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Full-Text Articles in International Economics

Political Accountability And Determinants Of Governance Under Principal-Agent Theory, Matthew Bluem May 2018

Political Accountability And Determinants Of Governance Under Principal-Agent Theory, Matthew Bluem

Dissertations

This study examines the theory that quality of governance is largely dependent upon political accountability, and that the effect of political accountability on governance varies based on three main determinants: level of democracy, level of information available to the public, and diversification of the economy (Adserà et al. 2003). With quality of governance, represented by the World Bank’s World Governance Indicators (WGI), as the dependent variable, this study considers how these three independent variables, and several control variables, affect governance quality. Incorporating data from 2010 – 2015 for 143 countries in both cross-sectional OLS and fixed effects panel regression analysis ...


Property Rights And International Trade: An Institutional Determinant Of Export Structure, Gregory Alan Bonadies Dec 2016

Property Rights And International Trade: An Institutional Determinant Of Export Structure, Gregory Alan Bonadies

Dissertations

This work investigates the connection, independent of other factors, between a country’s system of law and property rights and patterns of trade. Stronger property rights institutions are hypothesized to lead to greater diversity in exports and a greater proportion of higher value-added exports. Production and export possibilities depend on capital, labor, and technology. Technology is the way in which capital and labor resources can be organized for productive purposes. Property rights condition expressions of technology and thus production possibilities and export potential. Consequently, if property rights vary between countries, then technological expression, production possibilities, and export potential vary as ...


Three Essays Assessing Global Value Chain Fragmentation On International Trade Using The World Input-Output Database, Johanna Retana Attoh Dec 2016

Three Essays Assessing Global Value Chain Fragmentation On International Trade Using The World Input-Output Database, Johanna Retana Attoh

Dissertations

The growing fragmentation of supply chains across countries have changed the way nations engage in international trade. Conventionally, studies have used data on exports to measure trade flows; however, the use of this type of data imposes many assumptions that might misrepresent the real world. For instance, the assumption that the supply chain of a product is confined in only the domestic country does not take into consideration the increasing number of foreign inputs needed to produce a final good. In this dissertation, I use the World Input-Output Database (WIOD), since this dataset allows one to track and decompose the ...


Examining International Stock Market Integration: Effects On Portfolio Statistical Moments, Changes To Systematic Risk Significance, And Investor Purchasing Of Foreign Equities, Justin Kingsley Hanig Dec 2016

Examining International Stock Market Integration: Effects On Portfolio Statistical Moments, Changes To Systematic Risk Significance, And Investor Purchasing Of Foreign Equities, Justin Kingsley Hanig

Dissertations

The internet provides individuals with the ability to find instantaneous information on nearly every corner of the earth. Increasing correlations of international stock markets suggests investors may use information from different parts of the world to assess the value of the assets they hold in their portfolios. This dissertation examines changes in international stock market behavior to identify the effects of international market integration across a time. More specifically, this dissertation studies the effects of integration on the ability of diversification to reduce risk and skewness of portfolios, how global-wide risks significantly impact country-level index returns, and the equity purchasing ...


Three Essays On Financial Constraints And Foreign Direct Investment, Todd Sarnstrom Ii Dec 2016

Three Essays On Financial Constraints And Foreign Direct Investment, Todd Sarnstrom Ii

Dissertations

This three–essay dissertation makes contributions to the literature on foreign direct investment (FDI) and its relationship with collateral and the exchange rate. FDI refers to an investment made by a firm to establish or acquire a long–lasting interest in another firm operating outside its home country. Often, FDI involves substantial fixed costs that require the investing firm to seek external financing. Collateral has been identified as an important factor in the external financing of FDI. Firms lacking collateral are constrained in their ability obtain external financing. Exchange rates have also been identified as a factor in FDI. Exchange ...


The Influence Of The Electric Supply Industry On Economic Growth In Less Developed Countries, Edward Richard Bee Aug 2016

The Influence Of The Electric Supply Industry On Economic Growth In Less Developed Countries, Edward Richard Bee

Dissertations

This study measures the impact that electrical outages have on manufacturing production in 135 less developed countries using stochastic frontier analysis and data from World Bank’s Investment Climate surveys. Outages of electricity, for firms with and without backup power sources, are the most frequently cited constraint on manufacturing growth in these surveys.

Outages are shown to reduce output below the production frontier by almost five percent in Africa and by a lower percentage in South Asia, Southeast Asia and the Middle East and North Africa. Production response to outages is quadratic in form. Outages also increase labor cost, reduce ...


Natural Disasters In Latin America: The Role Of Disaster Type And Productive Sector On The Urban-Rural Income Gap And Rural To Urban Migration, Madeline Alice Messick Aug 2016

Natural Disasters In Latin America: The Role Of Disaster Type And Productive Sector On The Urban-Rural Income Gap And Rural To Urban Migration, Madeline Alice Messick

Dissertations

This research provides insight into the impact of natural disasters as drivers of rural to urban migration in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Disasters of varying types are predicted to have differing impacts on the productive sectors of agriculture, industry, and services; which due to the concentration of the various productive sectors in either urban or rural areas, subsequently changes the urban-rural wage differential. Changes to the wage differential (as measured by the urban-rural income gap) are predicted to lead to movement between urban and rural areas until a new equilibrium wage is reached.

This dissertation first identifies a ...


Preferential Trade Agreements And Quality Of Government In Sub-Saharan Africa, Sharon Camara May 2016

Preferential Trade Agreements And Quality Of Government In Sub-Saharan Africa, Sharon Camara

Dissertations

Objectives. Sub-Saharan African (SSA) nations have made concerted attempts at economic integration and openness with use of preferential trade agreements (PTAs) beginning in the latter half of the 1990s. These changes could result in increases in trade and growth. The World Bank’s Good Governance indicators are designed to assess the quality of institutions in a given country. The objective is to assess the impact of PTAs and Good Governance indicators on trade in SSA nations. Methods. Data on trade y was generated based on exports defined by the International Monetary Fund’s (IMF) Direction of Trade statistics, and both ...


Remittances As Contributor To Risk Management And Poverty Reduction In Grenada, Dianne Jntl Rosemary Forte May 2016

Remittances As Contributor To Risk Management And Poverty Reduction In Grenada, Dianne Jntl Rosemary Forte

Dissertations

A Small Island Development States (SIDS) viewpoint is underrepresented in the existing migration literature. That perspective is necessary because SIDS geography creates a unique set of social and economic circumstances that predisposes small states to high vulnerability to external shocks from environmental events and influences emigration decision making. Like other SIDS, Grenada is characterized by small land mass, small population, limited opportunities for productive labor, and limited resources to efficiently support all the requirements of modern institutions. This has resulted in high levels of emigration and a pattern of circularity as Grenadian households make rational decisions to manage risk and ...


Three Essays On Capital Regulations And Shadow Banking, Diny Ghuzini Jun 2015

Three Essays On Capital Regulations And Shadow Banking, Diny Ghuzini

Dissertations

The shadow banking sector is a sector that is comprised of financial intermediaries that do not have access to central bank funds and performs their activities outside the regular banking system. This sector had been rapidly growing in most developed economies. This dissertation focuses on the behavioral difference and interaction of the traditional and shadow banking sectors as displayed by the relative asset position of both sectors, their risk-taking positions, and their business-cycles properties.

The first essay examines the impact of minimum capital requirements on the share of shadow to total banking assets. Previous literature has argued that increased regulation ...


Three Essays On Racial Wage Differentials In South Africa, Ochas Kashinge Pupwe May 2015

Three Essays On Racial Wage Differentials In South Africa, Ochas Kashinge Pupwe

Dissertations

Wage gaps amongst the different racial groups in South Africa, have remained high post-apartheid. With the enactment and implementation of several empowerment programs aiming at reversing racial marginalization, it is puzzling to see the persistent wage gaps between the white minority and non-white majority. This dissertation seeks to ascertain factors that may account for the persistent wage gap.

The first essay tests for the presence of over-education and its effects on wage determination amongst South Africa’s racial demographic groups. The results indicate that whites were over-educated whilst marginalized populations exhibited significant levels of under-education in 1991 and 2011 and ...


Labor Force Participation And Wages In Palestine For The Period 2000 To 2011, Issam Abu-Ghallous Aug 2014

Labor Force Participation And Wages In Palestine For The Period 2000 To 2011, Issam Abu-Ghallous

Dissertations

This study investigates the interaction between wages and labor force participation in Palestine for the period of 2000 to 2011. This period has witnessed series of severe economic and political shocks and moderate recoveries. There are three areas of interest this dissertation considers. The first area is the effect of adult employment and income on child labor supply. The second area is the effect of husbands’ income and employment status on wives’ labor force participation. The third area is return to education and wage inequality. The results show that parents’ income has a negative but weak effect on child labor ...


Foreign Aid Effectiveness: Three Essays On Aid-For-Trade And Export Performance Of Developing Countries, Shanka Prasad Ghimire Dec 2013

Foreign Aid Effectiveness: Three Essays On Aid-For-Trade And Export Performance Of Developing Countries, Shanka Prasad Ghimire

Dissertations

This dissertation examines the effectiveness of foreign aid in enhancing international trade in developing countries. In that light, it presents three essays that focus on foreign aid targeted towards improving trade capacity of developing countries (Aid-for-Trade or AfT) and analyzes its impact on export performance of 121 AfT-recipient countries over a period of 16 years [1995-2010].

The first essay examines whether aggregate AfT helps aid recipients improve their aggregate export performance. The analysis using System-GMM shows a positive and significant impact of AfT on the level and growth of exports as well as export volume relative to GDP. These findings ...


Three Essays On International Banking, Rong Ma Apr 2012

Three Essays On International Banking, Rong Ma

Dissertations

Without question, global financial integration has accelerated in the last two decades. This acceleration is due, in part, to the opening of developing countries' financial markets to foreign banks, prompting many changes to financial systems in developing countries. This dissertation consists of three essays focusing on the impacts and the determinants of international banks' participation in the financial markets of developing countries.

The first essay investigates whether banks with foreign owners are more willing to provide loans in the host country possibly contributing toward greater financial stability for that country. Specifically, I test whether foreign banks' lending behavior is different ...


A Study On The Productivity And Efficiency Effects Of Enterprise Reforms In China, Song Gao Dec 2010

A Study On The Productivity And Efficiency Effects Of Enterprise Reforms In China, Song Gao

Dissertations

This dissertation studies the progress and impacts of State-Owned Enterprises (SOEs) reforms in China. The primary interests center on impacts of non-ownershipchange reforms and privatization on Chinese SOEs’ productivity and efficiency. The research comprises of three major sections.

Section one briefly reviews the history of SOEs’ reform in China and examines the changes in some selected performance indicators with help of a comprehensive dataset on 863 Chinese firms from 1995 to 2001. In addition, causes of Chinese SOEs’ privatization and determinants of firms’ inefficiency are also studied.

Section two examines the effects of privatization and non-ownership-change reforms on firms’ productivity ...


Essays On Export Destination Decisions And Spillovers From Inward Fdi: Evidence From Chilean Manufacturing Plants, Ivan A. Duran Diaz May 2010

Essays On Export Destination Decisions And Spillovers From Inward Fdi: Evidence From Chilean Manufacturing Plants, Ivan A. Duran Diaz

Dissertations

This dissertation examines the relationship between destination country characteristics and Chilean firm characteristics on the export destination decisions of Chilean firms. Additionally, it explores the impact generated by inward foreign direct investment (FDI) on Chilean firms' export decisions, wages, and productivity.

For the first study, a random coefficients logit approach is employed to model export likelihood to a particular destination country. From this, estimates of export substitution elasticities among destination countries are obtained, given changes in some of their macroeconomic variables such as GDP. Both destination country and the Chilean firms' characteristics are shown to be relevant in the export ...


Economic Inequality In The New European Union: Are Monetary Policies In The European Union Unfair For Certain Countries?, Gregory Eric Banach May 2008

Economic Inequality In The New European Union: Are Monetary Policies In The European Union Unfair For Certain Countries?, Gregory Eric Banach

Dissertations

This research is focused on the affect one uniform monetary policy will have on the less developed countries that entered the European Union (EU) in 2004. One of the challenges facing the new entrants involves the required implementation of monetary policy goals, even though these new entrants do not have a vote on how the monetary policy is determined. Monetary policy in the EU is the responsibility of the European Central Bank (ECB) who has a stated goal price stability. It is possible to use the Taylor Rule to test whether the ECB focuses on price stability for both old ...


Three Essays On Economic Reform: Effects On Human Development, Fertility, And Factor Shares, Khaled Ibrahim Abdel-Kader Dec 2002

Three Essays On Economic Reform: Effects On Human Development, Fertility, And Factor Shares, Khaled Ibrahim Abdel-Kader

Dissertations

This dissertation contains three essays on economic reform programs supported by the IMF and World Bank. Using appropriate theoretical and empirical models, we investigate the impact of reform on three aspects of economic development: (1) human development, (2) fertility, and (3) income shares of factors of production. In the first essay, we examine the long-run impact of reform on different measures o f human development and income. Empirical results show that reform has long-run positive impact on GDP per capita and measures of human development. However, worse initial macroeconomic conditions offset this impact. In the second essay, we examine the ...