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Full-Text Articles in International Economics

1st Place Contest Entry: Countering The Current: The Function Of Cinematic Waves In Communist Vs. Capitalist Societies, Maddie Gwinn Apr 2019

1st Place Contest Entry: Countering The Current: The Function Of Cinematic Waves In Communist Vs. Capitalist Societies, Maddie Gwinn

Kevin and Tam Ross Undergraduate Research Prize

This is Maddie Gwinn's submission for the 2019 Kevin and Tam Ross Undergraduate Research Prize, which won first place. It contains her essay on using library resources, a three-page sample of her research project on how the Czech New Wave and New Hollywood cinema are defined by their agency in preserving and prescribing cultural meaning across their societies while being bound to their economic systems, and her works cited list.

Maddie is a senior at Chapman University, majoring in Film Production. Her faculty mentor is Dr. Carmichael Peters.


Comparison Of Country/Economies At Stage Of Development With Movement In Rankings Of Countries On Global Competitiveness, Pradip K. Shukla, M. P. Shukla, Y. P. Shukla, A. P. Shukla Sep 2018

Comparison Of Country/Economies At Stage Of Development With Movement In Rankings Of Countries On Global Competitiveness, Pradip K. Shukla, M. P. Shukla, Y. P. Shukla, A. P. Shukla

Business Faculty Articles and Research

With close to 200 countries in the world today, these countries are at various stages of development from less developed to more develop; these stages are often labeled in a rising numerical sequence such as Stage 1 to 3. Countries in the world compete in a global economy to benefit their domestic firms and citizens. As countries move to a higher stage of economic development they offer more global competitiveness for global businesses seeking new markets for sales, offshore outsourcing, and investments.

“The World Economic Forum is the International Organization for Public-Private Cooperation. The Forum engages the foremost political, business ...


Romania -- Systematic Country Diagnostic: Background Note-Agriculture (English), Edinaldo Tebaldi, Anatol Gobjila Jun 2018

Romania -- Systematic Country Diagnostic: Background Note-Agriculture (English), Edinaldo Tebaldi, Anatol Gobjila

Economics Faculty Journal Articles

Agriculture plays a significant socio-economic role in Romania and its transformation to a modern, vibrant, and market-oriented sector is central to fighting poverty, promoting social inclusion, and reducing the urban/rural development divide. Most of Romania's poor live in rural areas and earn their living from agriculture or agriculture-related activities. In 2016, eight out of ten people who were at risk of poverty or social exclusion lived either in rural areas or in towns and suburbs that were predominately rural. Using microdata from the 2013 Household Budget Survey (HBS), this report finds that individuals living in rural areas are ...


Confucius Institute's Effects On China's Higher Education Exports: A Perspective From Cultural Difference And Institutional Quality, Donald Lien, Feng Yao, Fan Zhang Jan 2018

Confucius Institute's Effects On China's Higher Education Exports: A Perspective From Cultural Difference And Institutional Quality, Donald Lien, Feng Yao, Fan Zhang

Economics Faculty Working Papers Series

This article uses a panel data of international student flows to China from 2000–2014 to investigate Confucius Institute (CI)’s effects on China’s educational service exports. We find that CI, as a comprehensive platform for promoting Chinese language and cultural exchange, has a significant positive effect on China’s education exports. The effects of CI on China’s education exports are transmitted through promoting Chinese language, bridging cultural gaps, and reducing psychic distance. We further find that the effects of CI on China’s education exports are heterogeneous, depending on the level of cultural difference and institutional quality ...


Poverty Mapping Using Convolutional Neural Networks Trained On High And Medium Resolution Satellite Images, With An Application In Mexico, Boris Babenko, Jonathan Hersh, David Newhouse, Anusha Ramakrishnan, Tom Swartz Dec 2017

Poverty Mapping Using Convolutional Neural Networks Trained On High And Medium Resolution Satellite Images, With An Application In Mexico, Boris Babenko, Jonathan Hersh, David Newhouse, Anusha Ramakrishnan, Tom Swartz

Economics Faculty Articles and Research

Mapping the spatial distribution of poverty in developing countries remains an important and costly challenge. These “poverty maps” are key inputs for poverty targeting, public goods provision, political accountability, and impact evaluation, that are all the more important given the geographic dispersion of the remaining bottom billion severely poor individuals. In this paper we train Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) to estimate poverty directly from high and medium resolution satellite images. We use both Planet and Digital Globe imagery with spatial resolutions of 3-5 m2 and 50 cm2 respectively, covering all 2 million km2 of Mexico. Benchmark poverty estimates come from ...


Three Essays On International And Intranational Trade And Economic Growth, Rooholah Hadadi Jun 2016

Three Essays On International And Intranational Trade And Economic Growth, Rooholah Hadadi

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation introduced a method to construct a new measure for trade flows within a region using nighttime lights. After analyzing the relation between lights data and other proxies of economic human activity, I employed light data and econometric techniques to estimate the bilateral trade between any two regions around the world. Using these estimations, I estimated the overall internal trade volume for all countries. Moreover, I estimated the effect of internal trade within a state of the United States on the state’s income. The first essay proposed nighttime lights as an alternative proxy for economic activity to be ...


Modelling The Impact Of Fiscal Policy On Non‑Oil Gdp In A Resource Rich Country: Evidence From Azerbaijan, Khatai Aliyev, Bruce Dehning, Orkhan Nadirov Jan 2016

Modelling The Impact Of Fiscal Policy On Non‑Oil Gdp In A Resource Rich Country: Evidence From Azerbaijan, Khatai Aliyev, Bruce Dehning, Orkhan Nadirov

Accounting Faculty Articles and Research

This paper analyses the impact of public expenditures and tax revenues on non‑oil economic growth in Azerbaijan for the period of 2000Q1‑2015Q2 by employing OLS, ARDL, FMOLS, DOLS, CCR and Granger Causality techniques. Different cointegration methods result in consistent results. In this study, there is strong evidence of significant long‑run positive contributions from public expenditures to non‑oil sector output. Results also show that tax revenues significantly slow down non‑oil economic growth in the long run. Granger Causality analysis finds the existence of a bidirectional short‑run association between non‑oil GDP and public expenditures, while ...


China’S Profits And Losses From Currency Intervention, 1994-2011, Hailong Jin, E. Kwan Choi Jan 2014

China’S Profits And Losses From Currency Intervention, 1994-2011, Hailong Jin, E. Kwan Choi

Economics Publications

China's currency policy has been criticized for its apparent pursuit of mercantile advantage by artificially stimulating exports, with potential adverse effects on other economies. While China's currency policy may have positive output effects, there may be additional profits or losses. This paper computes the annual and cumulative accounting profits from currency intervention since 1994 when China began its currency intervention. It is shown that profits initially were positive but since 2007 China has lost a massive amount from the currency market.


Conflicting Currencies: An Examination Of The Usd And The Geoeconomics Of The International Monetary System, Cullen Millikin Oct 2013

Conflicting Currencies: An Examination Of The Usd And The Geoeconomics Of The International Monetary System, Cullen Millikin

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

What is the future of the United States dollar within the international monetary system? The dollar has certainly enjoyed supremacy as a unit of account, store of value, and medium exchange since World War II, but what about new challengers (most notably the euro and Chinese yuan)? Using “geoeconomic” analysis to determine what strategies or actions a state might pursue in the international political economy can help to begin answering these questions. Geoeconomic considerations used in this paper do not dismiss cultural, political, or military aspects of international power relations, they supplements them. The short-run status of USD preeminence within ...


The Impacts Of Biofuels Targets On Land-Use Change And Food Supply: A Global Cge Assessment, Govinda R. Timilsina, John Beghin, Dominique Van Der Mensbrugghe, Simon Mevel Jan 2012

The Impacts Of Biofuels Targets On Land-Use Change And Food Supply: A Global Cge Assessment, Govinda R. Timilsina, John Beghin, Dominique Van Der Mensbrugghe, Simon Mevel

Economics Publications

We analyze the long-term impacts of large-scale expansion of biofuels on land-use change, food supply and prices, and the overall economy in various countries or regions using a multi-country, multi-sector global computable general equilibrium model augmented with an explicit land-use module and detailed biofuel sectors. We find that an expansion of biofuel production to meet the existing or even higher targets in various countries would slightly reduce GDP at the global level but with mixed effects across countries or regions. Significant land re-allocation would take place with notable decreases in forest and pasture lands in a few countries. The expansion ...


Welfare Costs And Benefits Of Non-Tariff Measures In Trade: A Conceptual Framework And Application, John Beghin, Anne-Celia Disdier, Stephan Marette, Frank Van Tongeren Jan 2012

Welfare Costs And Benefits Of Non-Tariff Measures In Trade: A Conceptual Framework And Application, John Beghin, Anne-Celia Disdier, Stephan Marette, Frank Van Tongeren

Economics Publications

This paper provides a systematic welfare-based approach to analyze the impact of non-tariff measures (NTMs) on trade and welfare in presence of market imperfections. We focus on standard-like measures such as technical barriers and sanitary and phytosanitary regulations. The approach overcomes the shortcomings of the mainstream approach based on the analysis of forgone trade caused by trade costs. The latter ignores market imperfections: welfare increases when NTMs are removed and trade expands. We explain how to account for external effects and market failures in trade-focused welfare analysis, leading to a more balanced overall assessment of measures despite a potential reduction ...


Economics Of Biofuels: An Overview Of Policies, Impacts And Prospects, Giancarlo Moschini, Jingbo Cui, Harvey Lapan Jan 2012

Economics Of Biofuels: An Overview Of Policies, Impacts And Prospects, Giancarlo Moschini, Jingbo Cui, Harvey Lapan

Economics Publications

This paper provides an overview of the economics of biofuels. It starts by describing the remarkable growth of the biofuel industry over the last decade, with emphasis on developments in the United States, Brazil and the European Union, and it identifies the driving role played by some critical policies. After a brief discussion of the motivations that are commonly argued in favor of biofuels and biofuel policies, the paper presents an assessment of the impacts of biofuels from the economics perspective. In particular, the paper explains the basic analytics of biofuel mandates, reviews several existing studies that have estimated the ...


To Integrate With A High- Or Low-Wage Country: That Is The Question, E. Kwan Choi Jan 2011

To Integrate With A High- Or Low-Wage Country: That Is The Question, E. Kwan Choi

Economics Publications

This paper considers the question of whether a country with the intermediate capital–labor ratio is better off forming a free trade area with the higher or lower wage country. Typical analyses of gains from trade ignore the effects of free trade on factor prices. When Europe forms a free trade area with a high-wage economy, the equalized wage rises and rent declines, while the price of the importable declines. Workers unambiguously benefit, but integration has an ambiguous effect on capitalists. However, consumers as a whole benefit from the integration and workers can more than offset the losses of the ...


Grameen Microfinance: An Evaluation Of The Successes And Limitations Of The Grameen Bank, Ana Maria Moreno Aug 2010

Grameen Microfinance: An Evaluation Of The Successes And Limitations Of The Grameen Bank, Ana Maria Moreno

Honors Theses (PPE)

The Grameen Bank has attracted worldwide attention by providing small loans to poor people across rural villages in Bangladesh. In 2006 the Nobel Committee awarded the Grameen Bank and its founder Professor Mohammad Yunus the Nobel Peace Prize for their, “efforts to create economic and social development from below.”[1] The Nobel committee asserted that microfinance is “an important liberating force and an ever more important instrument in the struggle against poverty.”[2] Since then, a global microfinance revolution has emerged and the Grameen Bank has been at the vanguard of this movement, showing the potential to alleviate poverty by ...


Capm In Up And Down Markets: Evidence From Six European Emerging Markets, Jianhua Zhang, Clas Wihlborg Jan 2010

Capm In Up And Down Markets: Evidence From Six European Emerging Markets, Jianhua Zhang, Clas Wihlborg

Business Faculty Articles and Research

The pricing of equity in six European emerging capital markets is analysed using both the conventional CAPM and a ‘conditional’ CAPM wherein up and down markets are separated. International influences on the stock markets are also analysed. The empirical evidence from a sample of 1,131 firms from the six markets indicates that there exists a significant relationship between beta and returns when up and down markets are separated. The international CAPM performs well in some markets that have become increasingly integrated with the world market. The general implication of the analysis is that beta can be a useful risk-measure ...


Endogenous Oca (Optimum Currency Area) Analysis And The Early Euro Experience, Thomas D. Willett, Orawan Permpoon, Clas Wihlborg Jan 2010

Endogenous Oca (Optimum Currency Area) Analysis And The Early Euro Experience, Thomas D. Willett, Orawan Permpoon, Clas Wihlborg

Business Faculty Articles and Research

Some have argued that the endogenous responses to the formation of a currency area are so strong that one need not worry about optimum currency area conditions ex ante. We argue that this is much too strong a conclusion. We draw on a number of recent studies to evaluate the endogeneity experiences of the eurozone in three major areas; trade flows, business cycle synchronisation and structural reforms to improve labour and product market flexibility. Simple before-and-after comparisons are insufficient for analysis of endogeneity. The experiences of non-euro Western European economies suggest that broader trends also had considerable influence on trade ...


A Meta-Analysis Of The Impact Of Technical Barriers To Trade, Yuan Li, John Beghin Jan 2010

A Meta-Analysis Of The Impact Of Technical Barriers To Trade, Yuan Li, John Beghin

Economics Working Papers (2002–2016)

A meta-analysis explains the variation in estimated trade effects of technical barriers to trade broadly defined, using available estimates from the empirical international trade literature, and accounting for data sampling and methodology differences. Agriculture and food industries tend to be more impeded by these barriers than other sectors. SPS regulations on agricultural trade flows from developing exporters to high-income importers tend to impede trade. Controlling for “multilateral resistance” lowers the propensity to find that these policies impede trade. Estimations correcting endogeneity by using panel data and time fixed effect yield more negative (or less positive) trade effects of technical measures.


Assessing The Welfare Effects Of Us Biofuel Policies, Giancarlo Moschini, Harvey Lapan, Jingbo Cui, Joseph Cooper Jan 2010

Assessing The Welfare Effects Of Us Biofuel Policies, Giancarlo Moschini, Harvey Lapan, Jingbo Cui, Joseph Cooper

Economics Publications

This article assesses the main welfare implications of US policies to support biofuels, with an emphasis on corn-based ethanol. The analysis relies on an open economy, multimarket equilibrium model that links world and domestic energy and agricultural markets and explicitly accounts for the externalities of carbon emissions. The first-best policy in our context entails a carbon tax (implemented with a tax on fuel and a subsidy for ethanol), an import tariff on oil, and an export tax on corn. Although this policy is likely not feasible, we show that a second- best policy with an optimally chosen fuel tax and ...


Tariff-Rate Quotas, Rent-Shifting And The Selling Of Domestic Access, Bruno Larue, Harvey E. Lapan, Jean-Philippe Gervais Jan 2010

Tariff-Rate Quotas, Rent-Shifting And The Selling Of Domestic Access, Bruno Larue, Harvey E. Lapan, Jean-Philippe Gervais

Economics Publications

Tariff-rate quotas (TRQs) have replaced quotas at the end of the Uruguay Round. We analyze TRQs when a foreign firm competes against a domestic firm in the latter's market. Our benchmark is the strategic rent-shifting tariff. We show that the domestic price-equivalent TRQ is a better instrument welfare-wise, as it can extract all of the rents from the foreign firm. We show that different pairs of within-quota tariff and quota can support full rent extraction. The implication is that reduction of the former and enlargement of the latter, holding the above-quota tariff constant, may have no liberalizing effects. The ...


Is There Country-Of-Origin Bias In The Video Game Market?, Keaton C. White Apr 2009

Is There Country-Of-Origin Bias In The Video Game Market?, Keaton C. White

Economics Honors Projects

This paper tests for the existence of country-of-origin bias in the video game market. Using aggregate sales data from Japan and the US, I measure the effect of country-of-origin on video game sales in each respective country while controlling for genre, system, quality, and target age group, as well as domestically targeted games and superstar effects. I find that a significant country-of-origin bias exists in both game markets in favor of domestic titles.


Global Information Technology Report 2006-2007: Connecting To The Networked Economy, Priscilla Finley Dec 2007

Global Information Technology Report 2006-2007: Connecting To The Networked Economy, Priscilla Finley

Library Faculty Publications

This World Economic Forum report by Dutta (INSEAD) and Mia (WEF) evaluates the penetration of information and communication technologies (ICT) in 122 economies across the globe.


To Outsource Or Not To Outsource In An Integrated World, E. Kwan Choi Jan 2007

To Outsource Or Not To Outsource In An Integrated World, E. Kwan Choi

Economics Publications

This paper investigates outsourcing decision under certainty and uncertainty. When the production activity can be fragmented into two or more processes, an integrated firm must be competitive in each of the fragmented processes. There are gains from outsourcing when factor prices differ between countries. When factor prices are not equalized internationally, a firm may outsource the process which uses its scarce source intensively. If the cost of outsourcing is lower in the foreign country, full outsourcing occurs under certainty. However, even if the outside supplier has a cost advantage, uncertainty in outsourcing cost ensures that partial outsourcing is optimal for ...


Evaluating The Market And Welfare Impacts Of Agricultural Policies In Developed Countries: Comparison Of Partial And General Equilibrium Measures, Alexandre Gohin, Giancarlo Moschini Jan 2006

Evaluating The Market And Welfare Impacts Of Agricultural Policies In Developed Countries: Comparison Of Partial And General Equilibrium Measures, Alexandre Gohin, Giancarlo Moschini

Economics Publications

We revisit the question of choosing partial equilibrium or general equilibrium modeling in applied policy analysis in the context of evaluating the effects of a complete phase-out of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) of the European Union. We compare the results of three models—two three-sector general equilibrium models (one with an additional major distortion in the nonagricultural sector) and a two-sector partial equilibrium model. We find that the market effects of a complete phase-out of the CAP are quite comparable across these models. On the other hand, the measured welfare impacts may depend on the modeling choice.


Ceo Turnover And Foreign Market Participation, Bruce A. Blonigen, Rossitza B. Wooster Mar 2003

Ceo Turnover And Foreign Market Participation, Bruce A. Blonigen, Rossitza B. Wooster

Economics Faculty Publications and Presentations

Anecdotal evidence suggests that new CEOs with foreign backgrounds direct their firms to become more international in their operations. We examine this hypothesis formally using data on U.S. S&P-500 manufacturing firms from1992 through 1997 and biographical information on CEOs’ birth and education locations that allow us to identify changes from U.S.- to foreign-connected CEOs. Robust to a variety of specifications, we find that a U.S. firm’s switch from a U.S. to a foreign CEO leads to substantial increases in the firm’s proportion of its foreign assets and foreign affiliate sales. In fact, our ...


Equilibrium Selection In Global Games With Strategic Complementarities, David M. Frankel, Stephen Morris, Ady Pauzner Jan 2003

Equilibrium Selection In Global Games With Strategic Complementarities, David M. Frankel, Stephen Morris, Ady Pauzner

Economics Publications

We study games with strategic complementarities, arbitrary numbers of players and actions, and slightly noisy payoff signals. We prove limit uniqueness: as the signal noise vanishes, the game has a unique strategy profile that survives iterative dominance. This generalizes a result of Carlsson and van Damme (Econometrica 61 (1993) 989–1018) for two-player, two-action games. The surviving profile, however, may depend on fine details of the structure of the noise. We provide sufficient conditions on payoffs for there to be noise-independent selection.


The New Basel Capital Accord: Making It Effective With Stronger Market Discipline, Harald Benink, Clas Wihlborg Jan 2002

The New Basel Capital Accord: Making It Effective With Stronger Market Discipline, Harald Benink, Clas Wihlborg

Business Faculty Articles and Research

In January 2001 the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision proposed a new capital adequacy framework to respond to deficiencies in the 1988 Capital Accord on credit risk. The main elements or ‘pillars’ of the proposal are capital requirements based on the internal risk-ratings of individual banks, expanded and active supervision, and information disclosure requirements to enhance market discipline. We discuss the incentive effects of the proposed regulation. In particular, we argue that it provides incentives for banks to develop new ways to evade the intended consequences of the proposed regulation. Supervision alone cannot prevent banks from ‘gaming and manipulation’ of ...


Interventi Disaccoppiati, Riforma Della Pac E Redditi Agricoli: Una Analisi Qualitativa, Paolo Sckokai, Giancarlo Moschini Sep 1993

Interventi Disaccoppiati, Riforma Della Pac E Redditi Agricoli: Una Analisi Qualitativa, Paolo Sckokai, Giancarlo Moschini

Economics Publications

La recente riforma della Politica Agricola Comune (PAC) costituisce uno dei cambiamenti piu drastici ed ambiziosi che sia stato mai intrapreso negli orientamenti comunitari. Come e noto, il sostegno del mercato dei principali prodotti agricoli subira modificazioni profonde, ponendo una serie di importanti quesiti sugli effetti economici della riforma. In Italia, lo sforzo dei ricercatori si e rivolto essenzialmente alia quantificazione degli effetti sui redditi agricoli, come logica risposta aile preoccupazioni del mondo rurale, che vede nella riforma una vera e propria rivoluzione 1 , In queStO COnteStO, Un puntO di pattenza Utile e rappresentato da una discussione teorica dei nuovi ...


The Optimal Tariff, Production Lags, And Time Consistency, Harvey E. Lapan Jun 1988

The Optimal Tariff, Production Lags, And Time Consistency, Harvey E. Lapan

Economics Publications

The optimal tariff for a large country equals the reciprocal of the foreign export elasticity of supply. However, if production decisions occur before consumption decisions, the ex ante optimal tariff is not time consistent because the ex post elasticity is less than the ex ante elasticity. We show all countries are worse off if the large country cannot precommit to its ex ante optimal tariff, and that all countries can gain if the large country taxes domestic production of importables.


To Bargain Or Not To Bargain: That Is The Question, Harvey E. Lapan, Todd Sandler May 1988

To Bargain Or Not To Bargain: That Is The Question, Harvey E. Lapan, Todd Sandler

Economics Publications

We use economic analysis in a simple game-theory framework to ascertain under what circumstances a government would want to precommit itself to a no-negotiation strategy. From the government viewpoint, we examine both the choice of deterrence expenditure (i.e., expense meant to reduce terrorist logistical success during incidents) and whether to negotiate or not.


Devaluation, Wealth Effects, And Relative Prices, Harvey Lapan, Walter Enders Sep 1978

Devaluation, Wealth Effects, And Relative Prices, Harvey Lapan, Walter Enders

Economics Publications

The emergence of the portfolio balance approach 1 has led to a reformulation of the causes of balance-of-trade and payments disequilibria. According to this approach, balance-of-trade deficits and surpluses reflect discrepancies between desired and actual wealth holdings; while balance-of­ payments deficits and surpluses reflect discrepancies between desired and actual money holdings. Thus, balance-of-trade and payments disequilibria are viewed as representing disequilibria within the asset markets. Using this framework several authors2 have examined the self-correcting nature of disequilibria within the balance­ of-payments accounts and the ability of a devaluation to reduce the magnitude of a disequilibrium.