World price impacts of implementing the agreement are also considered.


Prices, Productivity, And Waste In Ldc Agriculture, Lilyan E. Fulginiti, Richard K. Perrin Apr 1994

Prices, Productivity, And Waste In Ldc Agriculture, Lilyan E. Fulginiti, Richard K. Perrin

GATT Research Papers

Recent studies have revealed that LDCs have been taxing their agricultural sectors at rates of 40 to 50 percent. While it is widely acknowledged that this taxation might have significant allocative effects, this paper examines a cross-country aggregated agricultural production function. The results estimate that the elasticity of productivity with respect to output prices is about 0.1, indicating that the taxation levels have had very significant productivity impacts. Allais-Debreu measures of deadweight loss indicate that from 7 to 16 percent of output or of the agricultural resource base has been wasted due to the associated misallocation of agricultural inputs ...


An Analysis Of The Cap Reform, Michael D. Helmar, Deborah L. Stephens, K. Eswaramoorthy, D. Scott Brown, Dermot J. Hayes, Robert Young, William H. Meyers Apr 1994

An Analysis Of The Cap Reform, Michael D. Helmar, Deborah L. Stephens, K. Eswaramoorthy, D. Scott Brown, Dermot J. Hayes, Robert Young, William H. Meyers

GATT Research Papers

The Treaty of Rome, which established the European Economic Community in 1957, defined the objectives of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). These objectives, contained in Article 39, follow: 1) Increase agricultural productivity by promoting technical progress and by ensuring rational development of agricultural production and optimum use of the production factors, particularly labor. 2) Ensure a fair standard of living for the agricultural community, in particular by increasing the individual earning of the persons engaged in agriculture. 3) Stabilize markets. 4) Assure the availability of supplies. 5) Ensure that supplies reach consumers at reasonable prices. The objectives of the CAP ...


Cap Reform Studies: A Comparison, Chad E. Hart, Michael D. Helmar, Dermot J. Hayes, William H. Meyers Apr 1994

Cap Reform Studies: A Comparison, Chad E. Hart, Michael D. Helmar, Dermot J. Hayes, William H. Meyers

GATT Research Papers

Since the convening of the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), agricultural trade policies have been a prime issue of these negotiations. The European Union (EU) Agricultural Commission responded to the pressures of such focus on agricultural policies as well as to internal budget pressures by submitting the 1992 Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) reform package, a unilateral move by the EU to answer both internal and external concerns. A number of economic studies have examined the 1992 CAP reform package in order to assess its impacts on the EU and world agriculture. This paper summarizes ...


Indonesian Agriculture And Gatt, Justo Manrique Mar 1994

Indonesian Agriculture And Gatt, Justo Manrique

GATT Research Papers

This paper attempts to determine the possible impacts of a General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) agreement on the Indonesian agricultural sector. The emphasis of the study is analytical. In particular, the study focuses on how eliminating internal price support policies and trade barriers will affect agricultural production, food security, the Indonesian trade position in world agricultural markets, and income distribution among the urban and rural sectors and low- and high-income farmers over the short and long terms. A liberalized trading system is expected to contribute to a stable Indonesian food supply.


Recent Developments And Analysis Of U.S.–South Korean Agricultural Trade, Dermot J. Hayes Mar 1994

Recent Developments And Analysis Of U.S.–South Korean Agricultural Trade, Dermot J. Hayes

GATT Research Papers

EC Agricultural Commissioner Ray MacSharry surprised many by suggesting dramatic reductions in EC commodity prices, which would in effect recouple much of its agriculture with world prices. In July, all twelve EC agriculture ministers accepted the MacSharry proposal as the basis for negotiation. The entire package will be voted on in October 1991, and the general consensus is that some version of the MacSharry proposal will be adopted at that time. There exists a real possibility, therefore, that the European Community will eventually find an agricultural price reform proposal that is acceptable to the United States and other GATT participants ...


Temperate Fruit And Vegetable Trade Under The Gatt, Julian M. Alston, Colin Carter, Kenneth Weiss, Bin Zhang Feb 1994

Temperate Fruit And Vegetable Trade Under The Gatt, Julian M. Alston, Colin Carter, Kenneth Weiss, Bin Zhang

GATT Research Papers

The Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), if negotiated to a successful completion, will affect world trading patterns. This paper summarizes and analyzes the structure of the international markets for fruits and vegetables, and projects changes in response to reforms likely to follow a successful GATT negotiation. The research focused on the European Community (EC), selected European Free-Trade Association (EFTA) nations, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Brazil, Chile, and Colombia.


The Ec Livestock Sector: Policy, Trade, And Research, Dermot J. Hayes, John Murphy, David A. Hennessy Feb 1994

The Ec Livestock Sector: Policy, Trade, And Research, Dermot J. Hayes, John Murphy, David A. Hennessy

GATT Research Papers

Livestock policies in the European Community (EC) are explained and analyzed. Then we provide a review of the literature on models that attempt to explain livestock production and meat demand in the EC.


Prices And Productivity In Agriculture, Lilyan E. Fulginiti Dec 1992

Prices And Productivity In Agriculture, Lilyan E. Fulginiti

GATT Research Papers

Developing countries often tax agriculture heavily, a practice that might affect the productivity as well as the quantity of resources allocated to agriculture. A variable-coefficient cross-country agricultural production function is estimated, with past price expectations among the determinants of the production coefficients. Productivity's responsiveness to the expectations implies that, had these developing economies eliminated price interventions, agricultural productivity would have increased by and average of 25 percent.


Production Subsidy And Countervailing Duties In Vertically Related Markets: The Hog-Pork Case Between Canada And The United States, Giancarlo Moschini, Karl D. Meilke Jul 1992

Production Subsidy And Countervailing Duties In Vertically Related Markets: The Hog-Pork Case Between Canada And The United States, Giancarlo Moschini, Karl D. Meilke

GATT Research Papers

This paper analyzes U.S. countervailing import duties aimed at offsetting the effects of a Canadian hog production subsidy. Approximate countervailing duty formulae for two alternative objectives are derived, the permissible range of these duties is illustrated, and empirical evidence is provided. To restore equilibrium at the pre-subsidy level in the U.S. hog market, a countervailing duty on hog imports suffices; this duty should be less than the unit hog production subsidy. To restore equilibrium in both the U.S. hog and pork markets, countervailing duties in both hog and pork imports is required. Such duties should be less ...


World Commodity Prices: The Role Of External Debt And Industrial Country Policies, Gordon C. Rausser, Marjorie B. Rose, Douglas A. Irwin Jun 1992

World Commodity Prices: The Role Of External Debt And Industrial Country Policies, Gordon C. Rausser, Marjorie B. Rose, Douglas A. Irwin

GATT Research Papers

The domestic support of and protectionist policies toward agriculture in major Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries has been partly responsible for surplus commodity production and sagging international commodity prices in recent years. Between 1980 and 1987, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) food commodities price index fell by one third in the nominal terms and by almost one half in real terms. Although originally undertaken largely for domestic reasons, these policies have lead to trade restrains and export subsidies that have reduces prices and aggravated instability in international commodity markets. Attempts to reform policies in OECD countries via ...


Implications Of A Gatt Agreement For World Commodity Markets, 1993-98: An Analysis Of The Dunkel Text On Agriculture, William H. Meyers, Dermot J. Hayes, Patrick C. Westhoff, Michael D. Helmar, Deborah L. Stephens, K. Eswaramoorthy, Abner W. Womack, Robert E. Young Ii, D. Scott Brown, Gary M. Adams Apr 1992

Implications Of A Gatt Agreement For World Commodity Markets, 1993-98: An Analysis Of The Dunkel Text On Agriculture, William H. Meyers, Dermot J. Hayes, Patrick C. Westhoff, Michael D. Helmar, Deborah L. Stephens, K. Eswaramoorthy, Abner W. Womack, Robert E. Young Ii, D. Scott Brown, Gary M. Adams

GATT Research Papers

The Food and Agricultural Policy Research Institute (FAPRI) received a request in mid-February to analyze the proposed changes to agriculture and agricultural trade made by Arthur Dunkel. These changes essentially fall into three areas. 1) Export Competition. Subsidies are subject to reduction in two ways. Expenditures are to be reduced by 36 percent and quantities exported with the benefit of subsidies are to be reduced by 24 percent from 1986-90 average levels. 2) Internal Support. Using a world reference price based on the 1986-88 average levels, internal supports as measured by an aggregate measure of support (AMS) are to be ...


An Analysis Of The Ec Commission Plan For Cap Reform, Patrick C. Westhoff Nov 1991

An Analysis Of The Ec Commission Plan For Cap Reform, Patrick C. Westhoff

GATT Research Papers

The Commission of the European Community has proposed a restructuring of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) that is independent of the ongoing General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) negotiations. This study analyzes the proposal in terms of the flexibility it would grant EC negotiators at the GATT. The results indicate that adopting the proposal would sharply reduce the volume of EC cereal, meat, and dairy product exports. EC negotiators at the GATT would be able to offer significant reductions in export subsidies, a primary concern of the United States and other exporting countries. By reducing production, the proposal would ...


The Structure Of Ec Agriculture: Implications For Cap Reform And Gatt, Patrick C. Westhoff, David Hennessy Oct 1991

The Structure Of Ec Agriculture: Implications For Cap Reform And Gatt, Patrick C. Westhoff, David Hennessy

GATT Research Papers

Statistics demonstrate the diversity of EC agriculture. Agriculture in southern Europe is characterized by many small farms, most of which emphasize crop production. In northern Europe, farms are larger and more likely to emphasize livestock production. More than 70 percent of all EC farms are in southern Europe, but northern Europe accounts for more than 60 percent of all agricultural production and public expenditures on agriculture. The proposed Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) reform would reduce agricultural support prices and impose additional supply control measures. Small-scale producers would be exempt from supply control provisions and would receive direct payments to compensate ...


Implications Of A Production Entitlement Guarantee (Peg) Program For World Commodity Markets, 1992-2000, Patrick C. Westhoff, Michael D. Helmar, Deborah L. Stephens Oct 1991

Implications Of A Production Entitlement Guarantee (Peg) Program For World Commodity Markets, 1992-2000, Patrick C. Westhoff, Michael D. Helmar, Deborah L. Stephens

GATT Research Papers

A Production Entitlement Guarantee (PEG) program would replace existing agricultural policies with a program that would allow governments to subsidize only a fixed proportion of each farmer's historical production. World supply and demand conditions would determine the price farmers receive for any production in excess of the guaranteed PEG quality because all import barriers and export subsidies would be eliminated. A dynamic multicountry, multicommodity model is used to evaluate the impact of replacing current agricultural policies in the United States, the European Community, Japan, and Canada with a PEG program. For all countries and commodities, the guaranteed PEG quantity ...


Optimal Trade Policies For A Developing Country Under Uncertainty, Eun Kwan Choi, Harvey E. Lapan Oct 1991

Optimal Trade Policies For A Developing Country Under Uncertainty, Eun Kwan Choi, Harvey E. Lapan

GATT Research Papers

This paper investigates optimal trade policies for a developing, small open economy that faces international price uncertainly. Trade taxes are used to finance provision of a public good, which enters the utility function of consumers. If demands for private goods are independent of the public good, the optimal composite tariff dominates the optimal quota. If the optimal state-contingent tariff increases with the foreign price, the optimal specific tariff also dominates the optimal quota, regardless of risk aversion. However, the ranking of the optimal specific tariff and the optimal quota generally depends on risk attitudes as well as ordinal preferences.


Implications Of A Gatt Agreement On Agriculture: The Known, The Unknown And The Unknowable, Patrick C. Westhoff Oct 1991

Implications Of A Gatt Agreement On Agriculture: The Known, The Unknown And The Unknowable, Patrick C. Westhoff

GATT Research Papers

International negotiations under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) seek to set rules governing trade in agricultural products as well as a wide variety of other products and services. The outcome of the negotiations is uncertain at this time, but it seems that if there is to be an agreement for agriculture, it will require countries to make modest reductions in internal support measures, export subsidies, and import barriers. The consequences of a GATT agreement for world agriculture cannot be known with certainty, especially if the specific terms of an agreement remain unknown. Research conducted by the Center ...


Impacts Of Liberalizing The Japanese Pork Market, Thomas I. Wahl, Dermot J. Hayes, Stanley R. Johnson Jul 1991

Impacts Of Liberalizing The Japanese Pork Market, Thomas I. Wahl, Dermot J. Hayes, Stanley R. Johnson

GATT Research Papers

The Japanese pork market is protected by a complex set of restrictions, including a variable levy and an import tariff. The combination of these policies distorts the quantity, price, and form of Japanese pork imports. An important issue relevant to the liberalization of the Japanese pork market is the accurate measurement of the price wedge between Japanese and world pork prices. The analysis indicates that the tariff equivalent of the price wedge over the 1986-88 period was 44 percent. If the tariff equivalent of the price wedge is reduced over a ten-year period, Japanese pork imports are projected to increase ...


Measuring International Competitiveness In The Beef Sector, Dermot J. Hayes, John R. Green, Helen H. Jensen, Adrienne Erbach Jul 1991

Measuring International Competitiveness In The Beef Sector, Dermot J. Hayes, John R. Green, Helen H. Jensen, Adrienne Erbach

GATT Research Papers

Beef is a heterogeneous commodity, which makes it difficult to compare beef prices in an international level. This paper evaluates several methods of comparing beef prices to be used in measuring both comparative advantage and protection. The most suitable method is one that compares the prices of wholesale cuts, adjusted for transportation costs.


Tariffication Of European Community Corn Imports, S. Devadoss, H. G. Brooks, Michael D. Helmar, Stanley R. Johnson Jul 1991

Tariffication Of European Community Corn Imports, S. Devadoss, H. G. Brooks, Michael D. Helmar, Stanley R. Johnson

GATT Research Papers

In July 1989, U.S. negotiators presented a tariffication proposal at the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) meeting in Geneva. According to that proposal, all agricultural nontariff barriers (NTBs) such as quotas and variable import levies would be converted to equivalent ad valorem tariffs. The following formula, known as the price gap method, was proposed for converting the NTBs to tariffs: TE= [(PD – PW)/PW] · 100, where TE is the tariff equivalent, PD is domestic price and PW is world price. If an agreement on tariffication is reached, the next step will be to develop a schedule for ...


Multilateral Bargaining In Political Science Experiments: A Survey, Glenn W. Harrison Jul 1991

Multilateral Bargaining In Political Science Experiments: A Survey, Glenn W. Harrison

GATT Research Papers

The political science literature has long been concerned with the behavioral properties of alternative bargaining institutions. The focus of most of this research has been on the way in which committees make decisions, but there has been some interest in legislative and electoral processes. From the outset this literature has concerned itself primarily with multilateral bargaining setting, as distinct from the economics literature which has displayed an odd reluctance to go beyond the bilateral bargaining setting.


Tariffication And Agricultural Trade, Eun Kwan Choi Jul 1991

Tariffication And Agricultural Trade, Eun Kwan Choi

GATT Research Papers

This paper considers the effects of tariffication-conversion of a variable import levy, widely used in the European Community, into an equivalent ad valorem tariff on trade and welfare. While tough negotiations lie ahead over the exact rates of tariff reduction, contracting countries in principle agreed to tariffication proposed by the United States. If producers are risk neutral, tariffication has no effect on production and trade, and gains from a GATT agreement in the Uruguay Round depend on the extent of tariff reductions. If domestic producers are risk averse, however, tariffication reduces domestic production of the importable and thus has a ...


Determining Winners And Losers From A Gatt Agreement: The Importance Of Base Periods And Rules, Brian Lee Buhr, James Hansen, Zuhair A. Hassan, Dermot J. Hayes, Michael D. Helmar, David Hennessy, Stanley R. Johnson, William H. Meyers, Deborah L. Stephens, Kyle J. Stephens, Patrick C. Westhoff Mar 1991

Determining Winners And Losers From A Gatt Agreement: The Importance Of Base Periods And Rules, Brian Lee Buhr, James Hansen, Zuhair A. Hassan, Dermot J. Hayes, Michael D. Helmar, David Hennessy, Stanley R. Johnson, William H. Meyers, Deborah L. Stephens, Kyle J. Stephens, Patrick C. Westhoff

GATT Research Papers

To identify the winners and the losers from the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) in agriculture, it is necessary to know which countries will be required to reduce which subsidies by what amounts. Rules that seem fair may actually impose very different future obligations on the parties to the negotiations. The base period from which reductions must be made, the manner in which export subsidies are measured, and the exchange rate used to determine tariff-reduction requirements are examples of technical issues that determine the policy implications of a GATT agreement. The paper estimates credits that countries have earned ...


The Effect Of The Gatt On U.S. Peanut Markets, Randal R. Rucker, Walter N. Thurman, Robert B. Borges Mar 1991

The Effect Of The Gatt On U.S. Peanut Markets, Randal R. Rucker, Walter N. Thurman, Robert B. Borges

GATT Research Papers

The Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (hereafter, the GATT), which is to be signed by more than 10 nations on December 15, 1993, represents the culmination of seven years of negotiations on reforms of international trade. Assuming that the U.S. Congress will ratify the agreement, most, if not all, agricultural commodities produced in the United States will be affected in some way. The purpose of the present paper is to examine the likely effects of the GATT on U.S. peanut markets. Although the market value of U.S. peanut production is small compared ...


Implications Of A Gatt Agreement For World Commodity Markets, 1991-2000, Brain Lee Buhr, James Hansen, Zuhair A. Hassan, Dermot J. Hayes, Michael D. Helmar, David Hennessy, William H. Meyers, Deborah L. Stephens, Kyle J. Stephens, Patrick C. Westhoff Jan 1991

Implications Of A Gatt Agreement For World Commodity Markets, 1991-2000, Brain Lee Buhr, James Hansen, Zuhair A. Hassan, Dermot J. Hayes, Michael D. Helmar, David Hennessy, William H. Meyers, Deborah L. Stephens, Kyle J. Stephens, Patrick C. Westhoff

GATT Research Papers

A dynamic multicountry, multicommodity model is used to evaluate the impact of a moderate General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) agreement. The terms of this agreement are as follows. 1) Export subsidy quantities (using annual and price wedges) are reduced by 50 percent from the 1986-88 average by 1996. 2) Import restrictions are tariffed and reduced by 33 percent form the 1986-88 average by 1996 (tariffs are measured by using an annual price wedge approach). 3) Internal supports, as measured by the aggregate measure of support (AMS) are reduced by 33 percent from the 1986-88 average by 1996 (fixed ...