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Articles 1 - 30 of 246

Full-Text Articles in International Economics

International Reserves And Rollover Risk, Javier Bianchi, Juan Carlos Hatchondo, Leonardo Martinez Jan 2018

International Reserves And Rollover Risk, Javier Bianchi, Juan Carlos Hatchondo, Leonardo Martinez

Leonardo Martinez

No abstract provided.


Why The World Needs A Reserve Asset With A Hard Anchor, Warren Coats, Dongsheng Di, Yuxuan Zhao Dec 2017

Why The World Needs A Reserve Asset With A Hard Anchor, Warren Coats, Dongsheng Di, Yuxuan Zhao

Warren Coats

From the 1970s, the global currency system has two features: the use of one or a few sovereign currencies as the global reserve asset and the floating exchange rate regime between major currencies.This paper points out that the costs of the dollar’s use as an international reserve currency exceed the benefits for both the US and the rest of the world. These costs include the exporting of American manufacturing as a byproduct of its current account deficit needed to supply its currency to the rest of the world. In addition to the detriment to trade from unpredictable exchange ...


Non-Defaultable Debt And Sovereign Risk, Juan Carlos Hatchondo, Leonardo Martinez, Yasin Kursat Onder Jan 2017

Non-Defaultable Debt And Sovereign Risk, Juan Carlos Hatchondo, Leonardo Martinez, Yasin Kursat Onder

Leonardo Martinez

No abstract provided.


Finance And Export Survival: The Case Of Mena Region And Sub-Saharan Africa, Melise Jaud, Madina Kukenova, Martin Strieborny Sep 2016

Finance And Export Survival: The Case Of Mena Region And Sub-Saharan Africa, Melise Jaud, Madina Kukenova, Martin Strieborny

Martin Strieborny

The paper looks at unique firm-product-destination export data collected by custom authoritiesin four countries from the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) - Jordan,Kuwait, Morocco, Yemen as well as in six countries of Sub-Saharan Africa(SSA) - Ghana, Mali, Malawi, Senegal, Tanzania, Uganda. We use these data toexamine to impact of financial development on the long-term success ofexports from developing countries. We find that those agricultural exportsthat face particularly costly implementation of Sanitary and PhytosanitaryStandards (SPS) are also the ones that disproportionately benefit from ahigher level of domestic financial development. This result confirms theprevious findings from a smaller SSA sample (Jaudetal ...


Finance, Comparative Advantage, And Resource Allocation, Melise Jaud, Madina Kukenova, Martin Strieborny Sep 2016

Finance, Comparative Advantage, And Resource Allocation, Melise Jaud, Madina Kukenova, Martin Strieborny

Martin Strieborny

Can financial institutions and markets enhance the discipline imposed by competitive product markets and thus improve resource allocation in the real economy? We address this question in the context of international trade, using disaggregated product-level data from 71 countries exporting to the USA. We show that exported products exit the US market sooner if they stand far away from the exporting country's comparative advantage. This pattern is stronger when the exporting country has a well-developed banking system, but it is unaffected by the depth of stock markets. These results are in accordance with theories stressing the disciplining role of ...


Debt Dilution And Sovereign Default Risk, Juan Carlos Hatchondo, Leonardo Martinez, Cesar Sosa Padilla Jan 2016

Debt Dilution And Sovereign Default Risk, Juan Carlos Hatchondo, Leonardo Martinez, Cesar Sosa Padilla

Leonardo Martinez

No abstract provided.


Fiscal Rules And The Sovereign Default Premium, Juan Carlos Hatchondo, Leonardo Martinez, Francisco Roch Jan 2016

Fiscal Rules And The Sovereign Default Premium, Juan Carlos Hatchondo, Leonardo Martinez, Francisco Roch

Leonardo Martinez

No abstract provided.


Intellectual Property Protection And The Industrial Composition Of Multinational Activity, Olena Ivus, Walter Park, Kamal Saggi Jan 2016

Intellectual Property Protection And The Industrial Composition Of Multinational Activity, Olena Ivus, Walter Park, Kamal Saggi

Olena Ivus

In a North-South model with endogenous FDI, we examine the impact of Southern IPR protection on the mode and industry composition of international technology transfer. A novel feature of the model is that, due to technological reasons, industries differ with respect to their susceptibility to imitation. In equilibrium, licensing occurs in industries where the risk of imitation is low and FDI where it is of intermediate magnitude. Stronger IPRs in the South (i) alter the industrial composition of multinational activity towards licensing at the expense of FDI, (ii) reduce local imitation, (iii) increase licensing and, to a lesser extent, FDI.


Holes In The Dike: The Global Savings Glut, U.S. House Prices And The Long Shadow Of Banking Deregulation, Mathias Hoffmann, Iryna Stewen Jan 2016

Holes In The Dike: The Global Savings Glut, U.S. House Prices And The Long Shadow Of Banking Deregulation, Mathias Hoffmann, Iryna Stewen

Mathias Hoffmann

We show how capital inflows into and financial deregulation within the United States interacted in driving the recent boom and bust in U.S. housing prices. Interstate banking deregulation during the 1980s cast a long shadow: in states that opened their banking markets to out-of-state banks earlier, house prices were more sensitive to aggregate U.S. capital inflows during 1990-2012. Capital inflows relaxed the value-at-risk constraints of geographically diversified (‘integrated’) U.S. banks more than those of local banks. Therefore, integrated banks absorbed a larger share of capital inflows and expanded mortgage lending more. This drove up housing prices.


The Effect Of The U.S. Biofuels Mandate On Poverty In India, Ujjayant N. Chakravorty, Marie-Helene Hubert, Beyza Ural Marchand Jan 2016

The Effect Of The U.S. Biofuels Mandate On Poverty In India, Ujjayant N. Chakravorty, Marie-Helene Hubert, Beyza Ural Marchand

Ujjayant Chakravorty

More than 40% of US grain is now used for energy and this share is expected to rise under the current Renewable Fuels Mandate (RFS). There are no studies of the global distributional consequences of this purely domestic policy. Using micro-level survey data, we trace the effect of the RFS on world food prices and their impact on household level consumption and wage impacts in India. We first develop a partial equilibrium model to estimate the effect of the RFS on the price of selected food commodities - rice, wheat, corn, sugar and meat and dairy, which together provide almost 70 ...


La Efectiva Integración Del Mercosur. Estado Actual Del Proceso. Avances Y Desafíos, Francisco Carlos Ruiz Diaz Nov 2015

La Efectiva Integración Del Mercosur. Estado Actual Del Proceso. Avances Y Desafíos, Francisco Carlos Ruiz Diaz

Francisco Carlos Ruiz Diaz

El Mercosur se encuentra actualmente en un equilibrio que no es su condición de equilibrio de largo plazo. Su agenda comercial con pocos avances. Se han incluido dos nuevos socios, lo cual implica menos concentración (poder en las negociaciones) por parte de los socios mayoritarios (Argentina y Brasil). En los próximos años el Mercosur tendrá como desafíos: fortalecer y completar las instituciones para la libre circulación, retomar los esfuerzos para potenciar los temas comerciales, conectividad física e infraestructura, profundizar el relacionamiento externo (problemas de «agregación de preferencias), consolidar la coordinación macroeconómica y recuperar la credibilidad del sistema de solución de ...


Notes On The Seminar On African Economic Outlook 2015, Held On The 8th Of October 2015 At The House Of The Estates Of Finland, J. G. A. Saviranta Oct 2015

Notes On The Seminar On African Economic Outlook 2015, Held On The 8th Of October 2015 At The House Of The Estates Of Finland, J. G. A. Saviranta

Akseli Saviranta

The following document presents summarised key notes from the United Nations University – World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER) seminar titled “African Economic Outlook 2015 – Unlocking the potential of local economies for inclusive growth”. The seminar presented the 2015 report titled “African Economic Outlook 2015 – Regional Development and Spatial Inclusion”, produced by the African Development Bank, the OECD Development Centre, and the United Nations Development Programme. The African Development Bank, UNU-WIDER, and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Finland were the co-organisers of the Seminar.


Small Firms And Domestic Bank Dependence In Europe's Great Recession, Mathias Hoffmann, Bent E. Sorensen Jun 2015

Small Firms And Domestic Bank Dependence In Europe's Great Recession, Mathias Hoffmann, Bent E. Sorensen

Mathias Hoffmann

The paper studies the role of small businesses (SME) in the transmission of the Eurozone crisis to member countries and whether regions or countries with many SMEs were less able to share risk. Our analysis draws attention to domestic bank dependence---defined as the share of domestic private credit originated by domestic banks---as a key variable modulated the impact of shocks on bank-dependent SMEs and thus on the real economy. We argue that Eurozone banking integration in the years after the creation of the single currency was lopsided in the sense that, until 2008, cross-border lending between banks increased markedly while ...


Globalization And Inequality An International Comparison Between Sweden And The Us, Sergio A. Berumen May 2015

Globalization And Inequality An International Comparison Between Sweden And The Us, Sergio A. Berumen

Sergio A. Berumen

In this paper we first review the concepts of Globalization and Inequality, paying special attention to the conclusions reached previously by other economists. Later on, we carry on with an international comparison between Sweden and the United States for the period 1913-2012. We depict the evolution in inequality levels for both countries, based in two main indicators: the Gini Index and the top 1% income share. Our findings point out that inequality has strongly risen in the United States whilst Sweden’s level of inequality is not far from the one presented immediately after the World War II. These results ...


Impact Of Political And Economic Integration On Labour Mobility In The Arabian Peninsula, J. G. A. Saviranta Mar 2015

Impact Of Political And Economic Integration On Labour Mobility In The Arabian Peninsula, J. G. A. Saviranta

Akseli Saviranta

The main question that this work tackles is the extent of the impact that political and economic shifts might have had on the labour market structure and regulations.


Patent Protection And The Industrial Composition Of Multinational Activity: Evidence From U.S. Multinational Firms, Olena Ivus, Walter Park, Kamal Saggi Jan 2015

Patent Protection And The Industrial Composition Of Multinational Activity: Evidence From U.S. Multinational Firms, Olena Ivus, Walter Park, Kamal Saggi

Olena Ivus

Using data on U.S. firms' technology licensing to local agents in developing countries, this paper examines the impact of patent protection on internal and arms-length technology transfer. The effects of protection vary across products according to their complexity. Consistent with theories of internalization, we find that patent reforms enable local firms to attract more arms-length technology transfer, especially of simple products which are relatively easy to imitate. Affiliated licensing also rises among simple products, but falls among complex products. The results withstand several robustness checks, including controlling for endogeneity by using colonial origin as an instrument, and are equally ...


Does Stronger Patent Protection Increase Export Variety? Evidence From U.S. Product-Level Data, Olena Ivus Jan 2015

Does Stronger Patent Protection Increase Export Variety? Evidence From U.S. Product-Level Data, Olena Ivus

Olena Ivus

Proponents of global intellectual property rights (IPRs) reforms have argued that developing countries' weak IPRs limit their access to foreign innovative products and technologies. Central to our understanding of the effects of IPRs on product access is the influence of national differences in patent protection on corporate behavior and business strategy of multinational firms. Using detailed product data on U.S. exports from 1990 to 2000, this paper assesses the impact of strengthening IPRs in developing countries on product variety of U.S. exports. Colonial origin and cross-industry variation in patent effectiveness serve to identify the impact. The results show ...


The Political Economy Of Special Economic Zones, Lotta Moberg Jan 2015

The Political Economy Of Special Economic Zones, Lotta Moberg

Lotta Moberg

Special economic zones (SEZs) are a wide-spread and increasingly popular tool for economic growth. Big or small, secluded or isolated, they are areas where a government allows for different rules to apply than the rest of the country. Most commonly, this means granting fiscal privileges to investors in the zones. Exemptions from taxes, tariffs, and sometimes regulations mean that SEZs form islands of economic liberalization in a country. A common attitude to zones is therefore that while broader liberalization is preferred, SEZs always benefit a country as long as they bring about this marginal improvement. The skeptical view of SEZs ...


The Time Is Right: An Analysis Of Timing In Bilateral Agreements Implementation, Luca Salvatici Jan 2015

The Time Is Right: An Analysis Of Timing In Bilateral Agreements Implementation, Luca Salvatici

Luca Salvatici

No abstract provided.


Exchange Rates As Shock Absorbers: The Role Of Export Margins, Lilia Cavallari Jan 2015

Exchange Rates As Shock Absorbers: The Role Of Export Margins, Lilia Cavallari

Lilia Cavallari

No abstract provided.


The Time Cost Of Documents To Trade, Mohammad Amin, Asif Islam Jan 2015

The Time Cost Of Documents To Trade, Mohammad Amin, Asif Islam

Mohammad Amin

The paper shows that the number of documents required to export and import tend to increase the time cost of shipments. However, this relationship is far from simplistic, varying sharply in magnitude depending on the income level and the size of the country. Specifically, the increase in the time cost of increased documentation is much larger for countries that are relatively poor and large in size. One interpretation of this finding is that the relatively rich countries that have more resources and the relatively small countries that rely more on trade invest more in building efficient documentation systems. Hence, increased ...


Roads And Resources: Groundwater Depletion In Lankao Country In The North China Plains, Ujjayant N. Chakravorty, Xiangzheng Deng, Yazhen Gong, Martino Pelli, Zhang Qian Jan 2015

Roads And Resources: Groundwater Depletion In Lankao Country In The North China Plains, Ujjayant N. Chakravorty, Xiangzheng Deng, Yazhen Gong, Martino Pelli, Zhang Qian

Ujjayant Chakravorty

China produces most of its food grains in the North China Plains. However, there is evidence that groundwater aquifers in this region are being overexploited. We use a unique GIS-referenced dataset of the depth of the water table for all the 12,000 odd tube wells in Lankao county. We find that the construction of new highways has led to a depletion of the water table in wells close to the highways. This relationship is robust to a variety of controls, including distance to river and primary canals, village and township fixed effects, the date of drilling of the well ...


Implications Of Export Competitiveness And Performance Of Textile And Clothing Sector Of Pakistan: Pre And Post Quota Analysis, Nawaz Ahmad Oct 2014

Implications Of Export Competitiveness And Performance Of Textile And Clothing Sector Of Pakistan: Pre And Post Quota Analysis, Nawaz Ahmad

Nawaz Ahmad

Textile and Clothing sector of Pakistan has been facing different international trade reforms i.e. Multi-fiber Arrangements, Quota elimination and for some of the developing countries European union, introduced special trade arrangements like GSP plus to improve their balance of trade conditions. In the light of pre quota elimination and post quota elimination periods, this paper highlights trade performance of textile and clothing sector in depth. This study focused on finding the extent of revealed comparative advantage of textile and revealed comparative advantage of clothing sector on overall textile and clothing trade performance of Pakistan. For this purpose study applied ...


Notes On The Policy Seminar On Inequality And Development, Held On The 26th Of September 2014 At The Ministry Of Foreign Affairs Of Finland, J. G. A. Saviranta Sep 2014

Notes On The Policy Seminar On Inequality And Development, Held On The 26th Of September 2014 At The Ministry Of Foreign Affairs Of Finland, J. G. A. Saviranta

Akseli Saviranta

The following document presents summarised key notes from the United Nations University – World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER) policy seminar titled “Inequality and Development – Trends and Policies”. This policy seminar represented a follow-up to a prior two-day conference organised earlier in the same month by the same institute, in which the author has participated as well.


Use Of Imported Inputs And The Cost Of Importing: Evidence Form Developing Countries, Mohammad Amin, Asif Islam Aug 2014

Use Of Imported Inputs And The Cost Of Importing: Evidence Form Developing Countries, Mohammad Amin, Asif Islam

Mohammad Amin

For a representative sample of manufacturing firms in 26 countries, the paper shows that changes in the cost of importing over time is significantly and negatively correlated with changes in the percentage of firm’s material inputs that are of foreign origin. Furthermore, we show that there may be a non-linear relationship between import costs and imports. These findings are important as recent studies point towards a significant positive effect of imported inputs on productivity and growth. We hope that the present paper inspires more work on the determinants of imported inputs usage especially in developing countries.


Gravity Of Arms, Florian Johannsen, Inmaculada Martinez-Zarzoso Aug 2014

Gravity Of Arms, Florian Johannsen, Inmaculada Martinez-Zarzoso

Inma Martinez-Zarzoso

The main aim of this paper is to investigate the political determinants of international arms transfers. We distinguish between the decision to export arms (extensive margin) and the value of the arms exported (intensive margin). A theoretically-justified gravity model of trade augmented with political factors is estimated using a two-stage panel data approach for 104 exporting countries over the period of 1950 to 2007. For main political factors, we consider the level of democracy as well as the political orientation of the ruling governments in both of the trading partners. Furthermore, we account for political differences between trading partners, the ...


Curriculum Vitae, Ronald R. Kumar Jul 2014

Curriculum Vitae, Ronald R. Kumar

Ronald R Kumar

My updated CV


Use Of Foreign Intermediate Inputs In Developing Countries: Determinants And Effects (Short Note), Mohammad Amin, Asif Islam, Po Yin Wong May 2014

Use Of Foreign Intermediate Inputs In Developing Countries: Determinants And Effects (Short Note), Mohammad Amin, Asif Islam, Po Yin Wong

Mohammad Amin

Theory suggests a number of channels through which use of foreign inputs could contribute to overall economic development and firm performance. However, empirical work on the use of foreign inputs, its determinants and effects is lacking. Using firm-level data from Enterprise Surveys on developing countries, this note highlights the extent to which firms rely on foreign inputs, how the reliance varies with country and firm characteristics and the impact of foreign inputs on firm productivity. Results show that the use of foreign inputs is common among private firms and especially so among the relatively large firms and firms in countries ...


Evaluating Aid For Trade: A Survey Of Recent Studies, Olivier Cadot, Ana Fernandes, Julien Gourdon, Aaditya Mattoo, Jaime De Melo Apr 2014

Evaluating Aid For Trade: A Survey Of Recent Studies, Olivier Cadot, Ana Fernandes, Julien Gourdon, Aaditya Mattoo, Jaime De Melo

Julien Gourdon

No abstract provided.


The Gravity Of Experience, Pushan Dutt Mar 2014

The Gravity Of Experience, Pushan Dutt

Pushan Dutt

In this paper, we establish the importance of experience in international trade for reducing trade costs and facilitating bilateral trade. Within an augmented gravity framework, we find that an additional year of experience at the country-pair level reduces trade costs by 2.0% and increases bilateral exports by 8%. The effect of experience is stronger for country-pairs that are more distant, who do not share a common border, and who lack colonial and legal ties. Further, experience raises both the extensive and the intensive margins of trade. In a dynamic trade model with heterogeneous firms and where export-experience reduces trade ...