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Full-Text Articles in International Economics

Through The Eyes Of Locals: A Changing Climate In Bolivia, Jacob D. Rex Jan 2019

Through The Eyes Of Locals: A Changing Climate In Bolivia, Jacob D. Rex

Undergraduate Theses and Professional Papers

Deforestation and Agricultural Land-Use Change in Bolivia as a Function of Socio-Economic Realities.

This research combines semi-structured interviews of key informants and local participants, as well as field observations, which were conducted between January and April of 2019 in the Departments of Santa Cruz & Chuquisaca.


Effects Of Agricultural Loans In Developing Countries – Benin Case Study, Nicaise S. M. Sagbo Jan 2019

Effects Of Agricultural Loans In Developing Countries – Benin Case Study, Nicaise S. M. Sagbo

Theses and Dissertations--Agricultural Economics

Limited access to financial services is known as a major constraint to agricultural development (FAO, 2002). Farmers need liquidity to face agricultural expenses throughout the production cycle but mainly at the beginning. Mainstream financial institutions are reluctant to serve the agricultural sector for several reasons. First, they consider the sector to be highly risky with low performance. Also, agricultural activities depend on the weather, they take place in remote rural areas, and commodities prices are volatile. All these aspects make it hard for standard banks to reach their profit goals when lending to farmers. Since microfinance was conceived, it has ...


The Aid Effectiveness Architecture In Africa: An Analysis Of Aid Structures In Kenya’S Agriculture Sector, Daniel Kipleel Borter Dec 2017

The Aid Effectiveness Architecture In Africa: An Analysis Of Aid Structures In Kenya’S Agriculture Sector, Daniel Kipleel Borter

International Journal of African Development

This study examines in detail the development aid architecture in Kenya’s agriculture sector. The focus is on the mechanisms in place within the Kenyan government (and ministry of agriculture in particular), mechanisms among and within donor agencies, and overall coordination mechanisms that bring together the donors and the government. Findings show that coordination and harmonization activities among donors are yet to yield the desired outcomes such as the division of labor protocol and joint programming. Weaknesses are also observed on the government side where it appears authorities are yet to internalize PD concepts and interpret them to suit the ...


Three Essays On Food Safety Regulations And International Trade Of Agricultural Products, Jun Ho Seok Jan 2017

Three Essays On Food Safety Regulations And International Trade Of Agricultural Products, Jun Ho Seok

Theses and Dissertations--Agricultural Economics

This dissertation investigates food safety regulations and international trade of agricultural products dividing into three aspects: the signalling effect from U.S. strict food safety regulations on U.S. vegetable exports, political determinants of sanitary and photosanitary non-tariff barriers, and the impact of trade barriers on employment in developing countries. In chapter 2, we investigate the impact of high U.S. maximum residue limit (MRL) standards on U.S vegetable exports to 102 countries utilizing the hierarchical model. MRL, which is one of non-tariff barriers with respect to food safety, is applied to home and foreign countries at the same ...


Implications Of The North American Free Trade Agreement For Long-Term Adjustments In U.S.-Mexican Beef Production And Trade, Bryan Melton, Wallace Huffman Dec 2016

Implications Of The North American Free Trade Agreement For Long-Term Adjustments In U.S.-Mexican Beef Production And Trade, Bryan Melton, Wallace Huffman

Wallace Huffman

North America is in the midst of forming one of the world's largest free trade areas. The Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement was signed in 1988. The signing of the North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) between the United States and Mexico completes the,/ major agreements for the trading area.


Ttip And Agricultural Trade: The Case Of Tariff Elimination And Pesticide Policy Cooperation, Bo Xiong, John C. Beghin Jun 2016

Ttip And Agricultural Trade: The Case Of Tariff Elimination And Pesticide Policy Cooperation, Bo Xiong, John C. Beghin

CARD Working Papers

A possible Trans-Atlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) agreement will further integrate agricultural markets between the United States and the European Union. The elimination of tariffs and cooperation on sanitary and phytosanitary measures will promote cross-Atlantic trade. We empirically estimate the impacts of tariffs and Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs) on trade in plant products between the two partners. Furthermore, we simulate trade expansions under plausible negotiation outcomes. We find that a TTIP agreement promotes cross-Atlantic trade in plant products, in both directions, by over 60% if tariffs are removed and MRLs are mutually recognized or harmonized to Codex levels.


Behavioral Determinants Of Biofortified Food Acceptance: The Case Of Orange-Fleshed Sweet Potato In Ghana, Chinonso E. Etumnu May 2016

Behavioral Determinants Of Biofortified Food Acceptance: The Case Of Orange-Fleshed Sweet Potato In Ghana, Chinonso E. Etumnu

Master's Theses

Biofortified foods are being introduced in sub-Saharan Africa as an important strategy to help address micronutrient malnutrition. However, there has been little research on factors that could play decisive roles in their successful introduction. This paper investigates the determinants of consumer acceptance of biofortified orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) using data from a choice experiment conducted in Ghana. I find that OFSP is preferred to traditional white-fleshed and yellow-fleshed sweet potatoes as indicated by consumers' marginal willingness to pay for the three varieties. I also find that respondents' socio-economic characteristics do not have a significant effect on consumer acceptance of OFSP ...


Biofuel And Feedstock Markets And The Eu-Us Ttip, John C. Beghin Jan 2016

Biofuel And Feedstock Markets And The Eu-Us Ttip, John C. Beghin

Agricultural Policy Review

A recent CARD analysis looked at the implications of a potential EU-US Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) for bioenergy and associated feedstock markets. This article reports on the effects of removing bilateral tariffs and TRQs in the two bio-economies.


Trans-Pacific Partnership And Foreign Ag Subsidies, Dermot J. Hayes Nov 2015

Trans-Pacific Partnership And Foreign Ag Subsidies, Dermot J. Hayes

CARD Working Papers

Testimony before the House Committee on Agriculture


Implications Of The Gatt Agreement For Iowa Agriculture, John R. Kruse Aug 2015

Implications Of The Gatt Agreement For Iowa Agriculture, John R. Kruse

Iowa Ag Review

The FAPRI analysis indicates that nearly all U.S. agricultural commodities benefit under GATT, although some commodities experience larger impacts than others. CARD extended the FAPRI analysis to commodities important to Iowa, such as com, soybeans, and pork and found that all are significant winners under the Uruguay Round Agreement.


The Gatt Agreement: A Layperson's Description, John R. Kruse Aug 2015

The Gatt Agreement: A Layperson's Description, John R. Kruse

Iowa Ag Review

What is the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)? The GATT may be best described as an ongoing process through which trade distortions among countries are defined and targeted for reduction. There have been seven previous GATT agreements over the years. The recent GATT agreement represents the eighth round of trade negotiations and is often called the Uruguay Round in reference to Punta del Este, Uruguay, where the agenda was set in 1986.


International Developments, Karen Oerter Aug 2015

International Developments, Karen Oerter

Iowa Ag Review

The USDA preliminary estimates for 1994/1995 world soybean production are currently set at 127.75 mmt, or about 10 percent above the 1993/94 level. This increase is due primarily to a bumper crop in the United States, estimated as of August to be 62.12 mmt for the 1994/1995 crop year, which is a 26 percent increase over the 1993/1994 crop.


The Eu Export Tax: Impact On U.S. Markets, William H. Meyers, Steven L. Elmore Aug 2015

The Eu Export Tax: Impact On U.S. Markets, William H. Meyers, Steven L. Elmore

Iowa Ag Review

ln response to high world grain prices, the European Union (EU) introduced wheat export taxes in November 1995 for the first time in more than a decade. Normally, the EU offers export subsidies to make up the difference between their high internal grain prices and world market prices. However, EU internal support prices have been reduced over the last three years as a result of policy reforms. Recent high world grain prices have exceeded the EU support prices since early in the 1995/96 crop year. Rather than let internal prices follow world market prices upward, the EU decided to ...


Implications For U.S. Pork Trade Fouowing Taiwan's Export Ban, Jacinto F. Fabiosa, Frank H. Fuller Aug 2015

Implications For U.S. Pork Trade Fouowing Taiwan's Export Ban, Jacinto F. Fabiosa, Frank H. Fuller

Iowa Ag Review

Taiwan announced on Friday, March 21 , 1997, an indefinite ban on pork exports after an outbreak of foot and mouth disease. It is neither·clear at.this time how Jon!! the ban will ~ last nor the ful l impacts of this event. Although a terrible blow to Taiwanese producers. Iowa's primary agriculture will likely encounter increased demand, as the u:s. pork industry is well positioned to increase world market share. Iowa State University's FAPRI staff is engaged in analysis of this event.


Grains And Oilseed Cropland: A Global Perspective, James Rude, Steven L. Elmore, Darnell B. Smith Aug 2015

Grains And Oilseed Cropland: A Global Perspective, James Rude, Steven L. Elmore, Darnell B. Smith

Iowa Ag Review

Current tight grain markets have led some commentators to argue that the world is entering a phase of rising food scarcity. The present situation js related to the rise in world consumption, which has tended to outpace production during the 1990s. While most supply shortages were due to weather shocks, the global area planted to grains has decreased from 1,784 million acres in l 980to 1,718 million acres in 1996 (USDA). The question remains, "Are there enough land resources available globally to meetfutwe production needs?" The combined grains and oilseeds area has, however, increased tWer that same period.


The Potential Market For U.S. Pork Variety Meats In China, Dermot J. Hayes, Roxanne L. B. Clemens Aug 2015

The Potential Market For U.S. Pork Variety Meats In China, Dermot J. Hayes, Roxanne L. B. Clemens

Iowa Ag Review

Chinese consumers view products such as loins and tenderloins. as uninteresting and lacking in taste. Chinese dishes call for small pieces of strong-tasting products, and Chinese consumers will pay accordingly.


The Impact Of Eep Removal On U.S. Week, Samarendu Mohanty, Food And Agricultural Policy Research Institute Aug 2015

The Impact Of Eep Removal On U.S. Week, Samarendu Mohanty, Food And Agricultural Policy Research Institute

Iowa Ag Review

The Export Enhancement Program (EEP) was initiated under the Food Security Act of 1985. The purpose 9f the program was to offset the adverse effects on U.S. exports due to unfair trade practices or subsid'ies by competing exporters and also to support U ,S. prices. Supply restrictions, price supports, and export subsidies together have caused U.S. wheat prices to be above world prices over the past decade.


Grain Market Glut: Asia A Minor Player, William H. Meyers, Darnell B. Smith Aug 2015

Grain Market Glut: Asia A Minor Player, William H. Meyers, Darnell B. Smith

Iowa Ag Review

There is no doubt that we are in a grain market glut of global proportions, and it is fair to ask how we got here. It seems only a short time ago the big concern was low stocks and the possibility of market disruptions arising from yet another shortfall somewhere in the world. Since this market glut coincides with the Asian financial crisis, it has been easy to blame low prices on the collapse of Asian economic growth. However, Asia is a relatively small part of the story.


Agri Cultural Impacts Of China's Accession To The Wto, Frank H. Fuller Aug 2015

Agri Cultural Impacts Of China's Accession To The Wto, Frank H. Fuller

Iowa Ag Review

The People's Republic of China has requested- and will likely soon be granted- membership in the World Trade Organization (WTO). Given the size and importance of China's economy to the intemational market. both U.S. agricultural and nonagricultural markets will undoubtedly be a fleet ed significantly.


World Trade Impacts Of Foot-And-Mouth Disease In Taiwan, Food And Agricultural Policy Research Institute Aug 2015

World Trade Impacts Of Foot-And-Mouth Disease In Taiwan, Food And Agricultural Policy Research Institute

Iowa Ag Review

On March 21, 1997, Taiwan imposed an indefinite ban on pork exports following an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD).1 Taiwan's major markets, including Japan, Korea, and Singapore, followed suit by banning imports of all pork and pork products originating in Taiwan. Pork is Taiwan's main agricultural commodity. both in value of production and in export earnings, and Taiwanese pork exports account for over 15 percent of the world total. Taiwan is also Japan 's predominant supplier of exported pork. Thus, Taiwan's export ban will have a significant impact on trade patterns and world pork prices. Using ...


Eu-U.S.Beef Hormone Trade Dispute, John C. Beghin Aug 2015

Eu-U.S.Beef Hormone Trade Dispute, John C. Beghin

Iowa Ag Review

This article provides a brief historical perspective of the beef hormone dispute between the European Union (EU) and the United States and reviews the scientific evidence of health risks associated with products from animals that have been administered hormones.


European Union Agricultural Reforms: Impacts For Iowa, Samarendu Mohanty, Philip Kaus Aug 2015

European Union Agricultural Reforms: Impacts For Iowa, Samarendu Mohanty, Philip Kaus

Iowa Ag Review

The European Union’s (EU) Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is set to undergo comprehensive reforms, known as Agenda 2000, next year. The twofold objective of these reforms is to ensure the sustainability of European agriculture and to protect the livelihood of European farmers. In May 1999, the European Council officially adopted new financial and political guidelines—dubbed the Berlin Accord— that will increase government support to farmers through direct payments while reducing support prices for cereals, beef, and dairy products.


Dairy Policies Around The World: What Would We Gain From Getting Rid Of Them?, John C. Beghin, Frank H. Fuller Aug 2015

Dairy Policies Around The World: What Would We Gain From Getting Rid Of Them?, John C. Beghin, Frank H. Fuller

Iowa Ag Review

Despite the general globalization of agricultural markets, trade and production of dairy products are still highly distorted in most countries. This article discusses the impact of these distortions and the likely gains that would result from reforming existing policies.


Competitiveness And Protection Of Chinese Agriculture, John C. Beghin, Cheng Fang Aug 2015

Competitiveness And Protection Of Chinese Agriculture, John C. Beghin, Cheng Fang

Iowa Ag Review

I n the context of the likely accession of China to the World Trade Organization (WTO), it is useful to gauge the protection or taxation affecting the production of China’s major agricultural crops and to assess the competitiveness of these crops. Because Chinese agriculture differs by regions, we consider early indica rice, late indica rice, and japonica rice grown in different parts of China, south wheat, north wheat, south corn, north corn, sorghum, soybeans, rapeseed, cotton, tobacco, sugarcane, and a subset of fruits and vegetables. We use 1996 to 1998 data, which are the most recent available data.


Comparing Grain Transportation In The United States And Argentina, Thomas J. Goldsby Aug 2015

Comparing Grain Transportation In The United States And Argentina, Thomas J. Goldsby

Iowa Ag Review

Whether an individual or nation can compete in the global marketplace hinges on the ability not only to produce materials and goods demanded by customers but also to deliver those materials and goods in an efficient, timely, and safe manner. The transportation and logistics systems that serve a market are critical given that transportation costs typically represent more than one-half of a commodity’s total landed cost. The agricultural sector of the United States enjoys considerable advantages in grain movement and storage, helping to explain the overall trade advantage of the United States over Argentina in common export markets. It ...


Nafta: Implications For Mexican And Midwestern Agriculture, John C. Beghin Aug 2015

Nafta: Implications For Mexican And Midwestern Agriculture, John C. Beghin

Iowa Ag Review

The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) is a success story of economic integration between Mexico, the United States, and Canada. Economic integration was on its way before the Agreement, but it received a significant boost when NAFTA went into effect in 1994. Relative to the rest of the world, merchandise trade among the three countries has intensified and is growing at a rate of about 10 to 12 percent a year. With respect to agriculture, Mexico exports fruits and vegetables, coffee, live cattle, and textiles, among other things, to the United States. The United States exports grains and feed ...


U.S. Farm Policy And The Wto, Chad E. Hart, Bruce A. Babcock Aug 2015

U.S. Farm Policy And The Wto, Chad E. Hart, Bruce A. Babcock

Iowa Ag Review

How is your proposal WTO-compliant? This is a question that farm groups must be prepared to answer when they travel to Washington looking for increased subsidies. That an international trade agreement should be playing such a prominent role in shaping U.S. farm programs may be surprising. But this prominence is likely to continue as long as the United States remains committed to expanding world trade through negotiated agreements.


China’S Accession To The Wto: Effects On U.S. Pork And Poultry, John C. Beghin, Jacinto F. Fabiosa Aug 2015

China’S Accession To The Wto: Effects On U.S. Pork And Poultry, John C. Beghin, Jacinto F. Fabiosa

Iowa Ag Review

The Food and Agricultural Policy Research Institute (FAPRI) recently analyzed the impact of China’s accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO) on major agricultural markets, relative to the 2001-2010 FAPRI baseline. Consistent with the intuitive consequences of productive land scarcity in China, the FAPRI analysis suggests that China does not have a comparative advantage in feed crops and, hence, in livestock production. The FAPRI analysis finds that the Chinese oilseed crushing, grain, and livestock sectors are negatively affected by WTO accession. The reduction in domestic feed prices initially stimulates Chinese meat and dairy production and actually decreases imports for ...


Who Is Afraid Of The “Precautionary Principle”?, Giancarlo Moschini Aug 2015

Who Is Afraid Of The “Precautionary Principle”?, Giancarlo Moschini

Iowa Ag Review

The recent European Union (EU) draft legislation on labeling and tracing all food and feed consisting of, containing, or produced from genetically modified (GM) organisms has the potential to significantly affect long-run U.S. agricultural exports to Europe. For the last three years, a de facto moratorium has halted approval of new GM varieties in the EU. Whereas the proposed new EU legislation may help resolve this impasse, the details of this draft legislation are raising considerable concern in the U.S. agricultural community and, if approved, are likely to give rise to a serious trade dispute within the World ...


Trade, Wealth Creation, And American Agriculture, Bruce A. Babcock Aug 2015

Trade, Wealth Creation, And American Agriculture, Bruce A. Babcock

Iowa Ag Review

Why do we trade? Most Americans would answer this question with some reference to the benefits of expanded markets for U.S. goods and more job opportunities. However, if asked the question, why do we work? most would respond that we work to earn money so that we can buy things. At a personal level, we intuitively know that trading our specialized labor with others (using money as the means of transactions) gives us a higher standard of living than if we tried to produce everything ourselves. We know and act on the knowledge that specialization enhances our individual wealth ...