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Articles 1 - 30 of 362

Full-Text Articles in International Economics

Long-Run Impacts Of Trade Shocks And Export Competitiveness: Evidence From The U.S. Bse Event, Chen-Ti Chen, John M. Crespi, William Hahn, Lee L. Schulz, Fawzi Taha Sep 2019

Long-Run Impacts Of Trade Shocks And Export Competitiveness: Evidence From The U.S. Bse Event, Chen-Ti Chen, John M. Crespi, William Hahn, Lee L. Schulz, Fawzi Taha

CARD Working Papers

This paper examines how comparative advantages of major beef exporters changed following the 2003 bovine spongiform encephalopathy outbreak (BSE), which significantly disrupted the U.S. beef trade until approximately April 2007. Using longitudinal data on beef export values and constructed revealed comparative advantage measures, we show that while some measure of the long-run impacts of BSE on U.S. beef export competitiveness have returned to pre-2003 levels, the U.S.’s comparative advantage has not. We also examine a hypothetical scenario of no BSE event in 2003 and predict what exporters’ competitiveness would have looked like. The authors discuss the ...


The Exports Of Higher Education Services From Oecd Countries To Asian Countries. A Gravity Approach, John C. Beghin, Byung Yul Park Aug 2019

The Exports Of Higher Education Services From Oecd Countries To Asian Countries. A Gravity Approach, John C. Beghin, Byung Yul Park

Economics Working Papers

We analyze bilateral exports of higher education services between OECD countries and Asia, using a gravity equation approach, panel data from 1998 to 2016, and PPML regression. The approach treats higher education consumption by Asian countries as a consumable durable good. Asian Students come to OECD countries to obtain degrees from their universities. Structurally, the flow of students from Asian country j to OECD country i depends on bilateral transaction costs between i and j, the income per capita in j, school-age demographics in j, the higher-education capacity of i, the perceived quality of universities in i, and the usual ...


Accounting For The International Quantity-Quality Trade-Off, Juan Carlos Cordoba, Xiying Liu, Marla Ripoll Jan 2019

Accounting For The International Quantity-Quality Trade-Off, Juan Carlos Cordoba, Xiying Liu, Marla Ripoll

Economics Working Papers

We investigate what accounts for the observed international differences in schooling and fertil- ity, and draw lessons for the underlying sources of cross-country income differences. For this purpose, we extend a life-cycle dynastic model to include features relevant for schooling and fertility choices. Our approach allows for country-specific human capital technologies in addi- tion to differences in TFP, public education policies, and demographic factors. We find that differences in human capital production functions, specifically in the degree of complementarity of educational investments, are key to match schooling data, and result in novel estimates of human capital stocks and TFP levels ...


The Impact Of The 2018 Trade Disruptions On The Iowa Economy, Edward J. Balistreri, Chad E. Hart, Dermot J. Hayes, Minghao Li, Lee Schulz, David A. Swenson, Wendong Zhang, John M. Crespi Sep 2018

The Impact Of The 2018 Trade Disruptions On The Iowa Economy, Edward J. Balistreri, Chad E. Hart, Dermot J. Hayes, Minghao Li, Lee Schulz, David A. Swenson, Wendong Zhang, John M. Crespi

CARD Policy Briefs

In this analysis, we use historical trade patterns, revenue linkages, and recent futures market price changes to discern the 2018 tariffs’ near-term impacts on the state of Iowa. We use two distinct modeling techniques, and in each technique we make two distinct assumptions. First, we use partial-equilibrium modeling approaches that do not directly consider linkages among the markets and industries across the state of Iowa. In these approaches, two assumptions about price changes are invoked—either the price changes are based upon supply and demand elasticities or the price changes are based upon observations in the futures market. The partial ...


Agricultural Mechanization And Bmi For Rural Workers: A Field Experiment In China, Zizhen Guo, Yu Jiang, Sonya K. Huffman Jun 2018

Agricultural Mechanization And Bmi For Rural Workers: A Field Experiment In China, Zizhen Guo, Yu Jiang, Sonya K. Huffman

Economics Working Papers

This paper examines whether and how agricultural mechanization affects the BMI of farmers in rural China using a unique data set. We conducted a field experiment with face-to-face interviews in 135 counties of 12 provinces in China in 2013. It includes 4,229 individuals from 1,024 rural households, of which 1,033 of the 2,165 workers are farmers. The BMI of farmers who utilize agricultural mechanization is about 10 percent larger than those who don’t at a 1 percent significance level. Our results suggest that the adoption of agricultural mechanization has a positive and statistically significant effect ...


How To Create Conducive Institutions To Enable Agricultural Mechanization: A Comparative Historical Study From The United States And Germany, Thomas Daum, Wallace E. Huffman, Regina Birner Jun 2018

How To Create Conducive Institutions To Enable Agricultural Mechanization: A Comparative Historical Study From The United States And Germany, Thomas Daum, Wallace E. Huffman, Regina Birner

Economics Working Papers

Agricultural mechanization is now high on the policy agenda of many developing countries. History has shown that successful mechanization depends on an enabling environment providing various supporting functions, for example, knowledge and skills development and quality assurance. This paper analyses how this enabling environment was created during the mechanization history of two today’s mechanized countries, the United States and Germany, thereby distilling lessons for today’s mechanizing countries. The paper highlights the different roles played by government agencies (public sector), manufacturers of agricultural machinery (private sector) and farmers’ organizations (third sector) for the creation of this enabling environment. The ...


Why Are Nontraded Goods Cheaper In Poor Countries?, Yoonho Choi, Hailong Jin, E. Kwan Choi Mar 2018

Why Are Nontraded Goods Cheaper In Poor Countries?, Yoonho Choi, Hailong Jin, E. Kwan Choi

Economics Publications

Balassa and Samuelson argued that production technologies differ among countries, and the price of the nontraded good is higher in countries with higher labor productivity. This paper shows that the Balassa-Samuelson effect exists even when countries share identical production technologies. In the celebrated Heckscher-Ohlin model, changes in factor endowments do not affect the equalized factor prices. This paper considers a three-factor, three-industry model, and demonstrates that endowment differences between countries can cause disparities in their wage rates and the prices of the nontraded good. A dynamic panel data analysis shows that a 10% increase in per capita real GDP results ...


Antebellum Labor Markets, Joshua L. Rosenbloom Feb 2018

Antebellum Labor Markets, Joshua L. Rosenbloom

Economics Working Papers

The United States economy was transformed in the period between American independence and the beginning of the Civil War by rapid population growth, the development of manufacturing, the onset of modern economic growth, increasing urbanization, the rapid spread of settlement into the trans-Appalachian west, and the rise of European immigration. These years were also characterized by an increasing sectional conflict between free and slave states that culminated in 1861 in Southern secession from the Union and a bloody and destructive Civil War. Labor markets were central to each of these developments, directing the reallocation of labor between sectors and regions ...


Best Practices For Planning, Developing, And Sustaining Interdisciplinary Language-Based Study Abroad Programs, Chad M. Gasta Jan 2018

Best Practices For Planning, Developing, And Sustaining Interdisciplinary Language-Based Study Abroad Programs, Chad M. Gasta

World Languages and Cultures Publications

In seventeen years of experience as a study abroad program director, I have seen how university students, faculty members, and administrators have come to share a strategic mission for study or work abroad; namely that programs must provide a meaningful international credential that not only yields a more fruitful undergraduate experience but also creates the potential for a better and higher-paying job upon graduation. I have spoken with many job recruiters over the years who tout the importance of developing an international skill set that requires a profound understanding of other cultures and languages. General news outlets and trade magazines ...


Evaluation Of The Potential Impact Of Cptpp And Evfta On Vietnam's Apparel Exports: Are We Over-Optimistic About Vietnam's Export Potential?, Sheng Lu Jan 2018

Evaluation Of The Potential Impact Of Cptpp And Evfta On Vietnam's Apparel Exports: Are We Over-Optimistic About Vietnam's Export Potential?, Sheng Lu

International Textile and Apparel Association (ITAA) Annual Conference Proceedings

This study conducted a quantitative evaluation of the potential impact of the implementation of the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement of the Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP) and the EU-Vietnam Free Trade Agreement (EVFTA) on Vietnam’s apparel exports.


Stock Markets, Credit Markets, And Technology-Led Growth, James R. Brown, Gustav Martinsson, Bruce C. Petersen Oct 2017

Stock Markets, Credit Markets, And Technology-Led Growth, James R. Brown, Gustav Martinsson, Bruce C. Petersen

Finance Publication

The high-tech sector accounts for the majority of corporate innovation in modern economies. In a sample of 38 countries, we document a strong positive relation between the initial size of the country's high-tech sector and subsequent rates of GDP and total factor productivity growth. We also find a strong positive connection between a country's equity (but not credit) market development and the size of its high-tech sector. Our main difference-in-differences estimates show that better developed stock markets support faster growth of innovative-intensive, high-tech industries. The main channels for this effect are higher rates of productivity and faster growth ...


Duality Theory In Empirical Work, Revisited, Francisco Rosas, Sergio H. Lence Aug 2017

Duality Theory In Empirical Work, Revisited, Francisco Rosas, Sergio H. Lence

Economics Publications

We compute a pseudo-dataset by Monte Carlo simulations featuring important characteristics of US agriculture, such that the initial technology parameters are known, and employing widely used datasets for calibration. Then, we show the usefulness of this calibration by applying the duality theory approach to datasets bearing as sources of noise only the aggregation of technologically heterogeneous firms. Estimation recovers initial parameters with reasonable accuracy. These conclusions are expected, but the proposed calibration sets the basis for analysing the performance of duality theory in empirical work when datasets have more observed and unobserved sources of noise, as those faced by practitioners.


Economic Effects Of Standard-Like Nontariff Measures: Analytical And Methodological Dimensions, John Beghin, Bo Xiong Oct 2016

Economic Effects Of Standard-Like Nontariff Measures: Analytical And Methodological Dimensions, John Beghin, Bo Xiong

CARD Working Papers

We provide a selective review of the empirical international trade literature on nontariff measures (NTMs) acting like standards–the so-called technical measures under the MAST classification. This review focuses on analytical and methodological dimensions involved in evaluating these NTMs and their economic effects, and draws from established approaches to measure standard-like NTMs and rigorous models used to quantify their effects on trade and welfare. The quantification of technical measures and the assessment of their effects are often entangled. We present each of these major approaches and methodologies with some formalism and details to help guide future investigations of technical measures ...


Ttip And Agricultural Trade: The Case Of Tariff Elimination And Pesticide Policy Cooperation, Bo Xiong, John C. Beghin Jun 2016

Ttip And Agricultural Trade: The Case Of Tariff Elimination And Pesticide Policy Cooperation, Bo Xiong, John C. Beghin

CARD Working Papers

A possible Trans-Atlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) agreement will further integrate agricultural markets between the United States and the European Union. The elimination of tariffs and cooperation on sanitary and phytosanitary measures will promote cross-Atlantic trade. We empirically estimate the impacts of tariffs and Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs) on trade in plant products between the two partners. Furthermore, we simulate trade expansions under plausible negotiation outcomes. We find that a TTIP agreement promotes cross-Atlantic trade in plant products, in both directions, by over 60% if tariffs are removed and MRLs are mutually recognized or harmonized to Codex levels.


Biofuel And Feedstock Markets And The Eu-Us Ttip, John C. Beghin Jan 2016

Biofuel And Feedstock Markets And The Eu-Us Ttip, John C. Beghin

Agricultural Policy Review

A recent CARD analysis looked at the implications of a potential EU-US Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) for bioenergy and associated feedstock markets. This article reports on the effects of removing bilateral tariffs and TRQs in the two bio-economies.


Trans-Pacific Partnership And Foreign Ag Subsidies, Dermot J. Hayes Nov 2015

Trans-Pacific Partnership And Foreign Ag Subsidies, Dermot J. Hayes

CARD Working Papers

Testimony before the House Committee on Agriculture


Exports Boost Livestock Prices, Lee L. Schulz Oct 2015

Exports Boost Livestock Prices, Lee L. Schulz

Economics Publications

Strong domestic meat and poultry demand plus husky exports have bolstered livestock prices over recent years. Exports, on a value basis, set a record high in 2014.


Implications Of The Gatt Agreement For Iowa Agriculture, John R. Kruse Aug 2015

Implications Of The Gatt Agreement For Iowa Agriculture, John R. Kruse

Iowa Ag Review

The FAPRI analysis indicates that nearly all U.S. agricultural commodities benefit under GATT, although some commodities experience larger impacts than others. CARD extended the FAPRI analysis to commodities important to Iowa, such as com, soybeans, and pork and found that all are significant winners under the Uruguay Round Agreement.


The Gatt Agreement: A Layperson's Description, John R. Kruse Aug 2015

The Gatt Agreement: A Layperson's Description, John R. Kruse

Iowa Ag Review

What is the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)? The GATT may be best described as an ongoing process through which trade distortions among countries are defined and targeted for reduction. There have been seven previous GATT agreements over the years. The recent GATT agreement represents the eighth round of trade negotiations and is often called the Uruguay Round in reference to Punta del Este, Uruguay, where the agenda was set in 1986.


International Developments, Karen Oerter Aug 2015

International Developments, Karen Oerter

Iowa Ag Review

The USDA preliminary estimates for 1994/1995 world soybean production are currently set at 127.75 mmt, or about 10 percent above the 1993/94 level. This increase is due primarily to a bumper crop in the United States, estimated as of August to be 62.12 mmt for the 1994/1995 crop year, which is a 26 percent increase over the 1993/1994 crop.


The Eu Export Tax: Impact On U.S. Markets, William H. Meyers, Steven L. Elmore Aug 2015

The Eu Export Tax: Impact On U.S. Markets, William H. Meyers, Steven L. Elmore

Iowa Ag Review

ln response to high world grain prices, the European Union (EU) introduced wheat export taxes in November 1995 for the first time in more than a decade. Normally, the EU offers export subsidies to make up the difference between their high internal grain prices and world market prices. However, EU internal support prices have been reduced over the last three years as a result of policy reforms. Recent high world grain prices have exceeded the EU support prices since early in the 1995/96 crop year. Rather than let internal prices follow world market prices upward, the EU decided to ...


Implications For U.S. Pork Trade Fouowing Taiwan's Export Ban, Jacinto F. Fabiosa, Frank H. Fuller Aug 2015

Implications For U.S. Pork Trade Fouowing Taiwan's Export Ban, Jacinto F. Fabiosa, Frank H. Fuller

Iowa Ag Review

Taiwan announced on Friday, March 21 , 1997, an indefinite ban on pork exports after an outbreak of foot and mouth disease. It is neither·clear at.this time how Jon!! the ban will ~ last nor the ful l impacts of this event. Although a terrible blow to Taiwanese producers. Iowa's primary agriculture will likely encounter increased demand, as the u:s. pork industry is well positioned to increase world market share. Iowa State University's FAPRI staff is engaged in analysis of this event.


Grains And Oilseed Cropland: A Global Perspective, James Rude, Steven L. Elmore, Darnell B. Smith Aug 2015

Grains And Oilseed Cropland: A Global Perspective, James Rude, Steven L. Elmore, Darnell B. Smith

Iowa Ag Review

Current tight grain markets have led some commentators to argue that the world is entering a phase of rising food scarcity. The present situation js related to the rise in world consumption, which has tended to outpace production during the 1990s. While most supply shortages were due to weather shocks, the global area planted to grains has decreased from 1,784 million acres in l 980to 1,718 million acres in 1996 (USDA). The question remains, "Are there enough land resources available globally to meetfutwe production needs?" The combined grains and oilseeds area has, however, increased tWer that same period.


The Potential Market For U.S. Pork Variety Meats In China, Dermot J. Hayes, Roxanne L. B. Clemens Aug 2015

The Potential Market For U.S. Pork Variety Meats In China, Dermot J. Hayes, Roxanne L. B. Clemens

Iowa Ag Review

Chinese consumers view products such as loins and tenderloins. as uninteresting and lacking in taste. Chinese dishes call for small pieces of strong-tasting products, and Chinese consumers will pay accordingly.


The Impact Of Eep Removal On U.S. Week, Samarendu Mohanty, Food And Agricultural Policy Research Institute Aug 2015

The Impact Of Eep Removal On U.S. Week, Samarendu Mohanty, Food And Agricultural Policy Research Institute

Iowa Ag Review

The Export Enhancement Program (EEP) was initiated under the Food Security Act of 1985. The purpose 9f the program was to offset the adverse effects on U.S. exports due to unfair trade practices or subsid'ies by competing exporters and also to support U ,S. prices. Supply restrictions, price supports, and export subsidies together have caused U.S. wheat prices to be above world prices over the past decade.


Grain Market Glut: Asia A Minor Player, William H. Meyers, Darnell B. Smith Aug 2015

Grain Market Glut: Asia A Minor Player, William H. Meyers, Darnell B. Smith

Iowa Ag Review

There is no doubt that we are in a grain market glut of global proportions, and it is fair to ask how we got here. It seems only a short time ago the big concern was low stocks and the possibility of market disruptions arising from yet another shortfall somewhere in the world. Since this market glut coincides with the Asian financial crisis, it has been easy to blame low prices on the collapse of Asian economic growth. However, Asia is a relatively small part of the story.


Agri Cultural Impacts Of China's Accession To The Wto, Frank H. Fuller Aug 2015

Agri Cultural Impacts Of China's Accession To The Wto, Frank H. Fuller

Iowa Ag Review

The People's Republic of China has requested- and will likely soon be granted- membership in the World Trade Organization (WTO). Given the size and importance of China's economy to the intemational market. both U.S. agricultural and nonagricultural markets will undoubtedly be a fleet ed significantly.


World Trade Impacts Of Foot-And-Mouth Disease In Taiwan, Food And Agricultural Policy Research Institute Aug 2015

World Trade Impacts Of Foot-And-Mouth Disease In Taiwan, Food And Agricultural Policy Research Institute

Iowa Ag Review

On March 21, 1997, Taiwan imposed an indefinite ban on pork exports following an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD).1 Taiwan's major markets, including Japan, Korea, and Singapore, followed suit by banning imports of all pork and pork products originating in Taiwan. Pork is Taiwan's main agricultural commodity. both in value of production and in export earnings, and Taiwanese pork exports account for over 15 percent of the world total. Taiwan is also Japan 's predominant supplier of exported pork. Thus, Taiwan's export ban will have a significant impact on trade patterns and world pork prices. Using ...


Eu-U.S.Beef Hormone Trade Dispute, John C. Beghin Aug 2015

Eu-U.S.Beef Hormone Trade Dispute, John C. Beghin

Iowa Ag Review

This article provides a brief historical perspective of the beef hormone dispute between the European Union (EU) and the United States and reviews the scientific evidence of health risks associated with products from animals that have been administered hormones.


European Union Agricultural Reforms: Impacts For Iowa, Samarendu Mohanty, Philip Kaus Aug 2015

European Union Agricultural Reforms: Impacts For Iowa, Samarendu Mohanty, Philip Kaus

Iowa Ag Review

The European Union’s (EU) Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is set to undergo comprehensive reforms, known as Agenda 2000, next year. The twofold objective of these reforms is to ensure the sustainability of European agriculture and to protect the livelihood of European farmers. In May 1999, the European Council officially adopted new financial and political guidelines—dubbed the Berlin Accord— that will increase government support to farmers through direct payments while reducing support prices for cereals, beef, and dairy products.