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Articles 31 - 60 of 96

Full-Text Articles in International Economics

Animal Identification Is Key To Restarting Beef Exports To Japan, Roxanne L. B. Clemens Jul 2015

Animal Identification Is Key To Restarting Beef Exports To Japan, Roxanne L. B. Clemens

Iowa Ag Review

December 26, 2004, marked one year since Japan banned imports of U.S. beef following the discovery of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in an imported animal. The loss of more than 375,000 metric tons (mt) of U.S. beef and beef variety meats created a shortfall in supply that Japan has been unable to fill. Australian exports to Japan were 41 percent higher in 2004 than in 2003, but Australia and other countries cannot supply the volume and types of beef the United States had supplied.


Rethinking Agricultural Domestic Support Under The World Trade Organization, Chad E. Hart, John C. Beghin Jul 2015

Rethinking Agricultural Domestic Support Under The World Trade Organization, Chad E. Hart, John C. Beghin

Iowa Ag Review

The World Trade Organization (WTO) negotiations under the Doha Round are slowly progressing toward an eventual new agreement on agriculture. A new framework for the agriculture agreement was approved by the WTO membership in August 2004. The changes in the guidelines for domestic support could have effects on many countries and many types of support. However, details on the specific regulations of the agreement have yet to be determined. Dramatic reforms in agriculture could take place under the framework, but the decisions made to implement the framework will determine if that potential is realized. If countries lack ambition and commitment ...


The Wto Picture After The Cotton Ruling, Chad E. Hart Jul 2015

The Wto Picture After The Cotton Ruling, Chad E. Hart

Iowa Ag Review

In early March, the World Trade Organization (WTO) released its report on the U.S. appeal in the cotton dispute with Brazil. The appellate ruling upheld much of the original ruling, including the finding that production flexibility contract (PFC) payments and direct payments are not Green Box measures. This means that these payments are to be counted against the agricultural support limit the United States agreed to under the current WTO Agreement on Agriculture. The rulings also state that the payments from the Step 2 program, marketing loan program, crop insurance, production flexibility contracts, market loss assistance, and other listed ...


Geographical Indications, The Wto, And Iowa-80 Beef, Roxanne L. B. Clemens Jul 2015

Geographical Indications, The Wto, And Iowa-80 Beef, Roxanne L. B. Clemens

Iowa Ag Review

In August 2003, the United States and Australia asked the World Trade Organization (WTO) to convene a panel to resolve an ongoing dispute concerning geographical indications (GIs). In simple terms, the United States and Australia charged that E.U. rules governing the registration of GIs discriminate against third-country GI products (national treatment) and fail to protect U.S. trademarks. Given the range of sub-issues covered in the dispute, it is perhaps not surprising that the WTO panel’s March 2005 ruling left both sides claiming victory.


Cattle Producers Need A Quality System Assessment For Japan, John D. Lawrence, Roxanne L. B. Clemens Jul 2015

Cattle Producers Need A Quality System Assessment For Japan, John D. Lawrence, Roxanne L. B. Clemens

Iowa Ag Review

When Japan reopens its borders to U.S. beef, producers of cattle from which beef will be harvested for export to that country must comply with the regulations of the Beef Export Verifi cation Program (BEV) for Japan. The primary requirement affecting cattle producers is verifi cation that their cattle are less than 21 months of age at the time of slaughter. To qualify under the BEV for Japan, producers and processors of any cattle that will provide beef for the Japanese market must participate in a Quality System Assessment (QSA) program that has been pre-approved by the USDA’s ...


Cafta’S Projected Impact On U.S. Sugar, Chad E. Hart Jul 2015

Cafta’S Projected Impact On U.S. Sugar, Chad E. Hart

Iowa Ag Review

The Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) is a trade agreement between the United States and Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and the Dominican Republic. Trade representatives from these Central American countries signed CAFTA in August 2004, and the Dominican Republic joined in 2005 (it is now offi cially abbreviated CAFTA-DR). CAFTA is targeted at reducing or eliminating trade barriers among the countries for many sectors, including information technology, agriculture, construction, pharmaceuticals, automotives, medical equipment, and services.


U.S. Proposal To The Wto: Selected Results From The Fapri Analysis, Center For Agricultural And Rural Development Jul 2015

U.S. Proposal To The Wto: Selected Results From The Fapri Analysis, Center For Agricultural And Rural Development

Iowa Ag Review

No abstract provided.


Fapri Analyzes The U.S. Proposal To The Wto, John C. Beghin Jul 2015

Fapri Analyzes The U.S. Proposal To The Wto, John C. Beghin

Iowa Ag Review

I n addition to our preliminary baseline for the 2006 U.S. and World Agricultural Outlook, this year economists with the Food and Agricultural Policy Research Institute (FAPRI) also undertook an analysis of the proposal to the World Trade Organization (WTO) submitted by the Offi ce of the U.S. Trade Representative in October. The proposal was an effort to jumpstart negotiations leading up to WTO’s sixth ministerial conference in December. The Hong Kong conference brought 149 member countries together to further negotiations on agricultural trade reform and other topics


Mega-Regional Trade, Joshua Meltzer Mar 2015

Mega-Regional Trade, Joshua Meltzer

Lectures/Events (BMW)

This lecture will discuss the impact of the Trans Pacific Partnership negotiations and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership negotiations on U.S. economic competitiveness and leadership in Asia and Europe. This will lead into a discussion of large Free Trade Areas (FTA), or groups of countries that have few or no price controls in the form of tariffs or quotas between each other. FTAs allow the agreeing nations to focus on their comparative advantages and to produce the goods they are comparatively more efficient at making, thus increasing the efficiency and profitability of each country. We will explore the ...


The Cape Town Convention’S Improbable-But-Possible Progeny Part Two: Bilateral Investment Treaty-Like Enforcement Mechanism, Charles W. Mooney Jr. Jan 2015

The Cape Town Convention’S Improbable-But-Possible Progeny Part Two: Bilateral Investment Treaty-Like Enforcement Mechanism, Charles W. Mooney Jr.

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This Essay is Part Two of a two-part essay series that outlines and evaluates two possible future international instruments. Each instrument draws substantial inspiration from the Cape Town Convention and its Aircraft Protocol (together, the “Convention”). The Convention governs the secured financing and leasing of large commercial aircraft, aircraft engines, and helicopters. It entered into force in 2006. It has been adopted by sixty-six Contracting States (fifty-eight of which have adopted the Aircraft Protocol), including the U.S., China, the E.U., India, Ireland, Luxembourg, Russia, and South Africa.

This Part of the Essay explores whether an investor-state dispute settlement ...


Is The Wto Quietly Fading Away?: The New Regionalism And Global Trade Rules, Stephen J. Powell, Trisha Low Dec 2014

Is The Wto Quietly Fading Away?: The New Regionalism And Global Trade Rules, Stephen J. Powell, Trisha Low

Stephen Joseph Powell

While scholars and governments alike view the liberalization of international trade as a positive development, they disagree on the medium that will accomplish this objective with the highest economic returns. Some experts believe that multilateralism through the 150+ member World Trade Organization (WTO) is the only way to achieve truly open and efficient trade. Others view multilateralism as but an aspiration and find that regionalism offers the only viable prospect for the meaningful further opening of markets. In light of what we label the "new regionalism," our paper explores in detail the positive and negative effects of regional trade arrangements ...


The Impact Of An Eu-Us Transatlantic Trade And Investment Partnership Agreement On Biofuel And Feedstock Markets, John C. Beghin, Jean-Christophe Bureau, Alexandre Gohin Nov 2014

The Impact Of An Eu-Us Transatlantic Trade And Investment Partnership Agreement On Biofuel And Feedstock Markets, John C. Beghin, Jean-Christophe Bureau, Alexandre Gohin

CARD Working Papers

We assess the impact of a potential TTIP bilateral free trade agreement on the EU and US bio-economies (feedstock, biofuels, by-products, and related competing crops) and major trade partners in these markets. The analysis develops a multi-market model that incorporates bilateral trade flows (US to EU, EU to US, and similarly with third countries) and is calibrated to OECD-FAO baseline for 2013–2022 to account for recent policy decisions. The major policy reforms from a TTIP involve tariff and TRQ liberalization and their direct contractionary impact on US sugar supply, EU biofuel production, and indirect negative effect on US HFCS ...


Trade, Bert Chapman Jul 2014

Trade, Bert Chapman

Libraries Faculty and Staff Scholarship and Research

Provides a historical overview of analysis of U.S. foreign trade policy during the early decades of the country's history. Examines bilateral U.S. trade relations with France and Great Britain, provides import and export statistics, details on commodities and products imports and exported, trade statistics, and information on the political and economic factors shaping U.S. trade during this period.


The Protectionism Of Food Safety Standards In International Agricultural Trade, John C. Beghin Jan 2014

The Protectionism Of Food Safety Standards In International Agricultural Trade, John C. Beghin

Agricultural Policy Review

Each country sets their own standards for acceptable pesticide maximum residue limits, with some countries imposing harsher standards than others do. Taxes and governmental red tape only further compound the issues, often leading to protectionism in agricultural trade. Using data from the USDA Foreign Agricultural Service a protectionism index has been developed for more than 80 countries.


Export Controls: A Contemporary History, Bert Chapman Dec 2013

Export Controls: A Contemporary History, Bert Chapman

Libraries Faculty and Staff Presentations

Provides highlights of my recently published book Export Controls: A Contemporary History. Describes the roles played by multiple U.S. Government agencies and congressional oversight committees in this policymaking arena including the Commerce, Defense, State, and Treasury Departments. It also reviews the roles played by international government organizations such as the Missile Technology Control Regime, export oriented businesses, and research intensive universities.


Country Of Origin Labeling: Who Wants It?, Sebastien Pouliot Jan 2013

Country Of Origin Labeling: Who Wants It?, Sebastien Pouliot

Agricultural Policy Review

After years of discussions, compromises, and revisions, the USDA Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) published the final interim rule on August 1, 2008, regarding Country of Origin Labeling (COOL). Full enforcement of COOL began on March 16, 2009.


Un-Obtainium: The Quest For Rare Earth Elements, Brahm Heyman Jul 2012

Un-Obtainium: The Quest For Rare Earth Elements, Brahm Heyman

International Political Economy Theses

The 17 "rare earth elements" are essential for the development of new technologies. Over the last several decades, China has established a virtual monopoly on the rare earth industry, producing over 97% of the world's current demand. This was achieved by effectively undercutting other producers who stopped competing in this market. In 2010, in an effort to bolster its domestic market, China decided to reduce the amount of rare earth elements that it would export. This situation can be used to consider China's relations with the rest of the world from two perspectives. (1) The realist perspective views ...


The Trans-Pacific Partnership And Japanese Politics, Eliot Francis Watson May 2012

The Trans-Pacific Partnership And Japanese Politics, Eliot Francis Watson

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Strong Euro Weakening Dollar: A Potential Economic Demise, Guadalupe F. Garcia Feb 2012

Strong Euro Weakening Dollar: A Potential Economic Demise, Guadalupe F. Garcia

Claremont-UC Undergraduate Research Conference on the European Union

No abstract provided.


Eu's Common Foreign Policies Towards Russia: Past, Present And Future, Yigit Canay Feb 2012

Eu's Common Foreign Policies Towards Russia: Past, Present And Future, Yigit Canay

Claremont-UC Undergraduate Research Conference on the European Union

No abstract provided.


Icy/Hot: Norwegian And Finnish Policy Toward The European Union, Mia Bennett Feb 2012

Icy/Hot: Norwegian And Finnish Policy Toward The European Union, Mia Bennett

Claremont-UC Undergraduate Research Conference on the European Union

No abstract provided.


What Is Tax Discrimination?, Ruth Mason, Michael S. Knoll Jan 2012

What Is Tax Discrimination?, Ruth Mason, Michael S. Knoll

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Prohibitions of tax discrimination have long appeared in constitutions, tax treaties, trade treaties, and other sources, but despite their ubiquity, little agreement exists as to how such provisions should be interpreted. Some commentators have concluded that tax discrimination is an incoherent concept. In this Article, we argue that in common markets, like the EU and the United States, the best interpretation of the nondiscrimination principle is that it requires what we call “competitive neutrality,” which prevents states from putting residents at a tax-induced competitive advantage or disadvantage relative to nonresidents in securing jobs. We show that, contrary to the prevailing ...


Optimal International Agreement And Treatment Of Domestic Subsidy, Gea M. Lee Jan 2012

Optimal International Agreement And Treatment Of Domestic Subsidy, Gea M. Lee

Research Collection School Of Economics

We investigate how a domestic subsidy is treated in an international agreement, when a government, having incentive to use its domestic subsidy as a means of import protection, can disguise its protective use of subsidy as a legitimate intervention with which to address a market imperfection. We show that any optimal agreement, as opposed to the conventional message of the targeting principle, restricts the home government’s freedom to select its domestic subsidy in order to increase the market-access level for foreign exporters. Our finding suggests that a proper restriction on domestic subsidy is somewhere between GATT and WTO rules.


Legal Mechanization Of Corporate Social Responsibility Through Alien Tort Statute Litigation: A Response To Professor Branson With Some Supplemental Thoughts, Donald J. Kochan Jul 2011

Legal Mechanization Of Corporate Social Responsibility Through Alien Tort Statute Litigation: A Response To Professor Branson With Some Supplemental Thoughts, Donald J. Kochan

Donald J. Kochan

This Response argues that as ATS jurisprudence “matures” or becomes more sophisticated, the legitimate limits of the law regress. The further expansion within the corporate defendant pool – attempting to pin liability on parent, great grandparent corporations and up to the top – raises the stakes and complexity of ATS litigation. The corporate social responsibility discussion raises three principal issues about how a moral corporation lives its life: how a corporation chooses its self-interest versus the interests of others, when and how it should help others if control decisions may harm the shareholder owners, and how far the corporation must affirmatively go ...


Is The Wto Quietly Fading Away?: The New Regionalism And Global Trade Rules, Stephen J. Powell, Trisha Low Jul 2011

Is The Wto Quietly Fading Away?: The New Regionalism And Global Trade Rules, Stephen J. Powell, Trisha Low

UF Law Faculty Publications

While scholars and governments alike view the liberalization of international trade as a positive development, they disagree on the medium that will accomplish this objective with the highest economic returns. Some experts believe that multilateralism through the 150+ member World Trade Organization (WTO) is the only way to achieve truly open and efficient trade. Others view multilateralism as but an aspiration and find that regionalism offers the only viable prospect for the meaningful further opening of markets.

In light of what we label the "new regionalism," our paper explores in detail the positive and negative effects of regional trade arrangements ...


Innovation Cooperation: Energy Biosciences And Law, Prof. Elizabeth Burleson Jan 2011

Innovation Cooperation: Energy Biosciences And Law, Prof. Elizabeth Burleson

Prof. Elizabeth Burleson

This Article analyzes the development and dissemination of environmentally sound technologies that can address climate change. Climate change poses catastrophic health and security risks on a global scale. Universities, individual innovators, private firms, civil society, governments, and the United Nations can unite in the common goal to address climate change. This Article recommends means by which legal, scientific, engineering, and a host of other public and private actors can bring environmentally sound innovation into widespread use to achieve sustainable development. In particular, universities can facilitate this collaboration by fostering global innovation and diffusion networks.


Effects Of Free Trade Areas In Trade Promotion: Gravity Model Approach, Mona Jit Mui Lim Jan 2011

Effects Of Free Trade Areas In Trade Promotion: Gravity Model Approach, Mona Jit Mui Lim

Dissertations and Theses Collection (Open Access)

Since the early 1990s, the world has seen a proliferation of Free Trade Agreements (FTAs). One of the key objectives of FTAs is to expand trade between or amongst its signatories. This study explores the intra-FTA and extra-FTA trade expansion capability of 3 types of FTA: North-North FTA (European Union (EU)-15 as a representative), North-South FTA (North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) as a representative) and South-South FTA (Association of Southeast Asia Nations (ASEAN ) Free Trade Agreement (AFTA) as a representative). The study made an attempt to address the spread of such FTA-led trade expansion amongst the members and ...


Institutional Comparative Advantage: A Game-Theoretical Analysis Of The Kodak-Fuji Dispute Wto/Ds44, Emily Harris Jan 2011

Institutional Comparative Advantage: A Game-Theoretical Analysis Of The Kodak-Fuji Dispute Wto/Ds44, Emily Harris

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The extraordinary increase int he international movement of goods, services, capital, people, and technology of the last few decades, mirrored by a decrease in transportation and communication cots hardly conceivable when the modern multilateral overseers of international commerce, finance, and development were designed at Bretton Woods, have dramatically changed not only the nature of international trade disputes, but also the way governments approach and understand trade disputes.


Cancun Climate Negotiations, Prof. Elizabeth Burleson Dec 2010

Cancun Climate Negotiations, Prof. Elizabeth Burleson

Prof. Elizabeth Burleson

The United Nations Climate Change Conference, held from November 29 to December 11, 2010, in Cancún, Mexico, relaunched the United Nation's multilateral facilitation role.


Collaborative Community-Based Natural Resource Management, Prof. Elizabeth Burleson Jan 2010

Collaborative Community-Based Natural Resource Management, Prof. Elizabeth Burleson

Prof. Elizabeth Burleson

This article analyzes the importance of increasing civil society actor access to and influence in international legal and policy negotiations, drawing from academic scholarship on governance, conservation and environmental sustainability, natural resource management, observations of civil society actors, and the authors’ experiences as participants in international environmental negotiations.