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Articles 1 - 30 of 96

Full-Text Articles in International Economics

The Origins Of The Jones Act Of Puerto Rico, Stephanie Mercedes Sep 2019

The Origins Of The Jones Act Of Puerto Rico, Stephanie Mercedes

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

After the Spanish-American War that ended in 1898, Puerto Rico was given to the United States by Spain as a war booty, becoming a US colony. The first law ever created by the United States to control Puerto Rico was the Foraker Act (also known as the Organic Act of 1900). This established a civilian government in Puerto Rico. It also extended the federal government rulings to the island. After its creation, the Puerto Rican population began to wonder what their political status was since nothing was concretized until the Jones Act was signed. The Merchant Marine Act of 1920 ...


The Oppressive Pressures Of Globalization And Neoliberalism On Mexican Maquiladora Garment Workers, Jenna Demeter Jul 2019

The Oppressive Pressures Of Globalization And Neoliberalism On Mexican Maquiladora Garment Workers, Jenna Demeter

Pursuit - The Journal of Undergraduate Research at the University of Tennessee

The international economic trends of globalization and neoliberalism have exposed and enabled the exploitation of Mexican workers, especially women in the maquiladora garment industry. During the 1950s, globalization gave rise to the new international division of labor and transnational corporations (TNCs) that have offshored labor-intensive phases of production to developing countries, many of which have pursued export-led industrialization. Export processing in Mexico was encouraged in the 1960s by Item 807 of the U.S. Tariff Code and Mexico’s Border Industrialization Program. Especially following the Latin American debt crisis of the 1980s, advanced capitalist countries and International Financial Institutions foisted ...


How Two Sunken Ships Caused A War: The Legal And Cultural Battle Between Great Britain, Canada, And The Inuit Over The Franklin Expedition Shipwrecks, Christina Labarge Feb 2019

How Two Sunken Ships Caused A War: The Legal And Cultural Battle Between Great Britain, Canada, And The Inuit Over The Franklin Expedition Shipwrecks, Christina Labarge

Loyola of Los Angeles International and Comparative Law Review

No abstract provided.


Given Today's New Wave Of Protectionsim, Is Antitrust Law The Last Hope For Preserving A Free Global Economy Or Another Nail In Free Trade's Coffin?, Allison Murray Feb 2019

Given Today's New Wave Of Protectionsim, Is Antitrust Law The Last Hope For Preserving A Free Global Economy Or Another Nail In Free Trade's Coffin?, Allison Murray

Loyola of Los Angeles International and Comparative Law Review

No abstract provided.


Venezuela Undermines Gold Miner Crystallex's Attempts To Recover On Its Icsid Award, Sam Wesson Feb 2019

Venezuela Undermines Gold Miner Crystallex's Attempts To Recover On Its Icsid Award, Sam Wesson

Loyola of Los Angeles International and Comparative Law Review

No abstract provided.


Geopolitics Of Rare Earth Elements, Bert Chapman Oct 2017

Geopolitics Of Rare Earth Elements, Bert Chapman

Libraries Faculty and Staff Presentations

Rare earth elements (REE) contain unique chemical physical properties such as lanthamum, are found in small concentrations, need extensive precise properties to separate, and are critical components of modern technologies such as laser guidance systems, personal electronics such as IPhones, satellites, and military weapons systems as varied as Virginia-class fast attack submarines, DDG-51 Aegis destroyers, the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter, and precision guided munitions. The U.S. has some rare earth resources, but is heavily dependent on access to them from countries as varied as Afghanistan, Bolivia, and China. Losing access to these resources would have significant adverse economic, military ...


Evaluating Frameworks For Multilateral Investor-State Dispute Settlement, Danielle Rosenthal Oct 2017

Evaluating Frameworks For Multilateral Investor-State Dispute Settlement, Danielle Rosenthal

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Utilizing both empirical studies of investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS) regimes and the accounts of both public and private practitioners of these processes, this study aims to inform public policymakers, multinational corporation leadership, and academic researchers on some of the key issues to consider when developing a multilateral friendly ISDS regime. By analyzing the procedural and functional details of both traditional arbitration (via the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes and the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law) and investment dispute courts (via those proposed in the Trans-Atlantic Trade and Investment Partnership and the EU Canada Comprehensive Economic and ...


Contents Dec 2016

Contents

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Is The Wto Passé?, Kyle Bagwell, Chad P. Bown, Robert W. Staiger Dec 2016

Is The Wto Passé?, Kyle Bagwell, Chad P. Bown, Robert W. Staiger

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

No abstract provided.


The Shochu Conundrum: Economics And Gatt Article Iii, Alex Davis May 2016

The Shochu Conundrum: Economics And Gatt Article Iii, Alex Davis

Undergraduate Economic Review

This paper will discuss the National Treatment (NT) obligation contained in Article III of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) 1994 as applied in precedential tax discrimination cases. Case law has not taken a firm stance on the economic versus legal interpretation of the likeness/directly competitive or substitutable (DCS) criterion or the principle of “so as to afford protection” (SATAP) captured in Article III.2. After examining the case law on discriminatory taxation, I conclude that the NT obligation in trade agreements is imperfect. Nonetheless, NT is a critical component of these agreements, and the international trade ...


The Planner In Action: China’S Influence As A Developing And Non-Market Economy On The Wto, Lauren Shapiro Apr 2016

The Planner In Action: China’S Influence As A Developing And Non-Market Economy On The Wto, Lauren Shapiro

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

Chinese accession to the World Trade Organization in 2001 forever altered the international economy as it marked the political-economic diversification of international trade negotiations and law. Before the implications of Chinese accession became apparent, scholars predicted that Chinese WTO membership would greatly affect the Organization. While this thesis agrees with this general sentiment, it insists that China’s effect on the WTO is not wholly negative or positive and requires a nuanced, sub-institutional assessment to understand. Qualifying and expanding upon scholars’ pre-2001 predictions, this thesis argues that for the most part, China did not proactively cause instances of institutional weakness ...


Currency Wars And The Erosion Of Dollar Hegemony, Lan Cao Dec 2015

Currency Wars And The Erosion Of Dollar Hegemony, Lan Cao

Lan Cao

A currency war is being waged against the dollar-based international economic system established in Bretton Woods after World War II. Much attention has been paid to the use of force and threats to the peace in Iraq, Afghanistan and Syria. But there is little law scholarship that examines threats to the dollar and the dollar-based system. And yet, challenging a country’s currency means challenging it on multiple fundamental fronts. Stocks, bonds, commodities, derivatives and other investments are all priced in a nation’s currency. If the dollar is undermined, the American economy itself and the existing international economic system ...


Responsible International Citizenry In The Asian Century: Why Failure To Meet International Obligations Adversely Affects Australian National Interests, Danielle Ireland-Piper Sep 2015

Responsible International Citizenry In The Asian Century: Why Failure To Meet International Obligations Adversely Affects Australian National Interests, Danielle Ireland-Piper

Danielle Ireland-Piper

If Australia is to secure its financial and security interests in the Asian century, then it must build effective working relationship in the Asia-Pacific. To do so, Australia must build familial and not merely transactional relationship in Asia. In turn, this requires Australia to present as a responsible international citizen. This image of responsible citizenry, however, is difficult to achieve when the Australian Constitution permits race-based laws and Australia’s approach to regional asylum seeker management may violate international law. This is because the hypocrisy inherent in non-compliance impedes Australia's capacity to build meaningful relationship in the Asian region ...


Implications Of The Gatt Agreement For Iowa Agriculture, John R. Kruse Aug 2015

Implications Of The Gatt Agreement For Iowa Agriculture, John R. Kruse

Iowa Ag Review

The FAPRI analysis indicates that nearly all U.S. agricultural commodities benefit under GATT, although some commodities experience larger impacts than others. CARD extended the FAPRI analysis to commodities important to Iowa, such as com, soybeans, and pork and found that all are significant winners under the Uruguay Round Agreement.


The Gatt Agreement: A Layperson's Description, John R. Kruse Aug 2015

The Gatt Agreement: A Layperson's Description, John R. Kruse

Iowa Ag Review

What is the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)? The GATT may be best described as an ongoing process through which trade distortions among countries are defined and targeted for reduction. There have been seven previous GATT agreements over the years. The recent GATT agreement represents the eighth round of trade negotiations and is often called the Uruguay Round in reference to Punta del Este, Uruguay, where the agenda was set in 1986.


The Eu Export Tax: Impact On U.S. Markets, William H. Meyers, Steven L. Elmore Aug 2015

The Eu Export Tax: Impact On U.S. Markets, William H. Meyers, Steven L. Elmore

Iowa Ag Review

ln response to high world grain prices, the European Union (EU) introduced wheat export taxes in November 1995 for the first time in more than a decade. Normally, the EU offers export subsidies to make up the difference between their high internal grain prices and world market prices. However, EU internal support prices have been reduced over the last three years as a result of policy reforms. Recent high world grain prices have exceeded the EU support prices since early in the 1995/96 crop year. Rather than let internal prices follow world market prices upward, the EU decided to ...


The Impact Of Eep Removal On U.S. Week, Samarendu Mohanty, Food And Agricultural Policy Research Institute Aug 2015

The Impact Of Eep Removal On U.S. Week, Samarendu Mohanty, Food And Agricultural Policy Research Institute

Iowa Ag Review

The Export Enhancement Program (EEP) was initiated under the Food Security Act of 1985. The purpose 9f the program was to offset the adverse effects on U.S. exports due to unfair trade practices or subsid'ies by competing exporters and also to support U ,S. prices. Supply restrictions, price supports, and export subsidies together have caused U.S. wheat prices to be above world prices over the past decade.


Agri Cultural Impacts Of China's Accession To The Wto, Frank H. Fuller Aug 2015

Agri Cultural Impacts Of China's Accession To The Wto, Frank H. Fuller

Iowa Ag Review

The People's Republic of China has requested- and will likely soon be granted- membership in the World Trade Organization (WTO). Given the size and importance of China's economy to the intemational market. both U.S. agricultural and nonagricultural markets will undoubtedly be a fleet ed significantly.


Eu-U.S.Beef Hormone Trade Dispute, John C. Beghin Aug 2015

Eu-U.S.Beef Hormone Trade Dispute, John C. Beghin

Iowa Ag Review

This article provides a brief historical perspective of the beef hormone dispute between the European Union (EU) and the United States and reviews the scientific evidence of health risks associated with products from animals that have been administered hormones.


Nafta: Implications For Mexican And Midwestern Agriculture, John C. Beghin Aug 2015

Nafta: Implications For Mexican And Midwestern Agriculture, John C. Beghin

Iowa Ag Review

The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) is a success story of economic integration between Mexico, the United States, and Canada. Economic integration was on its way before the Agreement, but it received a significant boost when NAFTA went into effect in 1994. Relative to the rest of the world, merchandise trade among the three countries has intensified and is growing at a rate of about 10 to 12 percent a year. With respect to agriculture, Mexico exports fruits and vegetables, coffee, live cattle, and textiles, among other things, to the United States. The United States exports grains and feed ...


Trade, Wealth Creation, And American Agriculture, Bruce A. Babcock Aug 2015

Trade, Wealth Creation, And American Agriculture, Bruce A. Babcock

Iowa Ag Review

Why do we trade? Most Americans would answer this question with some reference to the benefits of expanded markets for U.S. goods and more job opportunities. However, if asked the question, why do we work? most would respond that we work to earn money so that we can buy things. At a personal level, we intuitively know that trading our specialized labor with others (using money as the means of transactions) gives us a higher standard of living than if we tried to produce everything ourselves. We know and act on the knowledge that specialization enhances our individual wealth ...


Meat Traceability: Its Effect On Trade, Roxanne L. B. Clemens, Bruce A. Babcock Aug 2015

Meat Traceability: Its Effect On Trade, Roxanne L. B. Clemens, Bruce A. Babcock

Iowa Ag Review

Several livestock and meat-related crises have given rise to increased worldwide consumer concern over meat safety and an increased desire for information about the meat products they purchase. During the past several years, a series of food safety and animal disease crises has occurred in the European Union (EU), including dioxin contamination of livestock feed, the announcement of the possible link between Bovine Spongiform Encephalophathy (BSE) and new-variant Cruetzfeldt-Jakob disease, and outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease and classical swine fever. Many EU consumers have lost confidence in the safety of meat products (especially beef) and in the ability of regulatory agencies ...


The Cost Of Food Self-Sufficiency And Agricultural Protection In South Korea, John C. Beghin, Jean-Christophe Bureau Aug 2015

The Cost Of Food Self-Sufficiency And Agricultural Protection In South Korea, John C. Beghin, Jean-Christophe Bureau

Iowa Ag Review

South Korea has the most supported agricultural sector among member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Public intervention mainly consists of high production prices supported by government purchases, together with high tariffs that protect domestic producers from foreign competition and implicitly tax consumers. Trade liberalization recently took place in particular sectors, and Korea is now a major importer of oilseeds and coarse grains. However, Korea only reluctantly exposed its agricultural sector to the provisions of the Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture (URAA) of the World Trade Organization (WTO). It has kept nearly prohibitive tariffs in the ...


Supporting U.S. Agriculture Under World Trade Organization Rules, Bruce A. Babcock, Chad E. Hart Aug 2015

Supporting U.S. Agriculture Under World Trade Organization Rules, Bruce A. Babcock, Chad E. Hart

Iowa Ag Review

For the fourth straight year, market prices for Midwest crops are low. Central Iowa soybean prices hover around $4.00 per bushel. Corn prices are around $1.80 per bushel, and wheat markets remain stuck at below $3.00 per bushel. What to do about these low prices has occupied a great deal of Congress’s time as it attempts to craft new farm legislation. Nearly all farm bill proposals would continue to provide farmers levels of support much higher than those offered by the market.


The Eu-U.S. Hormone Dispute: The Negotiations Continue, Roxanne L. B. Clemens Aug 2015

The Eu-U.S. Hormone Dispute: The Negotiations Continue, Roxanne L. B. Clemens

Iowa Ag Review

The European Union’s ban on hormone-treated beef remains one of the United States’s most contentious agricultural trade disputes. Iowa Ag Review last addressed this dispute in the Summer 1999 issue, just after the World Trade Organization (WTO) arbitrator had ruled that the EU ban was inconsistent with WTO sanitary/ phytosanitary principles relating to risk assessment. This article updates negotiating activities and issues regarding the hormone ban.


Rich Countries, Poor Countries, And The Doha Round Trade Negotiations, John C. Beghin Aug 2015

Rich Countries, Poor Countries, And The Doha Round Trade Negotiations, John C. Beghin

Iowa Ag Review

A common criticism of domestic agricultural spending in the United States and European Union is that support for U.S. and EU farmers hurts the economies of low-income countries. Addressing this criticism is key to moving forward in the current Doha Round negotiations of the World Trade Organization (WTO). CARD initiated a study to better understand the link between rich-country agricultural support and poor-country incomes.


Agricultural Biotechnology And Trade: The Unresolved Issues, Giancarlo Moschini Aug 2015

Agricultural Biotechnology And Trade: The Unresolved Issues, Giancarlo Moschini

Iowa Ag Review

To observers contemplating the failure of the Cancun ministerial meeting of the World Trade Organization (WTO) in September 2003, the United States and the European Union appeared to stand on the same side of the disagreement that stalled efforts to advance the Doha Round of multilateral trade liberalization. Poor countries wanted real reduction in the widespread agricultural subsidies that depress world prices in commodities that are critical to development. The United States and the European Union, on the other hand, insisted on a more comprehensive approach to liberalization, including pushing the WTO into new areas (such as rationalization of inefficient ...


Geographical Indications, Property Rights, And Value-Added Agriculture, Bruce A. Babcock Aug 2015

Geographical Indications, Property Rights, And Value-Added Agriculture, Bruce A. Babcock

Iowa Ag Review

What do Vidalia onions, Wisconsin cheese, and Kona coffee have that feta cheese, champagne, and cognac do not? The first three products have trademark protection for their brand names (in this case, through U.S. trademark law). The latter three have no brand name protection, but that could change. Protection would become available for the latter products if E.U. proposals to increase protection for products identified as originating from a particular geographic region—so-called Geographical Indications (GIs)—are adopted. The European Union proposes to (1) establish a register of GIs that would give protection to products across international boundaries ...


China’S Challenge: Conforming To Sanitary And Phytosanitary Measures For Agricultural Exports, Fengxia Dong, Helen H. Jensen Jul 2015

China’S Challenge: Conforming To Sanitary And Phytosanitary Measures For Agricultural Exports, Fengxia Dong, Helen H. Jensen

Iowa Ag Review

After 15 years of negotiations, China became a full member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2001. Since then, with eliminated or lowered tariffs, China’s bilateral trade has grown significantly. In 2002, the value of Chinese exports and imports for agricultural products reached $14.5 billion and $16.1 billion, respectively, and its total value of exports in agricultural products increased by $1.2 billion from the previous year.


How The Brazil-U.S. Cotton Dispute Could Affect Iowa’S Agriculture, Chad E. Hart Jul 2015

How The Brazil-U.S. Cotton Dispute Could Affect Iowa’S Agriculture, Chad E. Hart

Iowa Ag Review

Recently, a World Trade Organization (WTO) panel ruled on a dispute between Brazil and the United States. The dispute, filed by Brazil over cotton subsidies, accused the United States of lowering world agricultural prices and distorting agricultural trade flows through various forms of agricultural support. Preliminary findings, as reported by major news sources such as CNN, the New York Times, and the Economist magazine, indicate that the WTO panel agreed with most of Brazil’s case. The results of these findings and the ongoing WTO agricultural trade negotiations could have a dramatic impact on the ways agriculture can be supported ...