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2012

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Articles 1 - 30 of 84

Full-Text Articles in Economic History

Struggling Recovery And Economic Policy Uncertainty: Testimony Before The Joint Revenue Hearing, House And Senate Ways And Means Committees, Massachusetts State House, Boston, Ma, Christian Weller Dec 2012

Struggling Recovery And Economic Policy Uncertainty: Testimony Before The Joint Revenue Hearing, House And Senate Ways And Means Committees, Massachusetts State House, Boston, Ma, Christian Weller

Christian Weller

The U.S. economy is in the fourth year of a recovery that started in June 2009. The fact that the economy is in recovery, even modestly, is something of a miracle given how stacked the deck is against it. This is absolutely unique in American economic history: There has never been a recovery without the housing market expanding substantially as well; There has never been a recovery with state and local governments shrinking for three years in a row; There has never been a recovery with households owing, on average, well more than 100 percent of their after-tax income ...


Struggling Recovery And Economic Policy Uncertainty: Testimony Before The Joint Revenue Hearing, House And Senate Ways And Means Committees, Massachusetts State House, Boston, Ma, Christian Weller Dec 2012

Struggling Recovery And Economic Policy Uncertainty: Testimony Before The Joint Revenue Hearing, House And Senate Ways And Means Committees, Massachusetts State House, Boston, Ma, Christian Weller

Public Policy and Public Affairs Faculty Publication Series

The U.S. economy is in the fourth year of a recovery that started in June 2009. The fact that the economy is in recovery, even modestly, is something of a miracle given how stacked the deck is against it.

This is absolutely unique in American economic history: There has never been a recovery without the housing market expanding substantially as well; There has never been a recovery with state and local governments shrinking for three years in a row; There has never been a recovery with households owing, on average, well more than 100 percent of their after-tax income ...


The Bank Of Tanzania (Bot) As The Custodian Of The Tanzanian Economy: Opportunities And Challenges, Conrad John Masabo Mr. Dec 2012

The Bank Of Tanzania (Bot) As The Custodian Of The Tanzanian Economy: Opportunities And Challenges, Conrad John Masabo Mr.

Conrad John Masabo Mr.

When Tanzania embarked on fundamental transformation of its economy almost two decades ago one of the top agenda in the economic reforms was the need to overhaul the financial system. And in view of pivotal role it plays in the country’s economy, the banking sector was the first to undergo reforms. Implementation of the reforms followed recommendations of the Presidential Commission on the need to modernize the banking sector dubbed the Nyirabu Commission. The BOT Act of 1995 was a landmark in Tanzania’s monetary history by adopting a single policy objective, i.e. price stability and moving away ...


Odd Couple: International Trade And Labor Standards In History. By Michael Huberman. New Haven, Ct: Yale University Press, 2012. Pp. Xii, 237. $65.00, Cloth., Joshua L. Rosenbloom Dec 2012

Odd Couple: International Trade And Labor Standards In History. By Michael Huberman. New Haven, Ct: Yale University Press, 2012. Pp. Xii, 237. $65.00, Cloth., Joshua L. Rosenbloom

Joshua L. Rosenbloom

The years between 1870 and 1914 constituted a first episode of globalization, characterized by rising levels of international trade and robust economic growth. They were also, at least in Europe, the time when important elements of the welfare state—insurance against the risks of unemployment, sickness, industrial accidents, and old age—as well as labor protections—such as factory inspection and limits on the hours of work of women and children—were first introduced.


The Striking Success Of The National Labor Relations Act, Michael L. Wachter Dec 2012

The Striking Success Of The National Labor Relations Act, Michael L. Wachter

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Although often viewed as a dismal failure, the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA) has been remarkably successful. While the decline in private sector unionization since the 1950s is typically viewed as a symbol of this failure, the NLRA has achieved its most important goal: industrial peace.

Before the NLRA and the 1947 Taft-Hartley Amendments, our industrial relations system gave rise to frequent and violent strikes that threatened the nation’s stability. For example, in the late 1870s, the Great Railroad Strike spread throughout a number of major cities. In Pittsburg alone, strikes claimed 24 lives, nearly 80 buildings, and over ...


Credit And Debt In Economic Theory: Which Way Forward?, Thorvald Grung Moe Nov 2012

Credit And Debt In Economic Theory: Which Way Forward?, Thorvald Grung Moe

Thorvald Grung Moe

Background paper for INET workshop on Debt and finance in economics in Waterloo, Toronto nov. 2012


A Matter Of Scale: Assessing The Great Recession Against The Great Depression, Steven L. Danver Nov 2012

A Matter Of Scale: Assessing The Great Recession Against The Great Depression, Steven L. Danver

Center for General Education Publications

The Great Depression of the 1930s and the Great Recession of the late 2000s are compared using economic, social, and political measures to determine if the later economic downturn was as much of a bellwether event as its predecessor.


The Coevolution Of Economic And Political Development From Monarchy To Democracy, Fali Huang Nov 2012

The Coevolution Of Economic And Political Development From Monarchy To Democracy, Fali Huang

Research Collection School Of Economics

This paper establishes a simple model of long run economic and political development, which is driven by the inherent technical features of different factors in production, and political conflicts among factor owners on how to divide the outputs. The main capital form in economy evolves from land to physical capital and then to human capital, which enables the respective factor owners (landlords, capitalists, and workers) to gain political powers in the same sequence, shaping the political development path from monarchy to elite ruling and finally to full suffrage. When it is too costly for any group of factor owners to ...


Waking Up To An Economic Crisis, William F. Ragle Oct 2012

Waking Up To An Economic Crisis, William F. Ragle

William F. Ragle, Ph.D.

A finance professor provides his perspective on how America's changing priorities and shifting values led to today's economic upheaval.


Toward A Knowledge Economy In Saudi Arabia, Giulio M. Gallarotti, Essam Elfalily, Osama Tayyeb Aug 2012

Toward A Knowledge Economy In Saudi Arabia, Giulio M. Gallarotti, Essam Elfalily, Osama Tayyeb

Giulio M Gallarotti

Nations that have sought to overcome the resource curse and other barriers to economic growth have for some time sought greater development through a number of strategies: from import substitution in the 1950s to current strategies based on microfinance and human-capabilities approaches. Needless to say, the international community is still searching for the elusive Holy Grail of the optimal development strategy. One strategy that is gaining greater attention and adherents is that of promoting a transition to a knowledge economy. This paper is about one such nation: Saudi Arabia. In analyzing the Kingdom’s quest for a knowledge economy, this ...


The Role Of Inflation In Soviet History: Prices, Living Standards, And Political Change, Steven M. Efremov Aug 2012

The Role Of Inflation In Soviet History: Prices, Living Standards, And Political Change, Steven M. Efremov

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This thesis discusses the interaction between inflation, living standards, and political change in Soviet/Russian history. It traces the establishment and evolution of the Soviet monetary system, inflationary episodes, and their consequences. The goal of this study is to show how inflation affects the lives of ordinary people and how it has contributed to larger changes in Soviet history. Sources include economic statistics and analysis from articles and monographs, as well as first-hand accounts from interviews and newspapers. The results show that inflation was a factor in both the rise and the fall of the Soviet Union. Russia's first ...


The Effect Of Treasury Auction Announcements On Interest Rates: 1990-1999, James Forest Jul 2012

The Effect Of Treasury Auction Announcements On Interest Rates: 1990-1999, James Forest

James J Forest

In this study we examine the secondary-market response of U.S. Treasury interest rates to both the release of pre-auction auction supply announcements and post-auction details from U.S. Treasury auctions during the period of the 1990s. Rate changes are found to differ significantly on auction days. Pre-auction announcements of auction volumes are shown to affect rates significantly, in contrast with the findings of Wachtel and Young (1987) with respect to deficit announcements. We find that surprises in the release of bid-to-cover ratios affect Treasury rates significantly, while the surprises in the volume of noncompetitive bids appears to have little ...


The Effect Of Treasury Auction Announcements On Interest Rates: 1990-1999, James J. Forest Jul 2012

The Effect Of Treasury Auction Announcements On Interest Rates: 1990-1999, James J. Forest

James J Forest

In this study we examine the secondary-market response of U.S. Treasury interest rates to both the release of pre-auction auction supply announcements and post-auction details from U.S. Treasury auctions during the period of the 1990s. Rate changes are found to differ significantly on auction days. Pre-auction announcements of auction volumes are shown to affect rates significantly, in contrast with the findings of Wachtel and Young (1987) with respect to deficit announcements. We find that surprises in the release of bid-to-cover ratios affect Treasury rates significantly, while the surprises in the volume of noncompetitive bids appears to have little ...


Back To The Future Of Green Powered Economies, Juan B. Moreno-Cruz, M. Scott Taylor Jul 2012

Back To The Future Of Green Powered Economies, Juan B. Moreno-Cruz, M. Scott Taylor

Juan B. Moreno-Cruz

The purpose of this paper is to introduce the concept of power density [Watts/m2] into economics. By introducing an explicit spatial structure into a simple general equilibrium model we are able to show how the power density of available energy resources determines the extent of energy exploitation, the density of urban agglomerations, and the peak level of income per capita. Using a simple Malthusian model to sort population across geographic space we demonstrate how the density of available energy supplies creates density in energy demands by agglomerating economic activity. We label this result the density-creates-density hypothesis and evaluate it ...


A Story Of Four Revolutions: Mechanisms Of Change In India, Aseema Sinha Jul 2012

A Story Of Four Revolutions: Mechanisms Of Change In India, Aseema Sinha

CMC Faculty Publications and Research

Sumit Ganguly and Rahul Mukherji’s India Since 1980 presents a bold and ambitious argument about change across and within India. Its unique contribution lies in its description of four distinct revolutions: social-political, economic, foreign policy, and religious. While many recent books have noted changes in India’s economy and foreign policy, India Since 1980 will be known for its juxtaposition of four different themes in one short, pithy volume. Even if one may disagree with the authors’ choice of the four dimensions of change, the book’s dominant message is that India is changing across a whole range of ...


Human Capital Formation And Economic Development In Pakistan: An Empirical Analysis, Muhammad Irfan Chani, Mahboob Ul Hassan, Muhammad Shahid May 2012

Human Capital Formation And Economic Development In Pakistan: An Empirical Analysis, Muhammad Irfan Chani, Mahboob Ul Hassan, Muhammad Shahid

Muhammad Irfan Chani

This study investigates the casual relationship between economic development and formation of human capital in Pakistan. Based on endogenous growth theory, this study empirically tests the standard growth model consisting of gross domestic product (GDP) per capita as a dependent variable and human capital formation, investment in physical capital and labor force as independent variables. Autoregressive distributive lag (ARDL) bound testing approach to cointegration is used to check the long-run equilibrium relationship between the variables included in the model. For checking the causal relationship between economic development and human capital formation, pair-wise Granger causality test is used for time series ...


The Trans-Pacific Partnership And Japanese Politics, Eliot Francis Watson May 2012

The Trans-Pacific Partnership And Japanese Politics, Eliot Francis Watson

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


The 1999 Repeal Of Glass-Steagall: The Effect On U.S. Commercial Banks, Ryan Michael Daddi May 2012

The 1999 Repeal Of Glass-Steagall: The Effect On U.S. Commercial Banks, Ryan Michael Daddi

Syracuse University Honors Program Capstone Projects

The Great Recession of 2008-2009 was one of the most devastating financial crises of our history. The extent with which the recession plagued our financial system and affected everyday citizens created an immediate search for answers as to what had happened. Many experts pointed at the 1999 repeal of the Banking Act of 1933 (commonly referred to as Glass-Steagall) as a possible cause of increased risk-taking in the financial system. After the Great Depression, Glass-Steagall was enacted to separate commercial banking from investment banking, the combination being seen as a cause for the worst financial crises in history.

With the ...


Some Socio Economic Determinants Of Fertility In Pakistan: An Empirical Analysis, Muhammad Irfan Chani, Muhammad Shahid, Mahboob Ul Hassan Apr 2012

Some Socio Economic Determinants Of Fertility In Pakistan: An Empirical Analysis, Muhammad Irfan Chani, Muhammad Shahid, Mahboob Ul Hassan

Muhammad Irfan Chani

This study aims to investigate the role that various socioeconomic factors like female education, urbanization and female labour force participation play in determining fertility of women in Pakistan. ARDL bound test approach to cointegration is used to analyze the long-run relationship of the variables by using the data for the period from 1980 to 2009. The empirical results show that there exists a long-run as well as short-run relationship between fertility and urbanization, female labour force participation and female education in Pakistan. The analysis indicates there is a negative relationship between all 3 determinants with fertility. Female education and urbanization ...


Willy Brandt’S Ostpolitik: The Changing Role In United States-West German Relations, An Analysis Of United States Government Internal Documents, Sara A. Popovich Apr 2012

Willy Brandt’S Ostpolitik: The Changing Role In United States-West German Relations, An Analysis Of United States Government Internal Documents, Sara A. Popovich

Scripps Senior Theses

This thesis analyzes a crucial period in the relations between the Federal Republic of Germany and the United States of America, through the use of US government internal documents. Willy Brandt brought forth a new vision of Ostpolitik that was starkly different from policies that the US had dealt with before, subsequently leaving the Nixon Administration largely unsure of how to react. The change in FRG economic positioning vis-à-vis the United States, and catalyst political events in the 1960’s, created the impetus for Brandt’s vision of OStpolitik, which culminated in the interim West German control of the Western ...


Capitalism And The Science Of History: Appleby, Marx, And Postmodernism, Patrick D. Anderson Apr 2012

Capitalism And The Science Of History: Appleby, Marx, And Postmodernism, Patrick D. Anderson

Grand Valley Journal of History

Joyce Appleby has written an extensive amount on the origins and development of capitalism, but her work is influenced by her belief that history is a science with at least some objectivity. She rejects Marxism as a relic of past historians with naïve beliefs about finding the laws of nature, but she also rejects postmodern criticisms of history because they undermine any chance for objectivity. Appleby believes the historian can be objective even if politics necessarily colors his or her work. For Appleby, her support of capitalism leads her to make policy recommendations with her historiography, recommendations that change with ...


That Used To Be Us: Through The Eyes Of The Aviation Industry, Kelly A. Whealan-George Apr 2012

That Used To Be Us: Through The Eyes Of The Aviation Industry, Kelly A. Whealan-George

Social Sciences and Economics - Worldwide

The U.S. economic success was rooted in an industrial policy which had five pillars of a prosperity formula that served as a catalyst for development and growth: 1) public/private cooperation on education, 2) immigration policy, 3) infrastructure, 4) risk/capital management, and 5) government-funded scientific research. In this paper, the development and growth of the aviation industry is viewed in the framework of such a prosperity formula in order to face the four areas that the entire economy will need to face in the current market in order to be competitive in the global market in the 21st ...


What Determines Public Pension Investment Risk-Taking Policy, Nancy Mohan, Ting Zhang Apr 2012

What Determines Public Pension Investment Risk-Taking Policy, Nancy Mohan, Ting Zhang

Economics and Finance Faculty Publications

State public pension plans, mostly defined benefit plans, cover pension benefits for 12.8 million active public employees and 5.9 million retirees and other annuitants. However, by the end of 2009, public pension plans had accumulated a total funding deficit of $697 billion (measured by the difference between actuarial pension assets and liabilities). On average, public pension funds cover 75 percent of their liabilities, but individual state results vary greatly.

The 2008 stock market crash strongly affected pension asset value in that equity allocation on average accounted for 56 percent of invested assets. The average 2009 pension asset beta ...


The Standard Answer To American Business, Madison X. Helies Apr 2012

The Standard Answer To American Business, Madison X. Helies

Senior Theses and Projects

One hundred years after its dissolution, the Standard Oil Company retains its tarnished reputation for unscrupulous and anticompetitive behavior. Though this reputation has in many ways demonstrated what firms should not do, this paper examines the ways in which Standard Oil showed America how to successfully manage a rapidly growing business. The 19th Century saw a total upheaval of the American economy. With the Industrial Revolution and development of Big Business, American enterprise was forced to adapt and evolve. In the subsequent period of change in business organization, The Managerial Revolution, Standard Oil was among the most successful large firms ...


Fair Value Accounting: How Bad Decisions Bring Blame To Beneficial Accounting Procedures, Thomas John Ciulla Apr 2012

Fair Value Accounting: How Bad Decisions Bring Blame To Beneficial Accounting Procedures, Thomas John Ciulla

Senior Honors Theses

The Great Recession has sparked a debate amongst accounting professionals and economic analysts. There has been a concerted effort to blame fair value accounting and FAS 157 as the recession’s root cause and an attempt to challenge FASB to return to the historic cost principle. This paper examines the guidelines and procedures for mark to market as established by FASB, observes the events leading up to the recession, conditions that materialized at the start of the recession, evaluates the role fair value played in the financial crisis, and considers how fair value should be used in the future.


Challenges Of The Cooperative Movement In Addressing Issues Of Human Security In The Context Of A Neoliberal World: The Case Of Argentina, Stefan Ivanovski Mar 2012

Challenges Of The Cooperative Movement In Addressing Issues Of Human Security In The Context Of A Neoliberal World: The Case Of Argentina, Stefan Ivanovski

Stefan Ivanovski

The response of some Argentine workers to the 2001 crisis of neoliberalism gave rise to a movement of worker-recovered enterprises (empresas recuperadas por sus trabajadores or ERTs). The ERTs have emerged as former employees took over the control of generally fraudulently bankrupt factories and enterprises. The analysis of the ERT movement within the neoliberal global capitalist order will draw from William Robinson’s (2004) neo-Gramscian concept of hegemony. The theoretical framework of neo-Gramscian hegemony will be used in exposing the contradictions of capitalism on the global, national, organizational and individual scales and the effects they have on the ERT movement ...


Antitrust Energy, D. Daniel Sokol, Barak Orbach Mar 2012

Antitrust Energy, D. Daniel Sokol, Barak Orbach

UF Law Faculty Publications

Marking the centennial anniversary of Standard Oil Co. v. United States, we argue that much of the critique of antitrust enforcement and the skepticism about its social significance suffer from “Nirvana fallacy” — comparing existing and feasible policies to ideal normative policies, and concluding that the existing and feasible ones are inherently inefficient because of their imperfections. Antitrust law and policy have always been and will always be imperfect. However, they are alive and kicking. The antitrust discipline is vibrant, evolving, and global. This essay introduces a number of important innovations in scholarship related to Standard Oil and its modern applications ...


History Lessons: Understanding The Decline In Manufacturing, Louis D. Johnston Feb 2012

History Lessons: Understanding The Decline In Manufacturing, Louis D. Johnston

Louis D. Johnston

No abstract provided.


Labor Economics, George R. Boyer, Robert Smith Feb 2012

Labor Economics, George R. Boyer, Robert Smith

George R. Boyer

The authors hypothesize that most labor economists "sooner or later had to incorporate at least the appearance of institutional concerns in their papers to avoid indigestion whenever lunching with colleagues outside the field of economics" They add: "If the new interests of modern labor economics are in fact driven by the imperatives of science, then the institutionalist and the neoclassical approaches may well synthesize".


The Upside Of Government Default, Jeffrey Rogers Hummel Feb 2012

The Upside Of Government Default, Jeffrey Rogers Hummel

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.